KFPA Examinations of Young STellar Object Natal Environments (KEYSTONE): Hierarchical Ammonia Structures in Galactic Giant Molecular Clouds

KFPA Examinations of Young STellar Object Natal Environments (KEYSTONE): Hierarchical Ammonia Structures in Galactic Giant Molecular CloudsKeown, Jareddi Francesco, JamesRosolowsky, ErikSingh, AyushiFigura, CharlesKirk, HelenAnderson, L. D.Chen, Michael Chun-YuanElia, DavideFriesen, RachelGinsburg, AdamMarston, A.Pezzuto, StefanoSchisano, EugenioBontemps, SylvainCaselli, PaolaLiu, Hong-LiLongmore, StevenMotte, FrédériqueMyers, Philip C.Offner, Stella S. R.Sanhueza, PatricioSchneider, NicolaStephens, IanUrquhart, JamesDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/ab3e76v. 8844
Keown, Jared, di Francesco, James, Rosolowsky, Erik, Singh, Ayushi, Figura, Charles, Kirk, Helen, Anderson, L. D., Chen, Michael Chun-Yuan, Elia, Davide, Friesen, Rachel, Ginsburg, Adam, Marston, A., Pezzuto, Stefano, Schisano, Eugenio, Bontemps, Sylvain, Caselli, Paola, Liu, Hong-Li, Longmore, Steven, Motte, Frédérique, Myers, Philip C., Offner, Stella S. R., Sanhueza, Patricio, Schneider, Nicola, Stephens, Ian, and Urquhart, James. 2019. "KFPA Examinations of Young STellar Object Natal Environments (KEYSTONE): Hierarchical Ammonia Structures in Galactic Giant Molecular Clouds." The Astrophysical Journal 884:4. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab3e76
ID: 154699
Type: article
Authors: Keown, Jared; di Francesco, James; Rosolowsky, Erik; Singh, Ayushi; Figura, Charles; Kirk, Helen; Anderson, L. D.; Chen, Michael Chun-Yuan; Elia, Davide; Friesen, Rachel; Ginsburg, Adam; Marston, A.; Pezzuto, Stefano; Schisano, Eugenio; Bontemps, Sylvain; Caselli, Paola; Liu, Hong-Li; Longmore, Steven; Motte, Frédérique; Myers, Philip C.; Offner, Stella S. R.; Sanhueza, Patricio; Schneider, Nicola; Stephens, Ian; Urquhart, James
Abstract: We present initial results from the K-band Focal Plane Array Examinations of Young STellar Object Natal Environments survey, a large project on the 100 m Green Bank Telescope mapping ammonia emission across 11 giant molecular clouds at distances of 0.9-3.0 kpc (Cygnus X North, Cygnus X South, M16, M17, Mon R1, Mon R2, NGC 2264, NGC 7538, Rosette, W3, and W48). This data release includes the NH3 (1,1) and (2,2) maps for each cloud, which are modeled to produce maps of kinetic temperature, centroid velocity, velocity dispersion, and ammonia column density. Median cloud kinetic temperatures range from 11.4 ± 2.2 K in the coldest cloud (Mon R1) to 23.0 ± 6.5 K in the warmest cloud (M17). Using dendrograms on the NH3 (1,1) integrated intensity maps, we identify 856 dense gas clumps across the 11 clouds. Depending on the cloud observed, 40%-100% of the clumps are aligned spatially with filaments identified in H2 column density maps derived from spectral energy distribution fitting of dust continuum emission. A virial analysis reveals that 523 of the 835 clumps (̃63%) with mass estimates are bound by gravity alone. We find no significant difference between the virial parameter distributions for clumps aligned with the dust-continuum filaments and those unaligned with filaments. In some clouds, however, hubs or ridges of dense gas with unusually high mass and low virial parameters are located within a single filament or at the intersection of multiple filaments. These hubs and ridges tend to host water maser emission, multiple 70 μm detected protostars, and have masses and radii above an empirical threshold for forming massive stars.