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First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. VII. Polarization of the RingEvent Horizon Telescope CollaborationAkiyama, KazunoriAlgaba, Juan CarlosAlberdi, AntxonAlef, WalterAnantua, RichardAsada, KeiichiAzulay, RebeccaBaczko, Anne-KathrinBall, DavidBaloković, MislavBarrett, JohnBenson, Bradford A.Bintley, DanBlackburn, LindyBlundell, RaymondBoland, WilfredBouman, Katherine L.Bower, Geoffrey C.Boyce, HopeBremer, MichaelBrinkerink, Christiaan D.Brissenden, RogerBritzen, SilkeBroderick, Avery E.Broguiere, DominiqueBronzwaer, ThomasByun, Do-YoungCarlstrom, John E.Chael, AndrewChan, Chi-kwanChatterjee, ShamiChatterjee, KoushikChen, Ming-TangChen, YongjunChesler, Paul M.Cho, IljeChristian, PierreConway, John E.Cordes, James M.Crawford, Thomas M.Crew, Geoffrey B.Cruz-Osorio, AlejandroCui, YuzhuDavelaar, JordyDe Laurentis, MariafeliciaDeane, RogerDempsey, JessicaDesvignes, GregoryDexter, JasonDoeleman, Sheperd S.Eatough, Ralph P.Falcke, HeinoFarah, JosephFish, Vincent L.Fomalont, EdFord, H. AlysonFraga-Encinas, RaquelFreeman, William T.Friberg, PerFromm, Christian M.Fuentes, AntonioGalison, PeterGammie, Charles F.García, RobertoGentaz, OlivierGeorgiev, BorisGoddi, CiriacoGold, RomanGómez, José L.Gómez-Ruiz, Arturo I.Gu, MinfengGurwell, MarkHada, KazuhiroHaggard, DarylHecht, Michael H.Hesper, RonaldHo, Luis C.Ho, PaulHonma, MarekiHuang, Chih-Wei L.Huang, LeiHughes, David H.Ikeda, ShiroInoue, MakotoIssaoun, SaraJames, David J.Jannuzi, Buell T.Janssen, MichaelJeter, BrittonJiang, WuJimenez-Rosales, AlejandraJohnson, Michael D.Jorstad, SvetlanaJung, TaehyunKarami, MansourKaruppusamy, RameshKawashima, TomohisaKeating, Garrett K.Kettenis, MarkKim, Dong-JinKim, Jae-YoungKim, JongsooKim, JunhanKino, MotokiKoay, Jun YiKofuji, YutaroKoch, Patrick M.Koyama, ShokoKramer, MichaelKramer, CarstenKrichbaum, Thomas P.Kuo, Cheng-YuLauer, Tod R.Lee, Sang-SungLevis, AviadLi, Yan-RongLi, ZhiyuanLindqvist, MichaelLico, RoccoLindahl, GregLiu, JunLiu, KuoLiuzzo, ElisabettaLo, Wen-PingLobanov, Andrei P.Loinard, LaurentLonsdale, ColinLu, Ru-SenMacDonald, Nicholas R.Mao, JirongMarchili, NicolaMarkoff, SeraMarrone, Daniel P.Marscher, Alan P.Martí-Vidal, IvánMatsushita, SatokiMatthews, Lynn D.Medeiros, LiaMenten, Karl M.Mizuno, IzumiMizuno, YosukeMoran, James M.Moriyama, KotaroMoscibrodzka, MonikaMüller, CorneliaMusoke, GibwaMejías, Alejandro MusMichalik, DanielNadolski, AndrewNagai, HiroshiNagar, Neil M.Nakamura, MasanoriNarayan, RameshNarayanan, GopalNatarajan, IniyanNathanail, AntoniosNeilsen, JoeyNeri, RobertoNi, ChunchongNoutsos, AristeidisNowak, Michael A.Okino, HirokiOlivares, HéctorOrtiz-León, Gisela N.Oyama, TomoakiÖzel, FeryalPalumbo, Daniel C. M.Park, JonghoPatel, NimeshPen, Ue-LiPesce, Dominic W.Piétu, VincentPlambeck, RichardPopStefanija, AleksandarPorth, OliverPötzl, Felix M.Prather, BenPreciado-López, Jorge A.Psaltis, DimitriosPu, Hung-YiRamakrishnan, VenkatesshRao, RamprasadRawlings, Mark G.Raymond, Alexander W.Rezzolla, LucianoRicarte, AngeloRipperda, BartRoelofs, FreekRogers, AlanRos, EduardoRose, MelRoshanineshat, ArashRottmann, HelgeRoy, Alan L.Ruszczyk, ChetRygl, Kazi L. J.Sánchez, SalvadorSánchez-Arguelles, DavidSasada, MahitoSavolainen, TuomasSchloerb, F. PeterSchuster, Karl-FriedrichShao, LijingShen, ZhiqiangSmall, DesSohn, Bong WonSooHoo, JasonSun, HeTazaki, FumieTetarenko, Alexandra J.Tiede, PaulTilanus, Remo P. J.Titus, MichaelToma, KenjiTorne, PabloTrent, TylerTraianou, EfthaliaTrippe, Saschavan Bemmel, Ilsevan Langevelde, Huib Janvan Rossum, Daniel R.Wagner, JanWard-Thompson, DerekWardle, JohnWeintroub, JonathanWex, NorbertWharton, RobertWielgus, MaciekWong, George N.Wu, QingwenYoon, DoosooYoung, AndréYoung, KenYounsi, ZiriYuan, FengYuan, Ye-FeiZensus, J. AntonZhao, Guang-YaoZhao, Shan-ShanDOI: info:10.3847/2041-8213/abe71dv. 910L12
Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration, Akiyama, Kazunori, Algaba, Juan Carlos, Alberdi, Antxon, Alef, Walter, Anantua, Richard, Asada, Keiichi, Azulay, Rebecca, Baczko, Anne-Kathrin, Ball, David, Baloković, Mislav, Barrett, John, Benson, Bradford A., Bintley, Dan, Blackburn, Lindy, Blundell, Raymond, Boland, Wilfred, Bouman, Katherine L., Bower, Geoffrey C., Boyce, Hope, Bremer, Michael, Brinkerink, Christiaan D., Brissenden, Roger, Britzen, Silke, Broderick, Avery E. et al. 2021. "First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. VII. Polarization of the Ring." The Astrophysical Journal 910:L12. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/abe71d
ID: 159286
Type: article
Authors: Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration; Akiyama, Kazunori; Algaba, Juan Carlos; Alberdi, Antxon; Alef, Walter; Anantua, Richard; Asada, Keiichi; Azulay, Rebecca; Baczko, Anne-Kathrin; Ball, David; Baloković, Mislav; Barrett, John; Benson, Bradford A.; Bintley, Dan; Blackburn, Lindy; Blundell, Raymond; Boland, Wilfred; Bouman, Katherine L.; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Boyce, Hope; Bremer, Michael; Brinkerink, Christiaan D.; Brissenden, Roger; Britzen, Silke; Broderick, Avery E.; Broguiere, Dominique; Bronzwaer, Thomas; Byun, Do-Young; Carlstrom, John E.; Chael, Andrew; Chan, Chi-kwan; Chatterjee, Shami; Chatterjee, Koushik; Chen, Ming-Tang; Chen, Yongjun; Chesler, Paul M.; Cho, Ilje; Christian, Pierre; Conway, John E.; Cordes, James M.; Crawford, Thomas M.; Crew, Geoffrey B.; Cruz-Osorio, Alejandro; Cui, Yuzhu; Davelaar, Jordy; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Deane, Roger; Dempsey, Jessica; Desvignes, Gregory; Dexter, Jason; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Eatough, Ralph P.; Falcke, Heino; Farah, Joseph; Fish, Vincent L.; Fomalont, Ed; Ford, H. Alyson; Fraga-Encinas, Raquel; Freeman, William T.; Friberg, Per; Fromm, Christian M.; Fuentes, Antonio; Galison, Peter; Gammie, Charles F.; García, Roberto; Gentaz, Olivier; Georgiev, Boris; Goddi, Ciriaco; Gold, Roman; Gómez, José L.; Gómez-Ruiz, Arturo I.; Gu, Minfeng; Gurwell, Mark; Hada, Kazuhiro; Haggard, Daryl; Hecht, Michael H.; Hesper, Ronald; Ho, Luis C.; Ho, Paul; Honma, Mareki; Huang, Chih-Wei L.; Huang, Lei; Hughes, David H.; Ikeda, Shiro; Inoue, Makoto; Issaoun, Sara; James, David J.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Janssen, Michael; Jeter, Britton; Jiang, Wu; Jimenez-Rosales, Alejandra; Johnson, Michael D.; Jorstad, Svetlana; Jung, Taehyun; Karami, Mansour; Karuppusamy, Ramesh; Kawashima, Tomohisa; Keating, Garrett K.; Kettenis, Mark; Kim, Dong-Jin; Kim, Jae-Young; Kim, Jongsoo; Kim, Junhan; Kino, Motoki; Koay, Jun Yi; Kofuji, Yutaro; Koch, Patrick M.; Koyama, Shoko; Kramer, Michael; Kramer, Carsten; Krichbaum, Thomas P.; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Lauer, Tod R.; Lee, Sang-Sung; Levis, Aviad; Li, Yan-Rong; Li, Zhiyuan; Lindqvist, Michael; Lico, Rocco; Lindahl, Greg; Liu, Jun; Liu, Kuo; Liuzzo, Elisabetta; Lo, Wen-Ping; Lobanov, Andrei P.; Loinard, Laurent; Lonsdale, Colin; Lu, Ru-Sen; MacDonald, Nicholas R.; Mao, Jirong; Marchili, Nicola; Markoff, Sera; Marrone, Daniel P.; Marscher, Alan P.; Martí-Vidal, Iván; Matsushita, Satoki; Matthews, Lynn D.; Medeiros, Lia; Menten, Karl M.; Mizuno, Izumi; Mizuno, Yosuke; Moran, James M.; Moriyama, Kotaro; Moscibrodzka, Monika; Müller, Cornelia; Musoke, Gibwa; Mejías, Alejandro Mus; Michalik, Daniel; Nadolski, Andrew; Nagai, Hiroshi; Nagar, Neil M.; Nakamura, Masanori; Narayan, Ramesh; Narayanan, Gopal; Natarajan, Iniyan; Nathanail, Antonios; Neilsen, Joey; Neri, Roberto; Ni, Chunchong; Noutsos, Aristeidis; Nowak, Michael A.; Okino, Hiroki; Olivares, Héctor; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Oyama, Tomoaki; Özel, Feryal; Palumbo, Daniel C. M.; Park, Jongho; Patel, Nimesh; Pen, Ue-Li; Pesce, Dominic W.; Piétu, Vincent; Plambeck, Richard; PopStefanija, Aleksandar; Porth, Oliver; Pötzl, Felix M.; Prather, Ben; Preciado-López, Jorge A.; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Pu, Hung-Yi; Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh; Rao, Ramprasad; Rawlings, Mark G.; Raymond, Alexander W.; Rezzolla, Luciano; Ricarte, Angelo; Ripperda, Bart; Roelofs, Freek; Rogers, Alan; Ros, Eduardo; Rose, Mel; Roshanineshat, Arash; Rottmann, Helge; Roy, Alan L.; Ruszczyk, Chet; Rygl, Kazi L. J.; Sánchez, Salvador; Sánchez-Arguelles, David; Sasada, Mahito; Savolainen, Tuomas; Schloerb, F. Peter; Schuster, Karl-Friedrich; Shao, Lijing; Shen, Zhiqiang; Small, Des; Sohn, Bong Won; SooHoo, Jason; Sun, He; Tazaki, Fumie; Tetarenko, Alexandra J.; Tiede, Paul; Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Titus, Michael; Toma, Kenji; Torne, Pablo; Trent, Tyler; Traianou, Efthalia; Trippe, Sascha; van Bemmel, Ilse; van Langevelde, Huib Jan; van Rossum, Daniel R.; Wagner, Jan; Ward-Thompson, Derek; Wardle, John; Weintroub, Jonathan; Wex, Norbert; Wharton, Robert; Wielgus, Maciek; Wong, George N.; Wu, Qingwen; Yoon, Doosoo; Young, André; Young, Ken; Younsi, Ziri; Yuan, Feng; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Zensus, J. Anton; Zhao, Guang-Yao; Zhao, Shan-Shan
Abstract: In 2017 April, the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) observed the near-horizon region around the supermassive black hole at the core of the M87 galaxy. These 1.3 mm wavelength observations revealed a compact asymmetric ring-like source morphology. This structure originates from synchrotron emission produced by relativistic plasma located in the immediate vicinity of the black hole. Here we present the corresponding linear-polarimetric EHT images of the center of M87. We find that only a part of the ring is significantly polarized. The resolved fractional linear polarization has a maximum located in the southwest part of the ring, where it rises to the level of ∼15%. The polarization position angles are arranged in a nearly azimuthal pattern. We perform quantitative measurements of relevant polarimetric properties of the compact emission and find evidence for the temporal evolution of the polarized source structure over one week of EHT observations. The details of the polarimetric data reduction and calibration methodology are provided. We carry out the data analysis using multiple independent imaging and modeling techniques, each of which is validated against a suite of synthetic data sets. The gross polarimetric structure and its apparent evolution with time are insensitive to the method used to reconstruct the image. These polarimetric images carry information about the structure of the magnetic fields responsible for the synchrotron emission. Their physical interpretation is discussed in an accompanying publication.
First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. VIII. Magnetic Field Structure near The Event HorizonEvent Horizon Telescope CollaborationAkiyama, KazunoriAlgaba, Juan CarlosAlberdi, AntxonAlef, WalterAnantua, RichardAsada, KeiichiAzulay, RebeccaBaczko, Anne-KathrinBall, DavidBaloković, MislavBarrett, JohnBenson, Bradford A.Bintley, DanBlackburn, LindyBlundell, RaymondBoland, WilfredBouman, Katherine L.Bower, Geoffrey C.Boyce, HopeBremer, MichaelBrinkerink, Christiaan D.Brissenden, RogerBritzen, SilkeBroderick, Avery E.Broguiere, DominiqueBronzwaer, ThomasByun, Do-YoungCarlstrom, John E.Chael, AndrewChan, Chi-kwanChatterjee, ShamiChatterjee, KoushikChen, Ming-TangChen, YongjunChesler, Paul M.Cho, IljeChristian, PierreConway, John E.Cordes, James M.Crawford, Thomas M.Crew, Geoffrey B.Cruz-Osorio, AlejandroCui, YuzhuDavelaar, JordyDe Laurentis, MariafeliciaDeane, RogerDempsey, JessicaDesvignes, GregoryDexter, JasonDoeleman, Sheperd S.Eatough, Ralph P.Falcke, HeinoFarah, JosephFish, Vincent L.Fomalont, EdFord, H. AlysonFraga-Encinas, RaquelFriberg, PerFromm, Christian M.Fuentes, AntonioGalison, PeterGammie, Charles F.García, RobertoGelles, ZacharyGentaz, OlivierGeorgiev, BorisGoddi, CiriacoGold, RomanGómez, José L.Gómez-Ruiz, Arturo I.Gu, MinfengGurwell, MarkHada, KazuhiroHaggard, DarylHecht, Michael H.Hesper, RonaldHimwich, ElizabethHo, Luis C.Ho, PaulHonma, MarekiHuang, Chih-Wei L.Huang, LeiHughes, David H.Ikeda, ShiroInoue, MakotoIssaoun, SaraJames, David J.Jannuzi, Buell T.Janssen, MichaelJeter, BrittonJiang, WuJimenez-Rosales, AlejandraJohnson, Michael D.Jorstad, SvetlanaJung, TaehyunKarami, MansourKaruppusamy, RameshKawashima, TomohisaKeating, Garrett K.Kettenis, MarkKim, Dong-JinKim, Jae-YoungKim, JongsooKim, JunhanKino, MotokiKoay, Jun YiKofuji, YutaroKoch, Patrick M.Koyama, ShokoKramer, MichaelKramer, CarstenKrichbaum, Thomas P.Kuo, Cheng-YuLauer, Tod R.Lee, Sang-SungLevis, AviadLi, Yan-RongLi, ZhiyuanLindqvist, MichaelLico, RoccoLindahl, GregLiu, JunLiu, KuoLiuzzo, ElisabettaLo, Wen-PingLobanov, Andrei P.Loinard, LaurentLonsdale, ColinLu, Ru-SenMacDonald, Nicholas R.Mao, JirongMarchili, NicolaMarkoff, SeraMarrone, Daniel P.Marscher, Alan P.Martí-Vidal, IvánMatsushita, SatokiMatthews, Lynn D.Medeiros, LiaMenten, Karl M.Mizuno, IzumiMizuno, YosukeMoran, James M.Moriyama, KotaroMoscibrodzka, MonikaMüller, CorneliaMusoke, GibwaMus Mejías, AlejandroMichalik, DanielNadolski, AndrewNagai, HiroshiNagar, Neil M.Nakamura, MasanoriNarayan, RameshNarayanan, GopalNatarajan, IniyanNathanail, AntoniosNeilsen, JoeyNeri, RobertoNi, ChunchongNoutsos, AristeidisNowak, Michael A.Okino, HirokiOlivares, HéctorOrtiz-León, Gisela N.Oyama, TomoakiÖzel, FeryalPalumbo, Daniel C. M.Park, JonghoPatel, NimeshPen, Ue-LiPesce, Dominic W.Piétu, VincentPlambeck, RichardPopStefanija, AleksandarPorth, OliverPötzl, Felix M.Prather, BenPreciado-López, Jorge A.Psaltis, DimitriosPu, Hung-YiRamakrishnan, VenkatesshRao, RamprasadRawlings, Mark G.Raymond, Alexander W.Rezzolla, LucianoRicarte, AngeloRipperda, BartRoelofs, FreekRogers, AlanRos, EduardoRose, MelRoshanineshat, ArashRottmann, HelgeRoy, Alan L.Ruszczyk, ChetRygl, Kazi L. J.Sánchez, SalvadorSánchez-Arguelles, DavidSasada, MahitoSavolainen, TuomasSchloerb, F. PeterSchuster, Karl-FriedrichShao, LijingShen, ZhiqiangSmall, DesSohn, Bong WonSooHoo, JasonSun, HeTazaki, FumieTetarenko, Alexandra J.Tiede, PaulTilanus, Remo P. J.Titus, MichaelToma, KenjiTorne, PabloTrent, TylerTraianou, EfthaliaTrippe, Saschavan Bemmel, Ilsevan Langevelde, Huib Janvan Rossum, Daniel R.Wagner, JanWard-Thompson, DerekWardle, JohnWeintroub, JonathanWex, NorbertWharton, RobertWielgus, MaciekWong, George N.Wu, QingwenYoon, DoosooYoung, AndréYoung, KenYounsi, ZiriYuan, FengYuan, Ye-FeiZensus, J. AntonZhao, Guang-YaoZhao, Shan-ShanDOI: info:10.3847/2041-8213/abe4dev. 910L13
Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration, Akiyama, Kazunori, Algaba, Juan Carlos, Alberdi, Antxon, Alef, Walter, Anantua, Richard, Asada, Keiichi, Azulay, Rebecca, Baczko, Anne-Kathrin, Ball, David, Baloković, Mislav, Barrett, John, Benson, Bradford A., Bintley, Dan, Blackburn, Lindy, Blundell, Raymond, Boland, Wilfred, Bouman, Katherine L., Bower, Geoffrey C., Boyce, Hope, Bremer, Michael, Brinkerink, Christiaan D., Brissenden, Roger, Britzen, Silke, Broderick, Avery E. et al. 2021. "First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. VIII. Magnetic Field Structure near The Event Horizon." The Astrophysical Journal 910:L13. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/abe4de
ID: 159442
Type: article
Authors: Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration; Akiyama, Kazunori; Algaba, Juan Carlos; Alberdi, Antxon; Alef, Walter; Anantua, Richard; Asada, Keiichi; Azulay, Rebecca; Baczko, Anne-Kathrin; Ball, David; Baloković, Mislav; Barrett, John; Benson, Bradford A.; Bintley, Dan; Blackburn, Lindy; Blundell, Raymond; Boland, Wilfred; Bouman, Katherine L.; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Boyce, Hope; Bremer, Michael; Brinkerink, Christiaan D.; Brissenden, Roger; Britzen, Silke; Broderick, Avery E.; Broguiere, Dominique; Bronzwaer, Thomas; Byun, Do-Young; Carlstrom, John E.; Chael, Andrew; Chan, Chi-kwan; Chatterjee, Shami; Chatterjee, Koushik; Chen, Ming-Tang; Chen, Yongjun; Chesler, Paul M.; Cho, Ilje; Christian, Pierre; Conway, John E.; Cordes, James M.; Crawford, Thomas M.; Crew, Geoffrey B.; Cruz-Osorio, Alejandro; Cui, Yuzhu; Davelaar, Jordy; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Deane, Roger; Dempsey, Jessica; Desvignes, Gregory; Dexter, Jason; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Eatough, Ralph P.; Falcke, Heino; Farah, Joseph; Fish, Vincent L.; Fomalont, Ed; Ford, H. Alyson; Fraga-Encinas, Raquel; Friberg, Per; Fromm, Christian M.; Fuentes, Antonio; Galison, Peter; Gammie, Charles F.; García, Roberto; Gelles, Zachary; Gentaz, Olivier; Georgiev, Boris; Goddi, Ciriaco; Gold, Roman; Gómez, José L.; Gómez-Ruiz, Arturo I.; Gu, Minfeng; Gurwell, Mark; Hada, Kazuhiro; Haggard, Daryl; Hecht, Michael H.; Hesper, Ronald; Himwich, Elizabeth; Ho, Luis C.; Ho, Paul; Honma, Mareki; Huang, Chih-Wei L.; Huang, Lei; Hughes, David H.; Ikeda, Shiro; Inoue, Makoto; Issaoun, Sara; James, David J.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Janssen, Michael; Jeter, Britton; Jiang, Wu; Jimenez-Rosales, Alejandra; Johnson, Michael D.; Jorstad, Svetlana; Jung, Taehyun; Karami, Mansour; Karuppusamy, Ramesh; Kawashima, Tomohisa; Keating, Garrett K.; Kettenis, Mark; Kim, Dong-Jin; Kim, Jae-Young; Kim, Jongsoo; Kim, Junhan; Kino, Motoki; Koay, Jun Yi; Kofuji, Yutaro; Koch, Patrick M.; Koyama, Shoko; Kramer, Michael; Kramer, Carsten; Krichbaum, Thomas P.; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Lauer, Tod R.; Lee, Sang-Sung; Levis, Aviad; Li, Yan-Rong; Li, Zhiyuan; Lindqvist, Michael; Lico, Rocco; Lindahl, Greg; Liu, Jun; Liu, Kuo; Liuzzo, Elisabetta; Lo, Wen-Ping; Lobanov, Andrei P.; Loinard, Laurent; Lonsdale, Colin; Lu, Ru-Sen; MacDonald, Nicholas R.; Mao, Jirong; Marchili, Nicola; Markoff, Sera; Marrone, Daniel P.; Marscher, Alan P.; Martí-Vidal, Iván; Matsushita, Satoki; Matthews, Lynn D.; Medeiros, Lia; Menten, Karl M.; Mizuno, Izumi; Mizuno, Yosuke; Moran, James M.; Moriyama, Kotaro; Moscibrodzka, Monika; Müller, Cornelia; Musoke, Gibwa; Mus Mejías, Alejandro; Michalik, Daniel; Nadolski, Andrew; Nagai, Hiroshi; Nagar, Neil M.; Nakamura, Masanori; Narayan, Ramesh; Narayanan, Gopal; Natarajan, Iniyan; Nathanail, Antonios; Neilsen, Joey; Neri, Roberto; Ni, Chunchong; Noutsos, Aristeidis; Nowak, Michael A.; Okino, Hiroki; Olivares, Héctor; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Oyama, Tomoaki; Özel, Feryal; Palumbo, Daniel C. M.; Park, Jongho; Patel, Nimesh; Pen, Ue-Li; Pesce, Dominic W.; Piétu, Vincent; Plambeck, Richard; PopStefanija, Aleksandar; Porth, Oliver; Pötzl, Felix M.; Prather, Ben; Preciado-López, Jorge A.; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Pu, Hung-Yi; Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh; Rao, Ramprasad; Rawlings, Mark G.; Raymond, Alexander W.; Rezzolla, Luciano; Ricarte, Angelo; Ripperda, Bart; Roelofs, Freek; Rogers, Alan; Ros, Eduardo; Rose, Mel; Roshanineshat, Arash; Rottmann, Helge; Roy, Alan L.; Ruszczyk, Chet; Rygl, Kazi L. J.; Sánchez, Salvador; Sánchez-Arguelles, David; Sasada, Mahito; Savolainen, Tuomas; Schloerb, F. Peter; Schuster, Karl-Friedrich; Shao, Lijing; Shen, Zhiqiang; Small, Des; Sohn, Bong Won; SooHoo, Jason; Sun, He; Tazaki, Fumie; Tetarenko, Alexandra J.; Tiede, Paul; Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Titus, Michael; Toma, Kenji; Torne, Pablo; Trent, Tyler; Traianou, Efthalia; Trippe, Sascha; van Bemmel, Ilse; van Langevelde, Huib Jan; van Rossum, Daniel R.; Wagner, Jan; Ward-Thompson, Derek; Wardle, John; Weintroub, Jonathan; Wex, Norbert; Wharton, Robert; Wielgus, Maciek; Wong, George N.; Wu, Qingwen; Yoon, Doosoo; Young, André; Young, Ken; Younsi, Ziri; Yuan, Feng; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Zensus, J. Anton; Zhao, Guang-Yao; Zhao, Shan-Shan
Abstract: Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) observations at 230 GHz have now imaged polarized emission around the supermassive black hole in M87 on event-horizon scales. This polarized synchrotron radiation probes the structure of magnetic fields and the plasma properties near the black hole. Here we compare the resolved polarization structure observed by the EHT, along with simultaneous unresolved observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, to expectations from theoretical models. The low fractional linear polarization in the resolved image suggests that the polarization is scrambled on scales smaller than the EHT beam, which we attribute to Faraday rotation internal to the emission region. We estimate the average density ne ∼ 104-7 cm-3, magnetic field strength B ∼ 1-30 G, and electron temperature Te ∼ (1-12) × 1010 K of the radiating plasma in a simple one-zone emission model. We show that the net azimuthal linear polarization pattern may result from organized, poloidal magnetic fields in the emission region. In a quantitative comparison with a large library of simulated polarimetric images from general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations, we identify a subset of physical models that can explain critical features of the polarimetric EHT observations while producing a relativistic jet of sufficient power. The consistent GRMHD models are all of magnetically arrested accretion disks, where near-horizon magnetic fields are dynamically important. We use the models to infer a mass accretion rate onto the black hole in M87 of (3-20) × 10-4 M yr-1.
Polarimetric Properties of Event Horizon Telescope Targets from ALMAGoddi, CiriacoMartí-Vidal, IvánMessias, HugoBower, Geoffrey C.Broderick, Avery E.Dexter, JasonMarrone, Daniel P.Moscibrodzka, MonikaNagai, HiroshiAlgaba, Juan CarlosAsada, KeiichiCrew, Geoffrey B.Gómez, José L.Impellizzeri, C. M. VioletteJanssen, MichaelKadler, MatthiasKrichbaum, Thomas P.Lico, RoccoMatthews, Lynn D.Nathanail, AntoniosRicarte, AngeloRos, EduardoYounsi, ZiriAkiyama, KazunoriAlberdi, AntxonAlef, WalterAnantua, RichardAzulay, RebeccaBaczko, Anne-KathrinBall, DavidBaloković, MislavBarrett, JohnBenson, Bradford A.Bintley, DanBlackburn, LindyBlundell, RaymondBoland, WilfredBouman, Katherine L.Boyce, HopeBremer, MichaelBrinkerink, Christiaan D.Brissenden, RogerBritzen, SilkeBroguiere, DominiqueBronzwaer, ThomasByun, Do-YoungCarlstrom, John E.Chael, AndrewChan, Chi-kwanChatterjee, ShamiChatterjee, KoushikChen, Ming-TangChen, YongjunChesler, Paul M.Cho, IljeChristian, PierreConway, John E.Cordes, James M.Crawford, Thomas M.Cruz-Osorio, AlejandroCui, YuzhuDavelaar, JordyDe Laurentis, MariafeliciaDeane, RogerDempsey, JessicaDesvignes, GregoryDoeleman, Sheperd S.Eatough, Ralph P.Falcke, HeinoFarah, JosephFish, Vincent L.Fomalont, EdFord, H. AlysonFraga-Encinas, RaquelFreeman, William T.Friberg, PerFromm, Christian M.Fuentes, AntonioGalison, PeterGammie, Charles F.García, RobertoGentaz, OlivierGeorgiev, BorisGold, RomanGómez-Ruiz, Arturo I.Gu, MinfengGurwell, MarkHada, KazuhiroHaggard, DarylHecht, Michael H.Hesper, RonaldHo, Luis C.Ho, PaulHonma, MarekiHuang, Chih-Wei L.Huang, LeiHughes, David H.Inoue, MakotoIssaoun, SaraJames, David J.Jannuzi, Buell T.Jeter, BrittonJiang, WuJimenez-Rosales, AlejandraJohnson, Michael D.Jorstad, SvetlanaJung, TaehyunKarami, MansourKaruppusamy, RameshKawashima, TomohisaKeating, Garrett K.Kettenis, MarkKim, Dong-JinKim, Jae-YoungKim, JongsooKim, JunhanKino, MotokiKoay, Jun YiKofuji, YutaroKoch, Patrick M.Koyama, ShokoKramer, MichaelKramer, CarstenKuo, Cheng-YuLauer, Tod R.Lee, Sang-SungLevis, AviadLi, Yan-RongLi, ZhiyuanLindqvist, MichaelLindahl, GregLiu, JunLiu, KuoLiuzzo, ElisabettaLo, Wen-PingLobanov, Andrei P.Loinard, LaurentLonsdale, ColinLu, Ru-SenMacDonald, Nicholas R.Mao, JirongMarchili, NicolaMarkoff, SeraMarscher, Alan P.Matsushita, SatokiMedeiros, LiaMenten, Karl M.Mizuno, IzumiMizuno, YosukeMoran, James M.Moriyama, KotaroMüller, CorneliaMusoke, GibwaMejías, Alejandro MusNagar, Neil M.Nakamura, MasanoriNarayan, RameshNarayanan, GopalNatarajan, IniyanNeilsen, JoeyNeri, RobertoNi, ChunchongNoutsos, AristeidisNowak, Michael A.Okino, HirokiOlivares, HéctorOrtiz-León, Gisela N.Oyama, TomoakiÖzel, FeryalPalumbo, Daniel C. M.Park, JonghoPatel, NimeshPen, Ue-LiPesce, Dominic W.Piétu, VincentPlambeck, RichardPopStefanija, AleksandarPorth, OliverPötzl, Felix M.Prather, BenPreciado-López, Jorge A.Psaltis, DimitriosPu, Hung-YiRamakrishnan, VenkatesshRao, RamprasadRawlings, Mark G.Raymond, Alexander W.Rezzolla, LucianoRipperda, BartRoelofs, FreekRogers, AlanRose, MelRoshanineshat, ArashRottmann, HelgeRoy, Alan L.Ruszczyk, ChetRygl, Kazi L. J.Sánchez, SalvadorSánchez-Arguelles, DavidSasada, MahitoSavolainen, TuomasSchloerb, F. PeterSchuster, Karl-FriedrichShao, LijingShen, ZhiqiangSmall, DesSohn, Bong WonSooHoo, JasonSun, HeTazaki, FumieTetarenko, Alexandra J.Tiede, PaulTilanus, Remo P. J.Titus, MichaelToma, KenjiTorne, PabloTrent, TylerTraianou, EfthaliaTrippe, Saschavan Bemmel, Ilsevan Langevelde, Huib Janvan Rossum, Daniel R.Wagner, JanWard-Thompson, DerekWardle, JohnWeintroub, JonathanWex, NorbertWharton, RobertWielgus, MaciekWong, George N.Wu, QingwenYoon, DoosooYoung, AndréYoung, KenYuan, FengYuan, Ye-FeiZensus, J. AntonZhao, Guang-YaoZhao, Shan-ShanBruni, GabrieleGopakumar, A.Hernández-Gómez, AntonioHerrero-Illana, RubenIngram, AdamKomossa, S.Kovalev, Y. Y.Muders, DirkPerucho, ManelRösch, FlorianValtonen, MauriDOI: info:10.3847/2041-8213/abee6av. 910L14
Goddi, Ciriaco, Martí-Vidal, Iván, Messias, Hugo, Bower, Geoffrey C., Broderick, Avery E., Dexter, Jason, Marrone, Daniel P., Moscibrodzka, Monika, Nagai, Hiroshi, Algaba, Juan Carlos, Asada, Keiichi, Crew, Geoffrey B., Gómez, José L., Impellizzeri, C. M. Violette, Janssen, Michael, Kadler, Matthias, Krichbaum, Thomas P., Lico, Rocco, Matthews, Lynn D., Nathanail, Antonios, Ricarte, Angelo, Ros, Eduardo, Younsi, Ziri, Akiyama, Kazunori, Alberdi, Antxon et al. 2021. "Polarimetric Properties of Event Horizon Telescope Targets from ALMA." The Astrophysical Journal 910:L14. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/abee6a
ID: 159441
Type: article
Authors: Goddi, Ciriaco; Martí-Vidal, Iván; Messias, Hugo; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Broderick, Avery E.; Dexter, Jason; Marrone, Daniel P.; Moscibrodzka, Monika; Nagai, Hiroshi; Algaba, Juan Carlos; Asada, Keiichi; Crew, Geoffrey B.; Gómez, José L.; Impellizzeri, C. M. Violette; Janssen, Michael; Kadler, Matthias; Krichbaum, Thomas P.; Lico, Rocco; Matthews, Lynn D.; Nathanail, Antonios; Ricarte, Angelo; Ros, Eduardo; Younsi, Ziri; Akiyama, Kazunori; Alberdi, Antxon; Alef, Walter; Anantua, Richard; Azulay, Rebecca; Baczko, Anne-Kathrin; Ball, David; Baloković, Mislav; Barrett, John; Benson, Bradford A.; Bintley, Dan; Blackburn, Lindy; Blundell, Raymond; Boland, Wilfred; Bouman, Katherine L.; Boyce, Hope; Bremer, Michael; Brinkerink, Christiaan D.; Brissenden, Roger; Britzen, Silke; Broguiere, Dominique; Bronzwaer, Thomas; Byun, Do-Young; Carlstrom, John E.; Chael, Andrew; Chan, Chi-kwan; Chatterjee, Shami; Chatterjee, Koushik; Chen, Ming-Tang; Chen, Yongjun; Chesler, Paul M.; Cho, Ilje; Christian, Pierre; Conway, John E.; Cordes, James M.; Crawford, Thomas M.; Cruz-Osorio, Alejandro; Cui, Yuzhu; Davelaar, Jordy; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Deane, Roger; Dempsey, Jessica; Desvignes, Gregory; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Eatough, Ralph P.; Falcke, Heino; Farah, Joseph; Fish, Vincent L.; Fomalont, Ed; Ford, H. Alyson; Fraga-Encinas, Raquel; Freeman, William T.; Friberg, Per; Fromm, Christian M.; Fuentes, Antonio; Galison, Peter; Gammie, Charles F.; García, Roberto; Gentaz, Olivier; Georgiev, Boris; Gold, Roman; Gómez-Ruiz, Arturo I.; Gu, Minfeng; Gurwell, Mark; Hada, Kazuhiro; Haggard, Daryl; Hecht, Michael H.; Hesper, Ronald; Ho, Luis C.; Ho, Paul; Honma, Mareki; Huang, Chih-Wei L.; Huang, Lei; Hughes, David H.; Inoue, Makoto; Issaoun, Sara; James, David J.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Jeter, Britton; Jiang, Wu; Jimenez-Rosales, Alejandra; Johnson, Michael D.; Jorstad, Svetlana; Jung, Taehyun; Karami, Mansour; Karuppusamy, Ramesh; Kawashima, Tomohisa; Keating, Garrett K.; Kettenis, Mark; Kim, Dong-Jin; Kim, Jae-Young; Kim, Jongsoo; Kim, Junhan; Kino, Motoki; Koay, Jun Yi; Kofuji, Yutaro; Koch, Patrick M.; Koyama, Shoko; Kramer, Michael; Kramer, Carsten; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Lauer, Tod R.; Lee, Sang-Sung; Levis, Aviad; Li, Yan-Rong; Li, Zhiyuan; Lindqvist, Michael; Lindahl, Greg; Liu, Jun; Liu, Kuo; Liuzzo, Elisabetta; Lo, Wen-Ping; Lobanov, Andrei P.; Loinard, Laurent; Lonsdale, Colin; Lu, Ru-Sen; MacDonald, Nicholas R.; Mao, Jirong; Marchili, Nicola; Markoff, Sera; Marscher, Alan P.; Matsushita, Satoki; Medeiros, Lia; Menten, Karl M.; Mizuno, Izumi; Mizuno, Yosuke; Moran, James M.; Moriyama, Kotaro; Müller, Cornelia; Musoke, Gibwa; Mejías, Alejandro Mus; Nagar, Neil M.; Nakamura, Masanori; Narayan, Ramesh; Narayanan, Gopal; Natarajan, Iniyan; Neilsen, Joey; Neri, Roberto; Ni, Chunchong; Noutsos, Aristeidis; Nowak, Michael A.; Okino, Hiroki; Olivares, Héctor; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Oyama, Tomoaki; Özel, Feryal; Palumbo, Daniel C. M.; Park, Jongho; Patel, Nimesh; Pen, Ue-Li; Pesce, Dominic W.; Piétu, Vincent; Plambeck, Richard; PopStefanija, Aleksandar; Porth, Oliver; Pötzl, Felix M.; Prather, Ben; Preciado-López, Jorge A.; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Pu, Hung-Yi; Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh; Rao, Ramprasad; Rawlings, Mark G.; Raymond, Alexander W.; Rezzolla, Luciano; Ripperda, Bart; Roelofs, Freek; Rogers, Alan; Rose, Mel; Roshanineshat, Arash; Rottmann, Helge; Roy, Alan L.; Ruszczyk, Chet; Rygl, Kazi L. J.; Sánchez, Salvador; Sánchez-Arguelles, David; Sasada, Mahito; Savolainen, Tuomas; Schloerb, F. Peter; Schuster, Karl-Friedrich; Shao, Lijing; Shen, Zhiqiang; Small, Des; Sohn, Bong Won; SooHoo, Jason; Sun, He; Tazaki, Fumie; Tetarenko, Alexandra J.; Tiede, Paul; Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Titus, Michael; Toma, Kenji; Torne, Pablo; Trent, Tyler; Traianou, Efthalia; Trippe, Sascha; van Bemmel, Ilse; van Langevelde, Huib Jan; van Rossum, Daniel R.; Wagner, Jan; Ward-Thompson, Derek; Wardle, John; Weintroub, Jonathan; Wex, Norbert; Wharton, Robert; Wielgus, Maciek; Wong, George N.; Wu, Qingwen; Yoon, Doosoo; Young, André; Young, Ken; Yuan, Feng; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Zensus, J. Anton; Zhao, Guang-Yao; Zhao, Shan-Shan; Bruni, Gabriele; Gopakumar, A.; Hernández-Gómez, Antonio; Herrero-Illana, Ruben; Ingram, Adam; Komossa, S.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Muders, Dirk; Perucho, Manel; Rösch, Florian; Valtonen, Mauri
Abstract: We present the results from a full polarization study carried out with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) during the first Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) campaign, which was conducted in 2017 April in the λ3 mm and λ1.3 mm bands, in concert with the Global mm-VLBI Array (GMVA) and the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), respectively. We determine the polarization and Faraday properties of all VLBI targets, including Sgr A*, M87, and a dozen radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs), in the two bands at several epochs in a time window of 10 days. We detect high linear polarization fractions (2%-15%) and large rotation measures (RM > 103.3-105.5 rad m-2), confirming the trends of previous AGN studies at millimeter wavelengths. We find that blazars are more strongly polarized than other AGNs in the sample, while exhibiting (on average) order-of-magnitude lower RM values, consistent with the AGN viewing angle unification scheme. For Sgr A* we report a mean RM of (-4.2 ± 0.3) × 105 rad m-2 at 1.3 mm, consistent with measurements over the past decade and, for the first time, an RM of (-2.1 ± 0.1) × 105 rad m-2 at 3 mm, suggesting that about half of the Faraday rotation at 1.3 mm may occur between the 3 mm photosphere and the 1.3 mm source. We also report the first unambiguous measurement of RM toward the M87 nucleus at millimeter wavelengths, which undergoes significant changes in magnitude and sign reversals on a one year timescale, spanning the range from -1.2 to 0.3 × 105 rad m-2 at 3 mm and -4.1 to 1.5 × 105 rad m-2 at 1.3 mm. Given this time variability, we argue that, unlike the case of Sgr A*, the RM in M87 does not provide an accurate estimate of the mass accretion rate onto the black hole. We put forward a two-component model, comprised of a variable compact region and a static extended region, that can simultaneously explain the polarimetric properties observed by both the EHT (on horizon scales) and ALMA (which observes the combined emission from both components). These measurements provide critical constraints for the calibration, analysis, and interpretation of simultaneously obtained VLBI data with the EHT and GMVA.
THEMIS: A Parameter Estimation Framework for the Event Horizon TelescopeBroderick, Avery E.Gold, RomanKarami, MansourPreciado-López, Jorge A.Tiede, PaulPu, Hung-YiAkiyama, KazunoriAlberdi, AntxonAlef, WalterAsada, KeiichiAzulay, RebeccaBaczko, Anne-KathrinBaloković, MislavBarrett, JohnBintley, DanBlackburn, LindyBoland, WilfredBouman, Katherine L.Bower, Geoffrey C.Bremer, MichaelBrinkerink, Christiaan D.Brissenden, RogerBritzen, SilkeBroguiere, DominiqueBronzwaer, ThomasByun, Do-YoungCarlstrom, John E.Chael, AndrewChatterjee, ShamiChatterjee, KoushikChen, Ming-TangChen, YongjunCho, IljeConway, John E.Cordes, James M.Crew, Geoffrey B.Cui, YuzhuDavelaar, JordyDe Laurentis, MariafeliciaDeane, RogerDempsey, JessicaDesvignes, GregoryDoeleman, Sheperd S.Eatough, Ralph P.Falcke, HeinoFish, Vincent L.Fomalont, EdFraga-Encinas, RaquelFriberg, PerFromm, Christian M.Galison, PeterGammie, Charles F.García, RobertoGentaz, OlivierGeorgiev, BorisGoddi, CiriacoGómez, José L.Gu, MinfengGurwell, MarkHada, KazuhiroHecht, Michael H.Hesper, RonaldHo, Luis C.Ho, PaulHonma, MarekiHuang, Chih-Wei L.Huang, LeiHughes, David H.Inoue, MakotoIssaoun, SaraJames, David J.Janssen, MichaelJeter, BrittonJiang, WuJiménez-Rosales, AlejandraJohnson, Michael D.Jorstad, SvetlanaJung, TaehyunKaruppusamy, RameshKawashima, TomohisaKeating, Garrett K.Kettenis, MarkKim, Jae-YoungKim, JongsooKino, MotokiKoay, Jun YiKoch, Patrick M.Koyama, ShokoKramer, MichaelKramer, CarstenKrichbaum, Thomas P.Kuo, Cheng-YuLee, Sang-SungLi, Yan-RongLi, ZhiyuanLindqvist, MichaelLico, RoccoLiu, KuoLiuzzo, ElisabettaLo, Wen-PingLobanov, Andrei P.Loinard, LaurentLonsdale, ColinLu, Ru-SenMacDonald, Nicholas R.Mao, JirongMarscher, Alan P.Martí-Vidal, IvánMatsushita, SatokiMatthews, Lynn D.Menten, Karl M.Mizuno, YosukeMizuno, IzumiMoran, James M.Moriyama, KotaroMoscibrodzka, MonikaMüller, CorneliaNagai, HiroshiNagar, Neil M.Nakamura, MasanoriNarayan, RameshNarayanan, GopalNatarajan, IniyanNeri, RobertoNi, ChunchongNoutsos, AristeidisOkino, HirokiOlivares, HéctorOrtiz-León, Gisela N.Oyama, TomoakiPalumbo, Daniel C. M.Park, JonghoPen, Ue-LiPesce, Dominic W.Piétu, VincentPlambeck, RichardPopStefanija, AleksandarPorth, OliverPrather, BenRamakrishnan, VenkatesshRao, RamprasadRawlings, Mark G.Raymond, Alexander W.Rezzolla, LucianoRipperda, BartRoelofs, FreekRogers, AlanRos, EduardoRose, MelRottmann, HelgeRuszczyk, ChetRyan, Benjamin R.Rygl, Kazi L. J.Sánchez, SalvadorSánchez-Arguelles, DavidSasada, MahitoSavolainen, TuomasSchloerb, F. PeterSchuster, Karl-FriedrichShao, LijingShen, ZhiqiangSmall, DesSohn, Bong WonSooHoo, JasonTazaki, FumieTilanus, Remo P. J.Titus, MichaelToma, KenjiTorne, PabloTraianou, EfthaliaTrippe, SaschaTsuda, Shuichirovan Bemmel, Ilsevan Langevelde, Huib Janvan Rossum, Daniel R.Wagner, JanWardle, JohnWeintroub, JonathanWex, NorbertWharton, RobertWielgus, MaciekWong, George N.Wu, QingwenYoon, DoosooYoung, AndréYoung, KenYounsi, ZiriYuan, FengYuan, Ye-FeiZensus, J. AntonZhao, GuangyaoZhao, Shan-ShanZhu, ZiyanEvent Horizon Telescope CollaborationDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/ab91a4v. 897139
Broderick, Avery E., Gold, Roman, Karami, Mansour, Preciado-López, Jorge A., Tiede, Paul, Pu, Hung-Yi, Akiyama, Kazunori, Alberdi, Antxon, Alef, Walter, Asada, Keiichi, Azulay, Rebecca, Baczko, Anne-Kathrin, Baloković, Mislav, Barrett, John, Bintley, Dan, Blackburn, Lindy, Boland, Wilfred, Bouman, Katherine L., Bower, Geoffrey C., Bremer, Michael, Brinkerink, Christiaan D., Brissenden, Roger, Britzen, Silke, Broguiere, Dominique, Bronzwaer, Thomas et al. 2020. "THEMIS: A Parameter Estimation Framework for the Event Horizon Telescope." The Astrophysical Journal 897:139. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab91a4
ID: 157837
Type: article
Authors: Broderick, Avery E.; Gold, Roman; Karami, Mansour; Preciado-López, Jorge A.; Tiede, Paul; Pu, Hung-Yi; Akiyama, Kazunori; Alberdi, Antxon; Alef, Walter; Asada, Keiichi; Azulay, Rebecca; Baczko, Anne-Kathrin; Baloković, Mislav; Barrett, John; Bintley, Dan; Blackburn, Lindy; Boland, Wilfred; Bouman, Katherine L.; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Bremer, Michael; Brinkerink, Christiaan D.; Brissenden, Roger; Britzen, Silke; Broguiere, Dominique; Bronzwaer, Thomas; Byun, Do-Young; Carlstrom, John E.; Chael, Andrew; Chatterjee, Shami; Chatterjee, Koushik; Chen, Ming-Tang; Chen, Yongjun; Cho, Ilje; Conway, John E.; Cordes, James M.; Crew, Geoffrey B.; Cui, Yuzhu; Davelaar, Jordy; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Deane, Roger; Dempsey, Jessica; Desvignes, Gregory; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Eatough, Ralph P.; Falcke, Heino; Fish, Vincent L.; Fomalont, Ed; Fraga-Encinas, Raquel; Friberg, Per; Fromm, Christian M.; Galison, Peter; Gammie, Charles F.; García, Roberto; Gentaz, Olivier; Georgiev, Boris; Goddi, Ciriaco; Gómez, José L.; Gu, Minfeng; Gurwell, Mark; Hada, Kazuhiro; Hecht, Michael H.; Hesper, Ronald; Ho, Luis C.; Ho, Paul; Honma, Mareki; Huang, Chih-Wei L.; Huang, Lei; Hughes, David H.; Inoue, Makoto; Issaoun, Sara; James, David J.; Janssen, Michael; Jeter, Britton; Jiang, Wu; Jiménez-Rosales, Alejandra; Johnson, Michael D.; Jorstad, Svetlana; Jung, Taehyun; Karuppusamy, Ramesh; Kawashima, Tomohisa; Keating, Garrett K.; Kettenis, Mark; Kim, Jae-Young; Kim, Jongsoo; Kino, Motoki; Koay, Jun Yi; Koch, Patrick M.; Koyama, Shoko; Kramer, Michael; Kramer, Carsten; Krichbaum, Thomas P.; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Lee, Sang-Sung; Li, Yan-Rong; Li, Zhiyuan; Lindqvist, Michael; Lico, Rocco; Liu, Kuo; Liuzzo, Elisabetta; Lo, Wen-Ping; Lobanov, Andrei P.; Loinard, Laurent; Lonsdale, Colin; Lu, Ru-Sen; MacDonald, Nicholas R.; Mao, Jirong; Marscher, Alan P.; Martí-Vidal, Iván; Matsushita, Satoki; Matthews, Lynn D.; Menten, Karl M.; Mizuno, Yosuke; Mizuno, Izumi; Moran, James M.; Moriyama, Kotaro; Moscibrodzka, Monika; Müller, Cornelia; Nagai, Hiroshi; Nagar, Neil M.; Nakamura, Masanori; Narayan, Ramesh; Narayanan, Gopal; Natarajan, Iniyan; Neri, Roberto; Ni, Chunchong; Noutsos, Aristeidis; Okino, Hiroki; Olivares, Héctor; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Oyama, Tomoaki; Palumbo, Daniel C. M.; Park, Jongho; Pen, Ue-Li; Pesce, Dominic W.; Piétu, Vincent; Plambeck, Richard; PopStefanija, Aleksandar; Porth, Oliver; Prather, Ben; Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh; Rao, Ramprasad; Rawlings, Mark G.; Raymond, Alexander W.; Rezzolla, Luciano; Ripperda, Bart; Roelofs, Freek; Rogers, Alan; Ros, Eduardo; Rose, Mel; Rottmann, Helge; Ruszczyk, Chet; Ryan, Benjamin R.; Rygl, Kazi L. J.; Sánchez, Salvador; Sánchez-Arguelles, David; Sasada, Mahito; Savolainen, Tuomas; Schloerb, F. Peter; Schuster, Karl-Friedrich; Shao, Lijing; Shen, Zhiqiang; Small, Des; Sohn, Bong Won; SooHoo, Jason; Tazaki, Fumie; Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Titus, Michael; Toma, Kenji; Torne, Pablo; Traianou, Efthalia; Trippe, Sascha; Tsuda, Shuichiro; van Bemmel, Ilse; van Langevelde, Huib Jan; van Rossum, Daniel R.; Wagner, Jan; Wardle, John; Weintroub, Jonathan; Wex, Norbert; Wharton, Robert; Wielgus, Maciek; Wong, George N.; Wu, Qingwen; Yoon, Doosoo; Young, André; Young, Ken; Younsi, Ziri; Yuan, Feng; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Zensus, J. Anton; Zhao, Guangyao; Zhao, Shan-Shan; Zhu, Ziyan; Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration
Abstract: The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) provides the unprecedented ability to directly resolve the structure and dynamics of black hole emission regions on scales smaller than their horizons. This has the potential to critically probe the mechanisms by which black holes accrete and launch outflows, and the structure of supermassive black hole spacetimes. However, accessing this information is a formidable analysis challenge for two reasons. First, the EHT natively produces a variety of data types that encode information about the image structure in nontrivial ways; these are subject to a variety of systematic effects associated with very long baseline interferometry and are supplemented by a wide variety of auxiliary data on the primary EHT targets from decades of other observations. Second, models of the emission regions and their interaction with the black hole are complex, highly uncertain, and computationally expensive to construct. As a result, the scientific utilization of EHT observations requires a flexible, extensible, and powerful analysis framework. We present such a framework, THEMIS, which defines a set of interfaces between models, data, and sampling algorithms that facilitates future development. We describe the design and currently existing components of THEMIS, how THEMIS has been validated thus far, and present additional analyses made possible by THEMIS that illustrate its capabilities. Importantly, we demonstrate that THEMIS is able to reproduce prior EHT analyses, extend these, and do so in a computationally efficient manner that can efficiently exploit modern high-performance computing facilities. THEMIS has already been used extensively in the scientific analysis and interpretation of the first EHT observations of M87.
An observational correlation between magnetic field, angular momentum and fragmentation in the envelopes of Class 0 protostars?Galametz, MaudMaury, AnaëlleGirart, Josep M.Rao, RamprasadZhang, QizhouGaudel, MathildeValdivia, ValeskaHennebelle, PatrickCabedo-Soto, VictoriaKeto, EricLai, Shih-PingDOI: info:10.1051/0004-6361/202038854v. 644A47
Galametz, Maud, Maury, Anaëlle, Girart, Josep M., Rao, Ramprasad, Zhang, Qizhou, Gaudel, Mathilde, Valdivia, Valeska, Hennebelle, Patrick, Cabedo-Soto, Victoria, Keto, Eric, and Lai, Shih-Ping. 2020. "An observational correlation between magnetic field, angular momentum and fragmentation in the envelopes of Class 0 protostars?." Astronomy and Astrophysics 644:A47. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/202038854
ID: 158745
Type: article
Authors: Galametz, Maud; Maury, Anaëlle; Girart, Josep M.; Rao, Ramprasad; Zhang, Qizhou; Gaudel, Mathilde; Valdivia, Valeska; Hennebelle, Patrick; Cabedo-Soto, Victoria; Keto, Eric; Lai, Shih-Ping
Abstract:
Aims: The main goal of the following analysis is to assess the potential role of magnetic fields in regulating the envelope rotation, the formation of disks and the fragmentation of Class 0 protostars in multiple systems.
Methods: We use the Submillimeter Array to carry out observations of the dust polarized emission at 0.87 mm, in the envelopes of a large sample of 20 Class 0 protostars. We estimate the mean magnetic field orientation over the central 1000 au envelope scales to characterize the orientation of the main component of the organized magnetic field at the envelope scales in these embedded protostars. This direction is compared to that of the protostellar outflow in order to study the relation between their misalignment and the kinematics of the circumstellar gas. The latter is traced via velocity gradient observed in the molecular line emission (mainly N2H+) of the gas at intermediate envelope scales.
Results: We discover a strong relationship between the misalignment of the magnetic field orientation with the outflow and the amount of angular momentum observed at similar scales in the protostellar envelope, revealing a potential link between the kinetic and the magnetic energy at envelope scales. The relation could be driven by favored B-misalignments in more dynamical envelopes or a dependence of the envelope dynamics with the large-scale B initial configuration. Comparing the trend with the presence of fragmentation, we observe that single sources are mostly associated with conditions of low angular momentum in the inner envelope and good alignment of the magnetic field with protostellar outflows, at intermediate scales. Our results suggest that the properties of the magnetic field in protostellar envelopes bear a tight relationship with the rotating-infalling gas directly involved in the star and disk formation: we find that it may not only influence the fragmentation of protostellar cores into multiple stellar systems, but also set the conditions establishing the pristine properties of planet-forming disks.
Verification of Radiative Transfer Schemes for the EHTGold, RomanBroderick, Avery E.Younsi, ZiriFromm, Christian M.Gammie, Charles F.Mościbrodzka, MonikaPu, Hung-YiBronzwaer, ThomasDavelaar, JordyDexter, JasonBall, DavidChan, Chi-kwanKawashima, TomohisaMizuno, YosukeRipperda, BartAkiyama, KazunoriAlberdi, AntxonAlef, WalterAsada, KeiichiAzulay, RebeccaBaczko, Anne-KathrinBaloković, MislavBarrett, JohnBintley, DanBlackburn, LindyBoland, WilfredBouman, Katherine L.Bower, Geoffrey C.Bremer, MichaelBrinkerink, Christiaan D.Brissenden, RogerBritzen, SilkeBroguiere, DominiqueByun, Do-YoungCarlstrom, John E.Chael, AndrewChatterjee, KoushikChatterjee, ShamiChen, Ming-TangChen, YongjunCho, IljeChristian, PierreConway, John E.Cordes, James M.Crew, Geoffrey B.Cui, YuzhuDe Laurentis, MariafeliciaDeane, RogerDempsey, JessicaDesvignes, GregoryDoeleman, Sheperd S.Eatough, Ralph?PFalcke, HeinoFish, Vincent L.Fomalont, EdFraga-Encinas, RaquelFreeman, BillFriberg, PerGómez, José L.Galison, PeterGarcía, RobertoGentaz, OlivierGeorgiev, BorisGoddi, CiriacoGu, MinfengGurwell, MarkHada, KazuhiroHecht, Michael H.Hesper, RonaldHo, Luis C.Ho, PaulHonma, MarekiHuang, Chih-Wei L.Huang, LeiHughes, David H.Inoue, MakotoIssaoun, SaraJames, David J.Jannuzi, Buell T.Janssen, MichaelJeter, BrittonJiang, WuJimenez-Rosales, AlejandraJohnson, Michael D.Jorstad, SvetlanaJung, TaehyunKarami, MansourKaruppusamy, RameshKeating, Garrett K.Kettenis, MarkKim, Jae-YoungKim, JunhanKim, JongsooKino, MotokiKoay, Jun YiKoch, Patrick M.Koyama, ShokoKramer, MichaelKramer, CarstenKrichbaum, Thomas P.Kuo, Cheng-YuLauer, Tod R.Lee, Sang-SungLi, Yan-RongLi, ZhiyuanLico, RoccoLindqvist, MichaelLiu, KuoLiuzzo, ElisabettaLo, Wen-PingLobanov, Andrei P.Loinard, LaurentLonsdale, ColinLu, Ru-SenMacDonald, Nicholas R.Markoff, SeraMao, JirongMarrone, Daniel P.Marscher, Alan P.Martí-Vidal, IvánMatsushita, SatokiMatthews, Lynn D.Medeiros, LiaMenten, Karl M.Mizuno, IzumiMoran, James M.Moriyama, KotaroMüller, CorneliaNagai, HiroshiNakamura, MasanoriNagar, Neil M.Narayan, RameshNarayanan, GopalNatarajan, IniyanNeri, RobertoNi, ChunchongNoutsos, AristeidisOkino, HirokiOrtiz-León, Gisela N.Oyama, TomoakiÖzel, FeryalPalumbo, Daniel C. M.Park, JonghoPatel, NimeshPen, Ue-LiPesce, Dominic W.Plambeck, RichardPiétu, VincentPopStefanija, AleksandarPorth, OliverPreciado-López, Jorge A.Psaltis, DimitriosRamakrishnan, VenkatesshRao, RamprasadRawlings, Mark G.Raymond, Alexander W.Rezzolla, LucianoRoelofs, FreekRogers, AlanRos, EduardoRose, MelRoshanineshat, ArashRottmann, HelgeRoy, Alan L.Ruszczyk, ChetRygl, Kazi L. J.Sánchez, SalvadorSánchez-Arguelles, DavidSasada, MahitoSavolainen, TuomasSchuster, Karl-FriedrichSchloerb, F. PeterShao, LijingShen, ZhiqiangSmall, DesSohn, Bong WonSooHoo, JasonTiede, PaulTazaki, FumieTilanus, Remo P. J.Titus, MichaelToma, KenjiTorne, PabloTrent, TylerTraianou, ThaliaTrippe, SaschaTsuda, Shuichirovan Langevelde, Huib Janvan Bemmel, Ilsevan Rossum, Daniel R.Wagner, JanWardle, JohnWex, NorbertWeintroub, JonathanWharton, RobertWielgus, MaciekWong, George N.Wu, QingwenYoon, DoosooYoung, KenYoung, AndréYuan, FengYuan, Ye-FeiZensus, J. AntonZhao, GuangyaoZhao, Shan-ShanZhu, ZiyanEvent Horizon Telescope CollaborationDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/ab96c6v. 897148
Gold, Roman, Broderick, Avery E., Younsi, Ziri, Fromm, Christian M., Gammie, Charles F., Mościbrodzka, Monika, Pu, Hung-Yi, Bronzwaer, Thomas, Davelaar, Jordy, Dexter, Jason, Ball, David, Chan, Chi-kwan, Kawashima, Tomohisa, Mizuno, Yosuke, Ripperda, Bart, Akiyama, Kazunori, Alberdi, Antxon, Alef, Walter, Asada, Keiichi, Azulay, Rebecca, Baczko, Anne-Kathrin, Baloković, Mislav, Barrett, John, Bintley, Dan, Blackburn, Lindy et al. 2020. "Verification of Radiative Transfer Schemes for the EHT." The Astrophysical Journal 897:148. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab96c6
ID: 157835
Type: article
Authors: Gold, Roman; Broderick, Avery E.; Younsi, Ziri; Fromm, Christian M.; Gammie, Charles F.; Mościbrodzka, Monika; Pu, Hung-Yi; Bronzwaer, Thomas; Davelaar, Jordy; Dexter, Jason; Ball, David; Chan, Chi-kwan; Kawashima, Tomohisa; Mizuno, Yosuke; Ripperda, Bart; Akiyama, Kazunori; Alberdi, Antxon; Alef, Walter; Asada, Keiichi; Azulay, Rebecca; Baczko, Anne-Kathrin; Baloković, Mislav; Barrett, John; Bintley, Dan; Blackburn, Lindy; Boland, Wilfred; Bouman, Katherine L.; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Bremer, Michael; Brinkerink, Christiaan D.; Brissenden, Roger; Britzen, Silke; Broguiere, Dominique; Byun, Do-Young; Carlstrom, John E.; Chael, Andrew; Chatterjee, Koushik; Chatterjee, Shami; Chen, Ming-Tang; Chen, Yongjun; Cho, Ilje; Christian, Pierre; Conway, John E.; Cordes, James M.; Crew, Geoffrey B.; Cui, Yuzhu; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Deane, Roger; Dempsey, Jessica; Desvignes, Gregory; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Eatough, Ralph?P; Falcke, Heino; Fish, Vincent L.; Fomalont, Ed; Fraga-Encinas, Raquel; Freeman, Bill; Friberg, Per; Gómez, José L.; Galison, Peter; García, Roberto; Gentaz, Olivier; Georgiev, Boris; Goddi, Ciriaco; Gu, Minfeng; Gurwell, Mark; Hada, Kazuhiro; Hecht, Michael H.; Hesper, Ronald; Ho, Luis C.; Ho, Paul; Honma, Mareki; Huang, Chih-Wei L.; Huang, Lei; Hughes, David H.; Inoue, Makoto; Issaoun, Sara; James, David J.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Janssen, Michael; Jeter, Britton; Jiang, Wu; Jimenez-Rosales, Alejandra; Johnson, Michael D.; Jorstad, Svetlana; Jung, Taehyun; Karami, Mansour; Karuppusamy, Ramesh; Keating, Garrett K.; Kettenis, Mark; Kim, Jae-Young; Kim, Junhan; Kim, Jongsoo; Kino, Motoki; Koay, Jun Yi; Koch, Patrick M.; Koyama, Shoko; Kramer, Michael; Kramer, Carsten; Krichbaum, Thomas P.; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Lauer, Tod R.; Lee, Sang-Sung; Li, Yan-Rong; Li, Zhiyuan; Lico, Rocco; Lindqvist, Michael; Liu, Kuo; Liuzzo, Elisabetta; Lo, Wen-Ping; Lobanov, Andrei P.; Loinard, Laurent; Lonsdale, Colin; Lu, Ru-Sen; MacDonald, Nicholas R.; Markoff, Sera; Mao, Jirong; Marrone, Daniel P.; Marscher, Alan P.; Martí-Vidal, Iván; Matsushita, Satoki; Matthews, Lynn D.; Medeiros, Lia; Menten, Karl M.; Mizuno, Izumi; Moran, James M.; Moriyama, Kotaro; Müller, Cornelia; Nagai, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Masanori; Nagar, Neil M.; Narayan, Ramesh; Narayanan, Gopal; Natarajan, Iniyan; Neri, Roberto; Ni, Chunchong; Noutsos, Aristeidis; Okino, Hiroki; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Oyama, Tomoaki; Özel, Feryal; Palumbo, Daniel C. M.; Park, Jongho; Patel, Nimesh; Pen, Ue-Li; Pesce, Dominic W.; Plambeck, Richard; Piétu, Vincent; PopStefanija, Aleksandar; Porth, Oliver; Preciado-López, Jorge A.; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh; Rao, Ramprasad; Rawlings, Mark G.; Raymond, Alexander W.; Rezzolla, Luciano; Roelofs, Freek; Rogers, Alan; Ros, Eduardo; Rose, Mel; Roshanineshat, Arash; Rottmann, Helge; Roy, Alan L.; Ruszczyk, Chet; Rygl, Kazi L. J.; Sánchez, Salvador; Sánchez-Arguelles, David; Sasada, Mahito; Savolainen, Tuomas; Schuster, Karl-Friedrich; Schloerb, F. Peter; Shao, Lijing; Shen, Zhiqiang; Small, Des; Sohn, Bong Won; SooHoo, Jason; Tiede, Paul; Tazaki, Fumie; Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Titus, Michael; Toma, Kenji; Torne, Pablo; Trent, Tyler; Traianou, Thalia; Trippe, Sascha; Tsuda, Shuichiro; van Langevelde, Huib Jan; van Bemmel, Ilse; van Rossum, Daniel R.; Wagner, Jan; Wardle, John; Wex, Norbert; Weintroub, Jonathan; Wharton, Robert; Wielgus, Maciek; Wong, George N.; Wu, Qingwen; Yoon, Doosoo; Young, Ken; Young, André; Yuan, Feng; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Zensus, J. Anton; Zhao, Guangyao; Zhao, Shan-Shan; Zhu, Ziyan; Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration
Abstract: The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) Collaboration has recently produced the first resolved images of the central supermassive black hole in the giant elliptical galaxy M87. Here we report on tests of the consistency and accuracy of the general relativistic radiative transfer codes used within the collaboration to model M87* and Sgr A*. We compare and evaluate (1) deflection angles for equatorial null geodesics in a Kerr spacetime; (2) images calculated from a series of simple, parameterized matter distributions in the Kerr metric using simplified emissivities and absorptivities; (3) for a subset of codes, images calculated from general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics simulations using different realistic synchrotron emissivities and absorptivities; (4) observables for the 2017 configuration of EHT, including visibility amplitudes and closure phases. The error in total flux is of order 1% when the codes are run with production numerical parameters. The dominant source of discrepancies for small camera distances is the location and detailed setup of the software "camera" that each code uses to produce synthetic images. We find that when numerical parameters are suitably chosen and the camera is sufficiently far away the images converge and that for given transfer coefficients, numerical uncertainties are unlikely to limit parameter estimation for the current generation of EHT observations. The purpose of this paper is to describe a verification and comparison of EHT radiative transfer codes. It is not to verify EHT models more generally.
Event Horizon Telescope imaging of the archetypal blazar 3C 279 at an extreme 20 microarcsecond resolutionKim, Jae-YoungKrichbaum, Thomas P.Broderick, Avery E.Wielgus, MaciekBlackburn, LindyGómez, José L.Johnson, Michael D.Bouman, Katherine L.Chael, AndrewAkiyama, KazunoriJorstad, SvetlanaMarscher, Alan P.Issaoun, SaraJanssen, MichaelChan, Chi-kwanSavolainen, TuomasPesce, Dominic W.Özel, FeryalAlberdi, AntxonAlef, WalterAsada, KeiichiAzulay, RebeccaBaczko, Anne-KathrinBall, DavidBaloković, MislavBarrett, JohnBintley, DanBoland, WilfredBower, Geoffrey C.Bremer, MichaelBrinkerink, Christiaan D.Brissenden, RogerBritzen, SilkeBroguiere, DominiqueBronzwaer, ThomasByun, Do-YoungCarlstrom, John E.Chatterjee, ShamiChatterjee, KoushikChen, Ming-TangChen, YongjunCho, IljeChristian, PierreConway, John E.Cordes, James M.Crew, Geoffrey B.Cui, YuzhuDavelaar, JordyDe Laurentis, MariafeliciaDeane, RogerDempsey, JessicaDesvignes, GregoryDexter, JasonDoeleman, Sheperd S.Eatough, Ralph P.Falcke, HeinoFish, Vincent L.Fomalont, EdFraga-Encinas, RaquelFriberg, PerFromm, Christian M.Galison, PeterGammie, Charles F.García, RobertoGentaz, OlivierGeorgiev, BorisGoddi, CiriacoGold, RomanGómez-Ruiz, Arturo I.Gu, MinfengGurwell, MarkHada, KazuhiroHecht, Michael H.Hesper, RonaldHo, Luis C.Ho, PaulHonma, MarekiHuang, Chih-Wei L.Huang, LeiHughes, David H.Ikeda, ShiroInoue, MakotoJames, David J.Jannuzi, Buell T.Jeter, BrittonJiang, WuJimenez-Rosales, AlejandraJung, TaehyunKarami, MansourKaruppusamy, RameshKawashima, TomohisaKeating, Garrett K.Kettenis, MarkKim, JunhanKim, JongsooKino, MotokiKoay, Jun YiKoch, Patrick M.Koyama, ShokoKramer, MichaelKramer, CarstenKuo, Cheng-YuLauer, Tod R.Lee, Sang-SungLi, Yan-RongLi, ZhiyuanLindqvist, MichaelLico, RoccoLiu, KuoLiuzzo, ElisabettaLo, Wen-PingLobanov, Andrei P.Loinard, LaurentLonsdale, ColinLu, Ru-SenMacDonald, Nicholas R.Mao, JirongMarkoff, SeraMarrone, Daniel P.Martí-Vidal, IvánMatsushita, SatokiMatthews, Lynn D.Medeiros, LiaMenten, Karl M.Mizuno, YosukeMizuno, IzumiMoran, James M.Moriyama, KotaroMoscibrodzka, MonikaMusoke, GibwaMüller, CorneliaNagai, HiroshiNagar, Neil M.Nakamura, MasanoriNarayan, RameshNarayanan, GopalNatarajan, IniyanNeri, RobertoNi, ChunchongNoutsos, AristeidisOkino, HirokiOlivares, HéctorOrtiz-León, Gisela N.Oyama, TomoakiPalumbo, Daniel C. M.Park, JonghoPatel, NimeshPen, Ue-LiPiétu, VincentPlambeck, RichardPopStefanija, AleksandarPorth, OliverPrather, BenPreciado-López, Jorge A.Psaltis, DimitriosPu, Hung-YiRamakrishnan, VenkatesshRao, RamprasadRawlings, Mark G.Raymond, Alexander W.Rezzolla, LucianoRipperda, BartRoelofs, FreekRogers, AlanRos, EduardoRose, MelRoshanineshat, ArashRottmann, HelgeRoy, Alan L.Ruszczyk, ChetRyan, Benjamin R.Rygl, Kazi L. J.Sánchez, SalvadorSánchez-Arguelles, DavidSasada, MahitoSchloerb, F. PeterSchuster, Karl-FriedrichShao, LijingShen, ZhiqiangSmall, DesSohn, Bong WonSooHoo, JasonTazaki, FumieTiede, PaulTilanus, Remo P. J.Titus, MichaelToma, KenjiTorne, PabloTrent, TylerTraianou, EfthaliaTrippe, SaschaTsuda, Shuichirovan Bemmel, Ilsevan Langevelde, Huib Janvan Rossum, Daniel R.Wagner, JanWardle, JohnWard-Thompson, DerekWeintroub, JonathanWex, NorbertWharton, RobertWong, George N.Wu, QingwenYoon, DoosooYoung, AndréYoung, KenYounsi, ZiriYuan, FengYuan, Ye-FeiZensus, J. AntonZhao, GuangyaoZhao, Shan-ShanZhu, ZiyanAlgaba, Juan-CarlosAllardi, AlexanderAmestica, RodrigoAnczarski, JadynBach, UweBaganoff, Frederick K.Beaudoin, ChristopherBenson, Bradford A.Berthold, RyanBlanchard, Jay M.Blundell, RayBustamente, SandraCappallo, RogerCastillo-Domínguez, EdgarChang, Chih-ChengChang, Shu-HaoChang, Song-ChuChen, Chung-ChenChilson, RyanChuter, Tim C.Rosado, Rodrigo CórdovaCoulson, Iain M.Crowley, JosephDerome, MarkDexter, MatthewDornbusch, SvenDudevoir, Kevin A.Dzib, Sergio A.Eckart, AndreasEckert, ChrisErickson, Neal R.Everett, Wendeline B.Faber, AaronFarah, Joseph R.Fath, VernonFolkers, Thomas W.Forbes, David C.Freund, RobertGale, David M.Gao, FengGeertsema, GertieGraham, David A.Greer, Christopher H.Grosslein, RonaldGueth, FrédéricHaggard, DarylHalverson, Nils W.Han, Chih-ChiangHan, Kuo-ChangHao, JinchiHasegawa, YutakaHenning, Jason W.Hernández-Gómez, AntonioHerrero-Illana, RubénHeyminck, StefanHirota, AkihikoHoge, JamesHuang, Yau-DeViolette Impellizzeri, C. M.Jiang, HominJohn, DavidKamble, AtishKeisler, RyanKimura, KimihiroKono, YusukeKubo, DerekKuroda, JohnLacasse, RichardLaing, Robert A.Leitch, Erik M.Li, Chao-TeLin, Lupin C. -CLiu, Ching-TangLiu, Kuan-YuLu, Li-MingMarson, Ralph G.Martin-Cocher, Pierre L.Massingill, Kyle D.Matulonis, CallieMcColl, Martin P.McWhirter, Stephen R.Messias, HugoMeyer-Zhao, ZhengMichalik, DanielMontaña, AlfredoMontgomerie, WilliamMora-Klein, MatiasMuders, DirkNadolski, AndrewNavarro, SantiagoNeilsen, JosephNguyen, Chi H.Nishioka, HiroakiNorton, TimothyNowak, Michael A.Nystrom, GeorgeOgawa, HideoOshiro, PeterParsons, HarrietPeñalver, JuanPhillips, Neil M.Poirier, MichaelPradel, NicolasPrimiani, Rurik A.Raffin, Philippe A.Rahlin, Alexandra S.Reiland, GeorgeRisacher, ChristopherRuiz, IgnacioSáez-Madaín, Alejandro F.Sassella, RemiSchellart, PimShaw, PaulSilva, Kevin M.Shiokawa, HotakaSmith, David R.Snow, WilliamSouccar, KamalSousa, DonSridharan, Tirupati K.Srinivasan, RanjaniStahm, WilliamStark, Antony A.Story, KyleTimmer, Sjoerd T.Vertatschitsch, LauraWalther, CraigWei, Ta-ShunWhitehorn, NathanWhitney, Alan R.Woody, David P.Wouterloot, Jan G. A.Wright, MelvinYamaguchi, PaulYu, Chen-YuZeballos, MilagrosZhang, ShuoZiurys, LucyEvent Horizon Telescope CollaborationDOI: info:10.1051/0004-6361/202037493v. 640A69
Kim, Jae-Young, Krichbaum, Thomas P., Broderick, Avery E., Wielgus, Maciek, Blackburn, Lindy, Gómez, José L., Johnson, Michael D., Bouman, Katherine L., Chael, Andrew, Akiyama, Kazunori, Jorstad, Svetlana, Marscher, Alan P., Issaoun, Sara, Janssen, Michael, Chan, Chi-kwan, Savolainen, Tuomas, Pesce, Dominic W., Özel, Feryal, Alberdi, Antxon, Alef, Walter, Asada, Keiichi, Azulay, Rebecca, Baczko, Anne-Kathrin, Ball, David, Baloković, Mislav et al. 2020. "Event Horizon Telescope imaging of the archetypal blazar 3C 279 at an extreme 20 microarcsecond resolution." Astronomy and Astrophysics 640:A69. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/202037493
ID: 157610
Type: article
Authors: Kim, Jae-Young; Krichbaum, Thomas P.; Broderick, Avery E.; Wielgus, Maciek; Blackburn, Lindy; Gómez, José L.; Johnson, Michael D.; Bouman, Katherine L.; Chael, Andrew; Akiyama, Kazunori; Jorstad, Svetlana; Marscher, Alan P.; Issaoun, Sara; Janssen, Michael; Chan, Chi-kwan; Savolainen, Tuomas; Pesce, Dominic W.; Özel, Feryal; Alberdi, Antxon; Alef, Walter; Asada, Keiichi; Azulay, Rebecca; Baczko, Anne-Kathrin; Ball, David; Baloković, Mislav; Barrett, John; Bintley, Dan; Boland, Wilfred; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Bremer, Michael; Brinkerink, Christiaan D.; Brissenden, Roger; Britzen, Silke; Broguiere, Dominique; Bronzwaer, Thomas; Byun, Do-Young; Carlstrom, John E.; Chatterjee, Shami; Chatterjee, Koushik; Chen, Ming-Tang; Chen, Yongjun; Cho, Ilje; Christian, Pierre; Conway, John E.; Cordes, James M.; Crew, Geoffrey B.; Cui, Yuzhu; Davelaar, Jordy; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Deane, Roger; Dempsey, Jessica; Desvignes, Gregory; Dexter, Jason; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Eatough, Ralph P.; Falcke, Heino; Fish, Vincent L.; Fomalont, Ed; Fraga-Encinas, Raquel; Friberg, Per; Fromm, Christian M.; Galison, Peter; Gammie, Charles F.; García, Roberto; Gentaz, Olivier; Georgiev, Boris; Goddi, Ciriaco; Gold, Roman; Gómez-Ruiz, Arturo I.; Gu, Minfeng; Gurwell, Mark; Hada, Kazuhiro; Hecht, Michael H.; Hesper, Ronald; Ho, Luis C.; Ho, Paul; Honma, Mareki; Huang, Chih-Wei L.; Huang, Lei; Hughes, David H.; Ikeda, Shiro; Inoue, Makoto; James, David J.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Jeter, Britton; Jiang, Wu; Jimenez-Rosales, Alejandra; Jung, Taehyun; Karami, Mansour; Karuppusamy, Ramesh; Kawashima, Tomohisa; Keating, Garrett K.; Kettenis, Mark; Kim, Junhan; Kim, Jongsoo; Kino, Motoki; Koay, Jun Yi; Koch, Patrick M.; Koyama, Shoko; Kramer, Michael; Kramer, Carsten; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Lauer, Tod R.; Lee, Sang-Sung; Li, Yan-Rong; Li, Zhiyuan; Lindqvist, Michael; Lico, Rocco; Liu, Kuo; Liuzzo, Elisabetta; Lo, Wen-Ping; Lobanov, Andrei P.; Loinard, Laurent; Lonsdale, Colin; Lu, Ru-Sen; MacDonald, Nicholas R.; Mao, Jirong; Markoff, Sera; Marrone, Daniel P.; Martí-Vidal, Iván; Matsushita, Satoki; Matthews, Lynn D.; Medeiros, Lia; Menten, Karl M.; Mizuno, Yosuke; Mizuno, Izumi; Moran, James M.; Moriyama, Kotaro; Moscibrodzka, Monika; Musoke, Gibwa; Müller, Cornelia; Nagai, Hiroshi; Nagar, Neil M.; Nakamura, Masanori; Narayan, Ramesh; Narayanan, Gopal; Natarajan, Iniyan; Neri, Roberto; Ni, Chunchong; Noutsos, Aristeidis; Okino, Hiroki; Olivares, Héctor; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Oyama, Tomoaki; Palumbo, Daniel C. M.; Park, Jongho; Patel, Nimesh; Pen, Ue-Li; Piétu, Vincent; Plambeck, Richard; PopStefanija, Aleksandar; Porth, Oliver; Prather, Ben; Preciado-López, Jorge A.; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Pu, Hung-Yi; Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh; Rao, Ramprasad; Rawlings, Mark G.; Raymond, Alexander W.; Rezzolla, Luciano; Ripperda, Bart; Roelofs, Freek; Rogers, Alan; Ros, Eduardo; Rose, Mel; Roshanineshat, Arash; Rottmann, Helge; Roy, Alan L.; Ruszczyk, Chet; Ryan, Benjamin R.; Rygl, Kazi L. J.; Sánchez, Salvador; Sánchez-Arguelles, David; Sasada, Mahito; Schloerb, F. Peter; Schuster, Karl-Friedrich; Shao, Lijing; Shen, Zhiqiang; Small, Des; Sohn, Bong Won; SooHoo, Jason; Tazaki, Fumie; Tiede, Paul; Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Titus, Michael; Toma, Kenji; Torne, Pablo; Trent, Tyler; Traianou, Efthalia; Trippe, Sascha; Tsuda, Shuichiro; van Bemmel, Ilse; van Langevelde, Huib Jan; van Rossum, Daniel R.; Wagner, Jan; Wardle, John; Ward-Thompson, Derek; Weintroub, Jonathan; Wex, Norbert; Wharton, Robert; Wong, George N.; Wu, Qingwen; Yoon, Doosoo; Young, André; Young, Ken; Younsi, Ziri; Yuan, Feng; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Zensus, J. Anton; Zhao, Guangyao; Zhao, Shan-Shan; Zhu, Ziyan; Algaba, Juan-Carlos; Allardi, Alexander; Amestica, Rodrigo; Anczarski, Jadyn; Bach, Uwe; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Beaudoin, Christopher; Benson, Bradford A.; Berthold, Ryan; Blanchard, Jay M.; Blundell, Ray; Bustamente, Sandra; Cappallo, Roger; Castillo-Domínguez, Edgar; Chang, Chih-Cheng; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Song-Chu; Chen, Chung-Chen; Chilson, Ryan; Chuter, Tim C.; Rosado, Rodrigo Córdova; Coulson, Iain M.; Crowley, Joseph; Derome, Mark; Dexter, Matthew; Dornbusch, Sven; Dudevoir, Kevin A.; Dzib, Sergio A.; Eckart, Andreas; Eckert, Chris; Erickson, Neal R.; Everett, Wendeline B.; Faber, Aaron; Farah, Joseph R.; Fath, Vernon; Folkers, Thomas W.; Forbes, David C.; Freund, Robert; Gale, David M.; Gao, Feng; Geertsema, Gertie; Graham, David A.; Greer, Christopher H.; Grosslein, Ronald; Gueth, Frédéric; Haggard, Daryl; Halverson, Nils W.; Han, Chih-Chiang; Han, Kuo-Chang; Hao, Jinchi; Hasegawa, Yutaka; Henning, Jason W.; Hernández-Gómez, Antonio; Herrero-Illana, Rubén; Heyminck, Stefan; Hirota, Akihiko; Hoge, James; Huang, Yau-De; Violette Impellizzeri, C. M.; Jiang, Homin; John, David; Kamble, Atish; Keisler, Ryan; Kimura, Kimihiro; Kono, Yusuke; Kubo, Derek; Kuroda, John; Lacasse, Richard; Laing, Robert A.; Leitch, Erik M.; Li, Chao-Te; Lin, Lupin C. -C; Liu, Ching-Tang; Liu, Kuan-Yu; Lu, Li-Ming; Marson, Ralph G.; Martin-Cocher, Pierre L.; Massingill, Kyle D.; Matulonis, Callie; McColl, Martin P.; McWhirter, Stephen R.; Messias, Hugo; Meyer-Zhao, Zheng; Michalik, Daniel; Montaña, Alfredo; Montgomerie, William; Mora-Klein, Matias; Muders, Dirk; Nadolski, Andrew; Navarro, Santiago; Neilsen, Joseph; Nguyen, Chi H.; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Norton, Timothy; Nowak, Michael A.; Nystrom, George; Ogawa, Hideo; Oshiro, Peter; Oyama, Tomoaki; Parsons, Harriet; Peñalver, Juan; Phillips, Neil M.; Poirier, Michael; Pradel, Nicolas; Primiani, Rurik A.; Raffin, Philippe A.; Rahlin, Alexandra S.; Reiland, George; Risacher, Christopher; Ruiz, Ignacio; Sáez-Madaín, Alejandro F.; Sassella, Remi; Schellart, Pim; Shaw, Paul; Silva, Kevin M.; Shiokawa, Hotaka; Smith, David R.; Snow, William; Souccar, Kamal; Sousa, Don; Sridharan, Tirupati K.; Srinivasan, Ranjani; Stahm, William; Stark, Antony A.; Story, Kyle; Timmer, Sjoerd T.; Vertatschitsch, Laura; Walther, Craig; Wei, Ta-Shun; Whitehorn, Nathan; Whitney, Alan R.; Woody, David P.; Wouterloot, Jan G. A.; Wright, Melvin; Yamaguchi, Paul; Yu, Chen-Yu; Zeballos, Milagros; Zhang, Shuo; Ziurys, Lucy; Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration
Abstract: 3C 279 is an archetypal blazar with a prominent radio jet that show broadband flux density variability across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. We use an ultra-high angular resolution technique - global Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) at 1.3 mm (230 GHz) - to resolve the innermost jet of 3C 279 in order to study its fine-scale morphology close to the jet base where highly variable γ-ray emission is thought to originate, according to various models. The source was observed during four days in April 2017 with the Event Horizon Telescope at 230 GHz, including the phased Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), at an angular resolution of ∼20 μas (at a redshift of z = 0.536 this corresponds to ∼0.13 pc ∼ 1700 Schwarzschild radii with a black hole mass MBH = 8 × 108 M). Imaging and model-fitting techniques were applied to the data to parameterize the fine-scale source structure and its variation. We find a multicomponent inner jet morphology with the northernmost component elongated perpendicular to the direction of the jet, as imaged at longer wavelengths. The elongated nuclear structure is consistent on all four observing days and across different imaging methods and model-fitting techniques, and therefore appears robust. Owing to its compactness and brightness, we associate the northern nuclear structure as the VLBI "core". This morphology can be interpreted as either a broad resolved jet base or a spatially bent jet. We also find significant day-to-day variations in the closure phases, which appear most pronounced on the triangles with the longest baselines. Our analysis shows that this variation is related to a systematic change of the source structure. Two inner jet components move non-radially at apparent speeds of ∼15 c and ∼20 c (∼1.3 and ∼1.7 μas day-1, respectively), which more strongly supports the scenario of traveling shocks or instabilities in a bent, possibly rotating jet. The observed apparent speeds are also coincident with the 3C 279 large-scale jet kinematics observed at longer (cm) wavelengths, suggesting no significant jet acceleration between the 1.3 mm core and the outer jet. The intrinsic brightness temperature of the jet components are ≲1010 K, a magnitude or more lower than typical values seen at ≥7 mm wavelengths. The low brightness temperature and morphological complexity suggest that the core region of 3C 279 becomes optically thin at short (mm) wavelengths.
The data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/640/A69 and at http://https://eventhorizontelescope.org/for-astronomers/data
Gravitational Test beyond the First Post-Newtonian Order with the Shadow of the M87 Black HolePsaltis, DimitriosMedeiros, LiaChristian, PierreÖzel, FeryalAkiyama, KazunoriAlberdi, AntxonAlef, WalterAsada, KeiichiAzulay, RebeccaBall, DavidBalokovic, MislavBarrett, JohnBintley, DanBlackburn, LindyBoland, WilfredBower, Geoffrey C.Bremer, MichaelBrinkerink, Christiaan D.Brissenden, RogerBritzen, SilkeBroguiere, DominiqueBronzwaer, ThomasByun, Do-YoungCarlstrom, John E.Chael, AndrewChan, Chi-kwanChatterjee, ShamiChatterjee, KoushikChen, Ming-TangChen, YongjunCho, IljeConway, John E.Cordes, James M.Crew, Geoffrey B.Cui, YuzhuDavelaar, JordyDe Laurentis, MariafeliciaDeane, RogerDempsey, JessicaDesvignes, GregoryDexter, JasonEatough, Ralph P.Falcke, HeinoFish, Vincent L.Fomalont, EdFraga-Encinas, RaquelFriberg, PerFromm, Christian M.Gammie, Charles F.García, RobertoGentaz, OlivierGoddi, CiriacoGómez, José L.Gu, MinfengGurwell, MarkHada, KazuhiroHesper, RonaldHo, Luis C.Ho, PaulHonma, MarekiHuang, Chih-Wei L.Huang, LeiHughes, David H.Inoue, MakotoIssaoun, SaraJames, David J.Jannuzi, Buell T.Janssen, MichaelJiang, WuJimenez-Rosales, AlejandraJohnson, Michael D.Jorstad, SvetlanaJung, TaehyunKarami, MansourKaruppusamy, RameshKawashima, TomohisaKeating, Garrett K.Kettenis, MarkKim, Jae-YoungKim, JunhanKim, JongsooKino, MotokiKoay, Jun YiKoch, Patrick M.Koyama, ShokoKramer, MichaelKramer, CarstenKrichbaum, Thomas P.Kuo, Cheng-YuLauer, Tod R.Lee, Sang-SungLi, Yan-RongLi, ZhiyuanLindqvist, MichaelLico, RoccoLiu, JunLiu, KuoLiuzzo, ElisabettaLo, Wen-PingLobanov, Andrei P.Lonsdale, ColinLu, Ru-SenMao, JirongMarkoff, SeraMarrone, Daniel P.Marscher, Alan P.Martí-Vidal, IvánMatsushita, SatokiMizuno, YosukeMizuno, IzumiMoran, James M.Moriyama, KotaroMoscibrodzka, MonikaMüller, CorneliaMusoke, GibwaMus Mejías, AlejandroNagai, HiroshiNagar, Neil M.Narayan, RameshNarayanan, GopalNatarajan, IniyanNeri, RobertoNoutsos, AristeidisOkino, HirokiOlivares, HéctorOyama, TomoakiPalumbo, Daniel C. M.Park, JonghoPatel, NimeshPen, Ue-LiPiétu, VincentPlambeck, RichardPopStefanija, AleksandarPrather, BenPreciado-López, Jorge A.Ramakrishnan, VenkatesshRao, RamprasadRawlings, Mark G.Raymond, Alexander W.Ripperda, BartRoelofs, FreekRogers, AlanRos, EduardoRose, MelRoshanineshat, ArashRottmann, HelgeRoy, Alan L.Ruszczyk, ChetRyan, Benjamin R.Rygl, Kazi L. J.Sánchez, SalvadorSánchez-Arguelles, DavidSasada, MahitoSavolainen, TuomasSchloerb, F. PeterSchuster, Karl-FriedrichShao, LijingShen, ZhiqiangSmall, DesSohn, Bong WonSooHoo, JasonTazaki, FumieTilanus, Remo P. J.Titus, MichaelTorne, PabloTrent, TylerTraianou, EfthaliaTrippe, Saschavan Bemmel, Ilsevan Langevelde, Huib Janvan Rossum, Daniel R.Wagner, JanWardle, JohnWard-Thompson, DerekWeintroub, JonathanWex, NorbertWharton, RobertWielgus, MaciekWong, George N.Wu, QingwenYoon, DoosooYoung, AndréYoung, KenYounsi, ZiriYuan, FengYuan, Ye-FeiZhao, Shan-ShanEHT CollaborationDOI: info:10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.141104v. 125141104
Psaltis, Dimitrios, Medeiros, Lia, Christian, Pierre, Özel, Feryal, Akiyama, Kazunori, Alberdi, Antxon, Alef, Walter, Asada, Keiichi, Azulay, Rebecca, Ball, David, Balokovic, Mislav, Barrett, John, Bintley, Dan, Blackburn, Lindy, Boland, Wilfred, Bower, Geoffrey C., Bremer, Michael, Brinkerink, Christiaan D., Brissenden, Roger, Britzen, Silke, Broguiere, Dominique, Bronzwaer, Thomas, Byun, Do-Young, Carlstrom, John E., Chael, Andrew et al. 2020. "Gravitational Test beyond the First Post-Newtonian Order with the Shadow of the M87 Black Hole." Physical Review Letters 125:141104. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.141104
ID: 158749
Type: article
Authors: Psaltis, Dimitrios; Medeiros, Lia; Christian, Pierre; Özel, Feryal; Akiyama, Kazunori; Alberdi, Antxon; Alef, Walter; Asada, Keiichi; Azulay, Rebecca; Ball, David; Balokovic, Mislav; Barrett, John; Bintley, Dan; Blackburn, Lindy; Boland, Wilfred; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Bremer, Michael; Brinkerink, Christiaan D.; Brissenden, Roger; Britzen, Silke; Broguiere, Dominique; Bronzwaer, Thomas; Byun, Do-Young; Carlstrom, John E.; Chael, Andrew; Chan, Chi-kwan; Chatterjee, Shami; Chatterjee, Koushik; Chen, Ming-Tang; Chen, Yongjun; Cho, Ilje; Conway, John E.; Cordes, James M.; Crew, Geoffrey B.; Cui, Yuzhu; Davelaar, Jordy; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Deane, Roger; Dempsey, Jessica; Desvignes, Gregory; Dexter, Jason; Eatough, Ralph P.; Falcke, Heino; Fish, Vincent L.; Fomalont, Ed; Fraga-Encinas, Raquel; Friberg, Per; Fromm, Christian M.; Gammie, Charles F.; García, Roberto; Gentaz, Olivier; Goddi, Ciriaco; Gómez, José L.; Gu, Minfeng; Gurwell, Mark; Hada, Kazuhiro; Hesper, Ronald; Ho, Luis C.; Ho, Paul; Honma, Mareki; Huang, Chih-Wei L.; Huang, Lei; Hughes, David H.; Inoue, Makoto; Issaoun, Sara; James, David J.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Janssen, Michael; Jiang, Wu; Jimenez-Rosales, Alejandra; Johnson, Michael D.; Jorstad, Svetlana; Jung, Taehyun; Karami, Mansour; Karuppusamy, Ramesh; Kawashima, Tomohisa; Keating, Garrett K.; Kettenis, Mark; Kim, Jae-Young; Kim, Junhan; Kim, Jongsoo; Kino, Motoki; Koay, Jun Yi; Koch, Patrick M.; Koyama, Shoko; Kramer, Michael; Kramer, Carsten; Krichbaum, Thomas P.; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Lauer, Tod R.; Lee, Sang-Sung; Li, Yan-Rong; Li, Zhiyuan; Lindqvist, Michael; Lico, Rocco; Liu, Jun; Liu, Kuo; Liuzzo, Elisabetta; Lo, Wen-Ping; Lobanov, Andrei P.; Lonsdale, Colin; Lu, Ru-Sen; Mao, Jirong; Markoff, Sera; Marrone, Daniel P.; Marscher, Alan P.; Martí-Vidal, Iván; Matsushita, Satoki; Mizuno, Yosuke; Mizuno, Izumi; Moran, James M.; Moriyama, Kotaro; Moscibrodzka, Monika; Müller, Cornelia; Musoke, Gibwa; Mus Mejías, Alejandro; Nagai, Hiroshi; Nagar, Neil M.; Narayan, Ramesh; Narayanan, Gopal; Natarajan, Iniyan; Neri, Roberto; Noutsos, Aristeidis; Okino, Hiroki; Olivares, Héctor; Oyama, Tomoaki; Palumbo, Daniel C. M.; Park, Jongho; Patel, Nimesh; Pen, Ue-Li; Piétu, Vincent; Plambeck, Richard; PopStefanija, Aleksandar; Prather, Ben; Preciado-López, Jorge A.; Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh; Rao, Ramprasad; Rawlings, Mark G.; Raymond, Alexander W.; Ripperda, Bart; Roelofs, Freek; Rogers, Alan; Ros, Eduardo; Rose, Mel; Roshanineshat, Arash; Rottmann, Helge; Roy, Alan L.; Ruszczyk, Chet; Ryan, Benjamin R.; Rygl, Kazi L. J.; Sánchez, Salvador; Sánchez-Arguelles, David; Sasada, Mahito; Savolainen, Tuomas; Schloerb, F. Peter; Schuster, Karl-Friedrich; Shao, Lijing; Shen, Zhiqiang; Small, Des; Sohn, Bong Won; SooHoo, Jason; Tazaki, Fumie; Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Titus, Michael; Torne, Pablo; Trent, Tyler; Traianou, Efthalia; Trippe, Sascha; van Bemmel, Ilse; van Langevelde, Huib Jan; van Rossum, Daniel R.; Wagner, Jan; Wardle, John; Ward-Thompson, Derek; Weintroub, Jonathan; Wex, Norbert; Wharton, Robert; Wielgus, Maciek; Wong, George N.; Wu, Qingwen; Yoon, Doosoo; Young, André; Young, Ken; Younsi, Ziri; Yuan, Feng; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Zhao, Shan-Shan; EHT Collaboration
Abstract: The 2017 Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) observations of the central source in M87 have led to the first measurement of the size of a black-hole shadow. This observation offers a new and clean gravitational test of the black-hole metric in the strong-field regime. We show analytically that spacetimes that deviate from the Kerr metric but satisfy weak-field tests can lead to large deviations in the predicted black-hole shadows that are inconsistent with even the current EHT measurements. We use numerical calculations of regular, parametric, non-Kerr metrics to identify the common characteristic among these different parametrizations that control the predicted shadow size. We show that the shadow-size measurements place significant constraints on deviation parameters that control the second post-Newtonian and higher orders of each metric and are, therefore, inaccessible to weak-field tests. The new constraints are complementary to those imposed by observations of gravitational waves from stellar-mass sources.
SYMBA: An end-to-end VLBI synthetic data generation pipeline. Simulating Event Horizon Telescope observations of M 87Roelofs, F.Janßen, M.Natarajan, I.Deane, R.Davelaar, J.Olivares, H.Porth, O.Paine, Scott N.Bouman, Katherine L.Tilanus, R. P. J.van Bemmel, I. M.Falcke, H.Akiyama, K.Alberdi, A.Alef, W.Asada, K.Azulay, R.Baczko, A.Ball, D.Baloković, MislavBarrett, J.Bintley, D.Blackburn, LindyBoland, W.Bower, G. C.Bremer, M.Brinkerink, C. D.Brissenden, RogerBritzen, S.Broderick, A. E.Broguiere, D.Bronzwaer, T.Byun, D.Carlstrom, J. E.Chael, A.Chan, C.Chatterjee, S.Chatterjee, K.Chen, M.Chen, Y.Cho, I.Christian, P.Conway, J. E.Cordes, J. M.Crew, G. B.Cui, Y.De Laurentis, M.Dempsey, J.Desvignes, G.Dexter, J.Doeleman, Sheperd S.Eatough, R. P.Fish, V. L.Fomalont, E.Fraga-Encinas, R.Friberg, P.Fromm, C. M.Gómez, J. L.Galison, P.Gammie, C. F.García, R.Gentaz, O.Georgiev, B.Goddi, C.Gold, R.Gu, M.Gurwell, MarkHada, K.Hecht, M. H.Hesper, R.Ho, L. C.Ho, P.Honma, M.Huang, C. L.Huang, L.Hughes, D. H.Ikeda, S.Inoue, M.Issaoun, S.James, David J.Jannuzi, B. T.Jeter, B.Jiang, W.Johnson, M. D.Jorstad, S.Jung, T.Karami, M.Karuppusamy, R.Kawashima, T.Keating, Garrett K.Kettenis, M.Kim, J.Kino, M.Koay, J. Y.Koch, P. M.Koyama, S.Kramer, M.Kramer, C.Krichbaum, T. P.Kuo, C.Lauer, T. R.Lee, S.Li, Y.Li, Z.Lindqvist, M.Lico, R.Liu, K.Liuzzo, E.Lo, W.Lobanov, A. P.Loinard, L.Lonsdale, C.Lu, R.MacDonald, N. R.Mao, J.Markoff, S.Marrone, D. P.Marscher, A. P.Martí-Vidal, I.Matsushita, S.Matthews, L. D.Medeiros, L.Menten, K. M.Mizuno, Y.Mizuno, I.Moran, James M.Moriyama, K.Moscibrodzka, M.Müller, C.Nagai, H.Nagar, N. M.Nakamura, M.Narayan, RameshNarayanan, G.Neri, R.Ni, C.Noutsos, A.Okino, H.Ortiz-León, G. N.Oyama, T.Özel, F.Palumbo, Daniel C. M.Patel, NimeshPen, U.Pesce, Dominic W.Piétu, V.Plambeck, R.PopStefanija, A.Prather, B.Preciado-López, J. A.Psaltis, D.Pu, H.Ramakrishnan, V.Rao, R.Rawlings, M. G.Raymond, Alexander W.Rezzolla, L.Ripperda, B.Rogers, A.Ros, E.Rose, M.Roshanineshat, A.Rottmann, H.Roy, A. L.Ruszczyk, C.Ryan, B. R.Rygl, K. L. J.Sánchez, S.Sánchez-Arguelles, D.Sasada, M.Savolainen, T.Schloerb, F. P.Schuster, K.Shao, L.Shen, Z.Small, D.Won Sohn, B.SooHoo, J.Tazaki, F.Tiede, P.Titus, M.Toma, K.Torne, P.Traianou, E.Trent, T.Trippe, S.Tsuda, S.van Langevelde, H. J.van Rossum, D. R.Wagner, J.Wardle, J.Weintroub, JonathanWex, N.Wharton, R.Wielgus, MaciekWong, G. N.Wu, Q.Young, A.Young, K.Younsi, Z.Yuan, F.Yuan, Y.Zensus, J. A.Zhao, G.Zhao, S.Zhu, Z.DOI: info:10.1051/0004-6361/201936622v. 636A5
Roelofs, F., Janßen, M., Natarajan, I., Deane, R., Davelaar, J., Olivares, H., Porth, O., Paine, Scott N., Bouman, Katherine L., Tilanus, R. P. J., van Bemmel, I. M., Falcke, H., Akiyama, K., Alberdi, A., Alef, W., Asada, K., Azulay, R., Baczko, A., Ball, D., Baloković, Mislav, Barrett, J., Bintley, D., Blackburn, Lindy, Boland, W., Bower, G. C. et al. 2020. "SYMBA: An end-to-end VLBI synthetic data generation pipeline. Simulating Event Horizon Telescope observations of M 87." Astronomy and Astrophysics 636:A5. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201936622
ID: 157120
Type: article
Authors: Roelofs, F.; Janßen, M.; Natarajan, I.; Deane, R.; Davelaar, J.; Olivares, H.; Porth, O.; Paine, Scott N.; Bouman, Katherine L.; Tilanus, R. P. J.; van Bemmel, I. M.; Falcke, H.; Akiyama, K.; Alberdi, A.; Alef, W.; Asada, K.; Azulay, R.; Baczko, A.; Ball, D.; Baloković, Mislav; Barrett, J.; Bintley, D.; Blackburn, Lindy; Boland, W.; Bower, G. C.; Bremer, M.; Brinkerink, C. D.; Brissenden, Roger; Britzen, S.; Broderick, A. E.; Broguiere, D.; Bronzwaer, T.; Byun, D.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chael, A.; Chan, C.; Chatterjee, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Chen, M.; Chen, Y.; Cho, I.; Christian, P.; Conway, J. E.; Cordes, J. M.; Crew, G. B.; Cui, Y.; De Laurentis, M.; Dempsey, J.; Desvignes, G.; Dexter, J.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Eatough, R. P.; Fish, V. L.; Fomalont, E.; Fraga-Encinas, R.; Friberg, P.; Fromm, C. M.; Gómez, J. L.; Galison, P.; Gammie, C. F.; García, R.; Gentaz, O.; Georgiev, B.; Goddi, C.; Gold, R.; Gu, M.; Gurwell, Mark; Hada, K.; Hecht, M. H.; Hesper, R.; Ho, L. C.; Ho, P.; Honma, M.; Huang, C. L.; Huang, L.; Hughes, D. H.; Ikeda, S.; Inoue, M.; Issaoun, S.; James, David J.; Jannuzi, B. T.; Jeter, B.; Jiang, W.; Johnson, M. D.; Jorstad, S.; Jung, T.; Karami, M.; Karuppusamy, R.; Kawashima, T.; Keating, Garrett K.; Kettenis, M.; Kim, J.; Kim, J.; Kim, J.; Kino, M.; Koay, J. Y.; Koch, P. M.; Koyama, S.; Kramer, M.; Kramer, C.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Kuo, C.; Lauer, T. R.; Lee, S.; Li, Y.; Li, Z.; Lindqvist, M.; Lico, R.; Liu, K.; Liuzzo, E.; Lo, W.; Lobanov, A. P.; Loinard, L.; Lonsdale, C.; Lu, R.; MacDonald, N. R.; Mao, J.; Markoff, S.; Marrone, D. P.; Marscher, A. P.; Martí-Vidal, I.; Matsushita, S.; Matthews, L. D.; Medeiros, L.; Menten, K. M.; Mizuno, Y.; Mizuno, I.; Moran, James M.; Moriyama, K.; Moscibrodzka, M.; Müller, C.; Nagai, H.; Nagar, N. M.; Nakamura, M.; Narayan, Ramesh; Narayanan, G.; Neri, R.; Ni, C.; Noutsos, A.; Okino, H.; Olivares, H.; Ortiz-León, G. N.; Oyama, T.; Özel, F.; Palumbo, Daniel C. M.; Patel, Nimesh; Pen, U.; Pesce, Dominic W.; Piétu, V.; Plambeck, R.; PopStefanija, A.; Prather, B.; Preciado-López, J. A.; Psaltis, D.; Pu, H.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Rao, R.; Rawlings, M. G.; Raymond, Alexander W.; Rezzolla, L.; Ripperda, B.; Rogers, A.; Ros, E.; Rose, M.; Roshanineshat, A.; Rottmann, H.; Roy, A. L.; Ruszczyk, C.; Ryan, B. R.; Rygl, K. L. J.; Sánchez, S.; Sánchez-Arguelles, D.; Sasada, M.; Savolainen, T.; Schloerb, F. P.; Schuster, K.; Shao, L.; Shen, Z.; Small, D.; Won Sohn, B.; SooHoo, J.; Tazaki, F.; Tiede, P.; Titus, M.; Toma, K.; Torne, P.; Traianou, E.; Trent, T.; Trippe, S.; Tsuda, S.; van Langevelde, H. J.; van Rossum, D. R.; Wagner, J.; Wardle, J.; Weintroub, Jonathan; Wex, N.; Wharton, R.; Wielgus, Maciek; Wong, G. N.; Wu, Q.; Young, A.; Young, K.; Younsi, Z.; Yuan, F.; Yuan, Y.; Zensus, J. A.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, S.; Zhu, Z.
Abstract: Context. Realistic synthetic observations of theoretical source models are essential for our understanding of real observational data. In using synthetic data, one can verify the extent to which source parameters can be recovered and evaluate how various data corruption effects can be calibrated. These studies are the most important when proposing observations of new sources, in the characterization of the capabilities of new or upgraded instruments, and when verifying model-based theoretical predictions in a direct comparison with observational data.
Aims: We present the SYnthetic Measurement creator for long Baseline Arrays (SYMBA), a novel synthetic data generation pipeline for Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations. SYMBA takes into account several realistic atmospheric, instrumental, and calibration effects.
Methods: We used SYMBA to create synthetic observations for the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), a millimetre VLBI array, which has recently captured the first image of a black hole shadow. After testing SYMBA with simple source and corruption models, we study the importance of including all corruption and calibration effects, compared to the addition of thermal noise only. Using synthetic data based on two example general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) model images of M 87, we performed case studies to assess the image quality that can be obtained with the current and future EHT array for different weather conditions.
Results: Our synthetic observations show that the effects of atmospheric and instrumental corruptions on the measured visibilities are significant. Despite these effects, we demonstrate how the overall structure of our GRMHD source models can be recovered robustly with the EHT2017 array after performing calibration steps, which include fringe fitting, a priori amplitude and network calibration, and self-calibration. With the planned addition of new stations to the EHT array in the coming years, images could be reconstructed with higher angular resolution and dynamic range. In our case study, these improvements allowed for a distinction between a thermal and a non-thermal GRMHD model based on salient features in reconstructed images.
Monitoring the Morphology of M87* in 2009-2017 with the Event Horizon TelescopeWielgus, MaciekAkiyama, KazunoriBlackburn, LindyChan, Chi-kwanDexter, JasonDoeleman, Sheperd S.Fish, Vincent L.Issaoun, SaraJohnson, Michael D.Krichbaum, Thomas P.Lu, Ru-SenPesce, Dominic W.Wong, George N.Bower, Geoffrey C.Broderick, Avery E.Chael, AndrewChatterjee, KoushikGammie, Charles F.Georgiev, BorisHada, KazuhiroLoinard, LaurentMarkoff, SeraMarrone, Daniel P.Plambeck, RichardWeintroub, JonathanDexter, MatthewMacMahon, David H. E.Wright, MelvynAlberdi, AntxonAlef, WalterAsada, KeiichiAzulay, RebeccaBaczko, Anne-KathrinBall, DavidBaloković, MislavBarausse, EnricoBarrett, JohnBintley, DanBoland, WilfredBouman, Katherine L.Bremer, MichaelBrinkerink, Christiaan D.Brissenden, RogerBritzen, SilkeBroguiere, DominiqueBronzwaer, ThomasByun, Do-YoungCarlstrom, John E.Chatterjee, ShamiChen, Ming-TangChen, YongjunCho, IljeChristian, PierreConway, John E.Cordes, James M.Crew, Geoffrey B.Cui, YuzhuDavelaar, JordyDe Laurentis, MariafeliciaeDeane, RogerDempsey, JessicaDesvignes, GregoryDzib, Sergio A.Eatough, Ralph P.Falcke, HeinoFomalont, EdFraga-Encinas, RaquelFriberg, PerFromm, Christian M.Galison, PeterGarcía, RobertoGentaz, OlivierGoddi, CiriacoGold, RomanGómez, José L.Gómez-Ruiz, Arturo I.Gu, MinfengGurwell, MarkHecht, Michael H.Hesper, RonaldHo, Luis C.Ho, PaulHonma, MarekiHuang, Chih-Wei L.Huang, LeiHughes, David H.Inoue, MakotoJames, David J.Jannuzi, Buell T.Janssen, MichaelJeter, BrittonJiang, WuJimenez-Rosales, AlejandraJorstad, SvetlanaJung, TaehyunKarami, MansourKaruppusamy, RameshKawashima, TomohisaKeating, Garrett K.Kettenis, MarkKim, Jae-YoungKim, JunhanKim, JongsooKino, MotokiKoay, Jun YiKoch, Patrick M.Koyama, ShokoKramer, MichaelKramer, CarstenKuo, Cheng-YuLauer, Tod R.Lee, Sang-SungLi, Yan-RongLi, ZhiyuanLindqvist, MichaelLico, RoccoLiu, KuoLiuzzo, ElisabettaLo, Wen-PingLobanov, Andrei P.Lonsdale, ColinMacDonald, Nicholas R.Mao, JirongMarchili, NicolaMarscher, Alan P.Martí-Vidal, IvánMatsushita, SatokiMatthews, Lynn D.Medeiros, LiaMenten, Karl M.Mizuno, YosukeMizuno, IzumiMoran, James M.Moriyama, KotaroMoscibrodzka, MonikaMüller, CorneliaMusoke, GibwaNagai, HiroshiNagar, Neil M.Nakamura, MasanoriNarayan, RameshNarayanan, GopalNatarajan, IniyanNathanail, AntoniosNeri, RobertoNi, ChunchongNoutsos, AristeidisOkino, HirokiOlivares, HéctorOrtiz-León, Gisela N.Oyama, TomoakiÖzel, FeryalPalumbo, Daniel C. M.Park, JonghoPatel, NimeshPen, Ue-LiPiétu, VincentPopStefanija, AleksandarPorth, OliverPrather, BenPreciado-López, Jorge A.Psaltis, DimitriosPu, Hung-YiRamakrishnan, VenkatesshRao, RamprasadRawlings, Mark G.Raymond, Alexander W.Rezzolla, LucianoRipperda, BartRoelofs, FreekRogers, AlanRos, EduardoRose, MelRoshanineshat, ArashRottmann, HelgeRoy, Alan L.Ruszczyk, ChetRyan, Benjamin R.Rygl, Kazi L. J.Sánchez, SalvadorSánchez-Arguelles, DavidSasada, MahitoSavolainen, TuomasSchloerb, F. PeterSchuster, Karl-FriedrichShao, LijingShen, ZhiqiangSmall, DesSohn, Bong WonSooHoo, JasonTazaki, FumieTiede, PaulTilanus, Remo P. J.Titus, MichaelToma, KenjiTorne, PabloTrent, TylerTraianou, EfthaliaTrippe, SaschaTsuda, Shuichirovan Bemmel, Ilsevan Langevelde, Huib Janvan Rossum, Daniel R.Wagner, JanWardle, JohnWard-Thompson, DerekWex, NorbertWharton, RobertWu, QingwenYoon, DoosooYoung, AndréYoung, KenYounsi, ZiriYuan, FengYuan, Ye-FeiZensus, J. AntonZhao, GuangyaoZhao, Shan-ShanZhu, ZiyanDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/abac0dv. 90167
Wielgus, Maciek, Akiyama, Kazunori, Blackburn, Lindy, Chan, Chi-kwan, Dexter, Jason, Doeleman, Sheperd S., Fish, Vincent L., Issaoun, Sara, Johnson, Michael D., Krichbaum, Thomas P., Lu, Ru-Sen, Pesce, Dominic W., Wong, George N., Bower, Geoffrey C., Broderick, Avery E., Chael, Andrew, Chatterjee, Koushik, Gammie, Charles F., Georgiev, Boris, Hada, Kazuhiro, Loinard, Laurent, Markoff, Sera, Marrone, Daniel P., Plambeck, Richard, Weintroub, Jonathan et al. 2020. "Monitoring the Morphology of M87* in 2009-2017 with the Event Horizon Telescope." The Astrophysical Journal 901:67. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/abac0d
ID: 157688
Type: article
Authors: Wielgus, Maciek; Akiyama, Kazunori; Blackburn, Lindy; Chan, Chi-kwan; Dexter, Jason; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Fish, Vincent L.; Issaoun, Sara; Johnson, Michael D.; Krichbaum, Thomas P.; Lu, Ru-Sen; Pesce, Dominic W.; Wong, George N.; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Broderick, Avery E.; Chael, Andrew; Chatterjee, Koushik; Gammie, Charles F.; Georgiev, Boris; Hada, Kazuhiro; Loinard, Laurent; Markoff, Sera; Marrone, Daniel P.; Plambeck, Richard; Weintroub, Jonathan; Dexter, Matthew; MacMahon, David H. E.; Wright, Melvyn; Alberdi, Antxon; Alef, Walter; Asada, Keiichi; Azulay, Rebecca; Baczko, Anne-Kathrin; Ball, David; Baloković, Mislav; Barausse, Enrico; Barrett, John; Bintley, Dan; Boland, Wilfred; Bouman, Katherine L.; Bremer, Michael; Brinkerink, Christiaan D.; Brissenden, Roger; Britzen, Silke; Broguiere, Dominique; Bronzwaer, Thomas; Byun, Do-Young; Carlstrom, John E.; Chatterjee, Shami; Chen, Ming-Tang; Chen, Yongjun; Cho, Ilje; Christian, Pierre; Conway, John E.; Cordes, James M.; Crew, Geoffrey B.; Cui, Yuzhu; Davelaar, Jordy; De Laurentis, Mariafeliciae; Deane, Roger; Dempsey, Jessica; Desvignes, Gregory; Dzib, Sergio A.; Eatough, Ralph P.; Falcke, Heino; Fomalont, Ed; Fraga-Encinas, Raquel; Friberg, Per; Fromm, Christian M.; Galison, Peter; García, Roberto; Gentaz, Olivier; Goddi, Ciriaco; Gold, Roman; Gómez, José L.; Gómez-Ruiz, Arturo I.; Gu, Minfeng; Gurwell, Mark; Hecht, Michael H.; Hesper, Ronald; Ho, Luis C.; Ho, Paul; Honma, Mareki; Huang, Chih-Wei L.; Huang, Lei; Hughes, David H.; Inoue, Makoto; James, David J.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Janssen, Michael; Jeter, Britton; Jiang, Wu; Jimenez-Rosales, Alejandra; Jorstad, Svetlana; Jung, Taehyun; Karami, Mansour; Karuppusamy, Ramesh; Kawashima, Tomohisa; Keating, Garrett K.; Kettenis, Mark; Kim, Jae-Young; Kim, Junhan; Kim, Jongsoo; Kino, Motoki; Koay, Jun Yi; Koch, Patrick M.; Koyama, Shoko; Kramer, Michael; Kramer, Carsten; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Lauer, Tod R.; Lee, Sang-Sung; Li, Yan-Rong; Li, Zhiyuan; Lindqvist, Michael; Lico, Rocco; Liu, Kuo; Liuzzo, Elisabetta; Lo, Wen-Ping; Lobanov, Andrei P.; Lonsdale, Colin; MacDonald, Nicholas R.; Mao, Jirong; Marchili, Nicola; Marscher, Alan P.; Martí-Vidal, Iván; Matsushita, Satoki; Matthews, Lynn D.; Medeiros, Lia; Menten, Karl M.; Mizuno, Yosuke; Mizuno, Izumi; Moran, James M.; Moriyama, Kotaro; Moscibrodzka, Monika; Müller, Cornelia; Musoke, Gibwa; Nagai, Hiroshi; Nagar, Neil M.; Nakamura, Masanori; Narayan, Ramesh; Narayanan, Gopal; Natarajan, Iniyan; Nathanail, Antonios; Neri, Roberto; Ni, Chunchong; Noutsos, Aristeidis; Okino, Hiroki; Olivares, Héctor; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Oyama, Tomoaki; Özel, Feryal; Palumbo, Daniel C. M.; Park, Jongho; Patel, Nimesh; Pen, Ue-Li; Piétu, Vincent; PopStefanija, Aleksandar; Porth, Oliver; Prather, Ben; Preciado-López, Jorge A.; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Pu, Hung-Yi; Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh; Rao, Ramprasad; Rawlings, Mark G.; Raymond, Alexander W.; Rezzolla, Luciano; Ripperda, Bart; Roelofs, Freek; Rogers, Alan; Ros, Eduardo; Rose, Mel; Roshanineshat, Arash; Rottmann, Helge; Roy, Alan L.; Ruszczyk, Chet; Ryan, Benjamin R.; Rygl, Kazi L. J.; Sánchez, Salvador; Sánchez-Arguelles, David; Sasada, Mahito; Savolainen, Tuomas; Schloerb, F. Peter; Schuster, Karl-Friedrich; Shao, Lijing; Shen, Zhiqiang; Small, Des; Sohn, Bong Won; SooHoo, Jason; Tazaki, Fumie; Tiede, Paul; Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Titus, Michael; Toma, Kenji; Torne, Pablo; Trent, Tyler; Traianou, Efthalia; Trippe, Sascha; Tsuda, Shuichiro; van Bemmel, Ilse; van Langevelde, Huib Jan; van Rossum, Daniel R.; Wagner, Jan; Wardle, John; Ward-Thompson, Derek; Wex, Norbert; Wharton, Robert; Wu, Qingwen; Yoon, Doosoo; Young, André; Young, Ken; Younsi, Ziri; Yuan, Feng; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Zensus, J. Anton; Zhao, Guangyao; Zhao, Shan-Shan; Zhu, Ziyan
Abstract: The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) has recently delivered the first resolved images of M87*, the supermassive black hole in the center of the M87 galaxy. These images were produced using 230 GHz observations performed in 2017 April. Additional observations are required to investigate the persistence of the primary image feature-a ring with azimuthal brightness asymmetry-and to quantify the image variability on event horizon scales. To address this need, we analyze M87* data collected with prototype EHT arrays in 2009, 2011, 2012, and 2013. While these observations do not contain enough information to produce images, they are sufficient to constrain simple geometric models. We develop a modeling approach based on the framework utilized for the 2017 EHT data analysis and validate our procedures using synthetic data. Applying the same approach to the observational data sets, we find the M87* morphology in 2009-2017 to be consistent with a persistent asymmetric ring of ∼40 μas diameter. The position angle of the peak intensity varies in time. In particular, we find a significant difference between the position angle measured in 2013 and 2017. These variations are in broad agreement with predictions of a subset of general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We show that quantifying the variability across multiple observational epochs has the potential to constrain the physical properties of the source, such as the accretion state or the black hole spin.
ALMA resolves the hourglass magnetic field in G31.41+0.31Beltrán, M. T.Padovani, M.Girart, J. M.Galli, D.Cesaroni, R.Paladino, R.Anglada, G.Estalella, R.Osorio, M.Rao, R.Sánchez-Monge, Á.Zhang, QizhouDOI: info:10.1051/0004-6361/201935701v. 630A54
Beltrán, M. T., Padovani, M., Girart, J. M., Galli, D., Cesaroni, R., Paladino, R., Anglada, G., Estalella, R., Osorio, M., Rao, R., Sánchez-Monge, Á., and Zhang, Qizhou. 2019. "ALMA resolves the hourglass magnetic field in G31.41+0.31." Astronomy and Astrophysics 630:A54. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201935701
ID: 154629
Type: article
Authors: Beltrán, M. T.; Padovani, M.; Girart, J. M.; Galli, D.; Cesaroni, R.; Paladino, R.; Anglada, G.; Estalella, R.; Osorio, M.; Rao, R.; Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Zhang, Qizhou
Abstract: Context. Submillimeter Array (SMA) 870 μm polarization observations of the hot molecular core G31.41+0.31 revealed one of the clearest examples up to date of an hourglass-shaped magnetic field morphology in a high- mass star-forming region.
Aims: To better establish the role that the magnetic field plays in the collapse of G31.41+0.31, we carried out Atacama Large Millimeter/ submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the polarized dust continuum emission at 1.3 mm with an angular resolution four times higher than that of the previous (sub)millimeter observations to achieve an unprecedented image of the magnetic field morphology.
Methods: We used ALMA to perform full polarization observations at 233 GHz (Band 6). The resulting synthesized beam is 0''.28×0''.20 which, at the distance of the source, corresponds to a spatial resolution of 875 au.
Results: The observations resolve the structure of the magnetic field in G31.41+0.31 and allow us to study the field in detail. The polarized emission in the Main core of G31.41+0.41is successfully fit with a semi-analytical magnetostatic model of a toroid supported by magnetic fields. The best fit model suggests that the magnetic field is well represented by a poloidal field with a possible contribution of a toroidal component of 10% of the poloidal component, oriented southeast to northwest at approximately -44° and with an inclination of approximately -45°. The magnetic field is oriented perpendicular to the northeast to southwest velocity gradient detected in this core on scales from 103 to 104 au. This supports the hypothesis that the velocity gradient is due to rotation of the core and suggests that such a rotation has little effect on the magnetic field. The strength of the magnetic field estimated in the central region of the core with the Davis-Chandrasekhar-Fermi method is 8-13 mG and implies that the mass-to-flux ratio in this region is slightly supercritical.
Conclusions: The magnetic field in G31.41+0.31 maintains an hourglass-shaped morphology down to scales of <1000 au. Despite the magnetic field being important in G31.41+0.31, it is not enough to prevent fragmentation and collapse of the core, as demonstrated by the presence of at least four sources embedded in the center of the core.
The reduced images of the Stokes I, Q, and U (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz- bin/cat/J/A+A/630/A54
The JCMT BISTRO Survey: The Magnetic Field of the Barnard 1 Star-forming RegionCoudé, SimonBastien, PierreHoude, MartinSadavoy, SarahFriesen, Racheldi Francesco, JamesJohnstone, DougMairs, SteveHasegawa, TetsuoKwon, WoojinLai, Shih-PingQiu, KepingWard-Thompson, DerekBerry, DavidChen, Michael Chun-YuanFiege, JasonFranzmann, EricaHatchell, JenniferLacaille, KevinMatthews, Brenda C.Moriarty-Schieven, Gerald H.Pon, AndyAndré, PhilippeArzoumanian, DorisAso, YusukeByun, Do-YoungEswaraiah, ChakaliChen, Huei-RuChen, Wen PingChing, Tao-ChungCho, JungyeonChoi, MinhoChrysostomou, AntonioChung, Eun JungDoi, YasuoDrabek-Maunder, EmilyDowell, C. DarrenEyres, Stewart P. S.Falle, SamFriberg, PerFuller, GaryFuruya, Ray S.Gledhill, TimGraves, Sarah F.Greaves, Jane S.Griffin, Matt J.Gu, QilaoHayashi, Saeko S.Hoang, ThiemHolland, WayneInoue, TsuyoshiInutsuka, Shu-ichiroIwasaki, KazunariJeong, Il-GyoKanamori, YoshihiroKataoka, AkimasaKang, Ji-hyunKang, MijuKang, Sung-juKawabata, Koji S.Kemper, FranciscaKim, GwanjeongKim, JongsooKim, Kee-TaeKim, Kyoung HeeKim, Mi-RyangKim, ShinyoungKirk, Jason M.Kobayashi, Masato I. N.Koch, Patrick M.Kwon, JungmiLee, Jeong-EunLee, Chang WonLee, Sang-SungLi, DaleiLi, DiLi, Hua-BaiLiu, Hong-LiLiu, JunhaoLiu, Sheng-YuanLiu, TieVan Loo, SvenLyo, A. -RanMatsumura, MasafumiNagata, TetsuyaNakamura, FumitakaNakanishi, HiroyukiOhashi, NagayoshiOnaka, TakashiParsons, HarrietPattle, KatePeretto, NicolasPyo, Tae-SooQian, LeiRao, RamprasadRawlings, Mark G.Retter, BrendanRicher, JohnRigby, AndrewRobitaille, Jean-FrançoisSaito, HiroSavini, GiorgioScaife, Anna M. M.Seta, MasumichiShinnaga, HirokoSoam, ArchanaTamura, MotohideTang, Ya-WenTomisaka, KohjiTsukamoto, YusukeWang, HongchiWang, Jia-WeiWhitworth, Anthony P.Yen, Hsi-WeiYoo, HyunjuYuan, JinghuaZenko, TetsuyaZhang, Chuan-PengZhang, GuoyinZhou, JianjunZhu, LeiThe B-fields In STar-forming Regions Observations (BISTRO CollaborationDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/ab1b23v. 87788
Coudé, Simon, Bastien, Pierre, Houde, Martin, Sadavoy, Sarah, Friesen, Rachel, di Francesco, James, Johnstone, Doug, Mairs, Steve, Hasegawa, Tetsuo, Kwon, Woojin, Lai, Shih-Ping, Qiu, Keping, Ward-Thompson, Derek, Berry, David, Chen, Michael Chun-Yuan, Fiege, Jason, Franzmann, Erica, Hatchell, Jennifer, Lacaille, Kevin, Matthews, Brenda C., Moriarty-Schieven, Gerald H., Pon, Andy, André, Philippe, Arzoumanian, Doris, Aso, Yusuke et al. 2019. "The JCMT BISTRO Survey: The Magnetic Field of the Barnard 1 Star-forming Region." The Astrophysical Journal 877:88. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab1b23
ID: 152904
Type: article
Authors: Coudé, Simon; Bastien, Pierre; Houde, Martin; Sadavoy, Sarah; Friesen, Rachel; di Francesco, James; Johnstone, Doug; Mairs, Steve; Hasegawa, Tetsuo; Kwon, Woojin; Lai, Shih-Ping; Qiu, Keping; Ward-Thompson, Derek; Berry, David; Chen, Michael Chun-Yuan; Fiege, Jason; Franzmann, Erica; Hatchell, Jennifer; Lacaille, Kevin; Matthews, Brenda C.; Moriarty-Schieven, Gerald H.; Pon, Andy; André, Philippe; Arzoumanian, Doris; Aso, Yusuke; Byun, Do-Young; Eswaraiah, Chakali; Chen, Huei-Ru; Chen, Wen Ping; Ching, Tao-Chung; Cho, Jungyeon; Choi, Minho; Chrysostomou, Antonio; Chung, Eun Jung; Doi, Yasuo; Drabek-Maunder, Emily; Dowell, C. Darren; Eyres, Stewart P. S.; Falle, Sam; Friberg, Per; Fuller, Gary; Furuya, Ray S.; Gledhill, Tim; Graves, Sarah F.; Greaves, Jane S.; Griffin, Matt J.; Gu, Qilao; Hayashi, Saeko S.; Hoang, Thiem; Holland, Wayne; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Iwasaki, Kazunari; Jeong, Il-Gyo; Kanamori, Yoshihiro; Kataoka, Akimasa; Kang, Ji-hyun; Kang, Miju; Kang, Sung-ju; Kawabata, Koji S.; Kemper, Francisca; Kim, Gwanjeong; Kim, Jongsoo; Kim, Kee-Tae; Kim, Kyoung Hee; Kim, Mi-Ryang; Kim, Shinyoung; Kirk, Jason M.; Kobayashi, Masato I. N.; Koch, Patrick M.; Kwon, Jungmi; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Chang Won; Lee, Sang-Sung; Li, Dalei; Li, Di; Li, Hua-Bai; Liu, Hong-Li; Liu, Junhao; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Liu, Tie; Van Loo, Sven; Lyo, A. -Ran; Matsumura, Masafumi; Nagata, Tetsuya; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Onaka, Takashi; Parsons, Harriet; Pattle, Kate; Peretto, Nicolas; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Qian, Lei; Rao, Ramprasad; Rawlings, Mark G.; Retter, Brendan; Richer, John; Rigby, Andrew; Robitaille, Jean-François; Saito, Hiro; Savini, Giorgio; Scaife, Anna M. M.; Seta, Masumichi; Shinnaga, Hiroko; Soam, Archana; Tamura, Motohide; Tang, Ya-Wen; Tomisaka, Kohji; Tsukamoto, Yusuke; Wang, Hongchi; Wang, Jia-Wei; Whitworth, Anthony P.; Yen, Hsi-Wei; Yoo, Hyunju; Yuan, Jinghua; Zenko, Tetsuya; Zhang, Chuan-Peng; Zhang, Guoyin; Zhou, Jianjun; Zhu, Lei; The B-fields In STar-forming Regions Observations (BISTRO Collaboration
Abstract: We present the POL-2 850 μm linear polarization map of the Barnard 1 clump in the Perseus molecular cloud complex from the B-fields In STar-forming Region Observations survey at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. We find a trend of decreasing polarization fraction as a function of total intensity, which we link to depolarization effects toward higher-density regions of the cloud. We then use the polarization data at 850 μm to infer the plane-of-sky orientation of the large-scale magnetic field in Barnard 1. This magnetic field runs north–south across most of the cloud, with the exception of B1-c, where it turns more east–west. From the dispersion of polarization angles, we calculate a turbulence correlation length of 5.0 ± 2.″5 (1500 au) and a turbulent-to-total magnetic energy ratio of 0.5 ± 0.3 inside the cloud. We combine this turbulent-to-total magnetic energy ratio with observations of NH3 molecular lines from the Green Bank Ammonia Survey to estimate the strength of the plane-of-sky component of the magnetic field through the Davis–Chandrasekhar–Fermi method. With a plane-of-sky amplitude of 120 ± 60 μG and a criticality criterion λ c = 3.0 ± 1.5, we find that Barnard 1 is a supercritical molecular cloud with a magnetic field nearly dominated by its turbulent component.
Characterizing Magnetic Field Morphologies in Three Serpens Protostellar Cores with ALMALe Gouellec, Valentin J. M.Hull, Charles L. H.Maury, Anaëlle J.Girart, Josep M.Tychoniec, ŁukaszKristensen, Lars E.Li, Zhi-YunLouvet, FabienCortes, Paulo C.Rao, RamprasadDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/ab43c2v. 885106
Le Gouellec, Valentin J. M., Hull, Charles L. H., Maury, Anaëlle J., Girart, Josep M., Tychoniec, Łukasz, Kristensen, Lars E., Li, Zhi-Yun, Louvet, Fabien, Cortes, Paulo C., and Rao, Ramprasad. 2019. "Characterizing Magnetic Field Morphologies in Three Serpens Protostellar Cores with ALMA." The Astrophysical Journal 885:106. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab43c2
ID: 154603
Type: article
Authors: Le Gouellec, Valentin J. M.; Hull, Charles L. H.; Maury, Anaëlle J.; Girart, Josep M.; Tychoniec, Łukasz; Kristensen, Lars E.; Li, Zhi-Yun; Louvet, Fabien; Cortes, Paulo C.; Rao, Ramprasad
Abstract: With the aim of characterizing the dynamical processes involved in the formation of young protostars, we present high-angular-resolution ALMA dust polarization observations of the Class 0 protostellar cores Serpens SMM1, Emb 8(N), and Emb 8. With spatial resolutions ranging from 150 to 40 au at 870 μm, we find unexpectedly high values of the polarization fraction along the outflow cavity walls in Serpens Emb 8(N). We use 3 mm and 1 mm molecular tracers to investigate outflow and dense-gas properties and their correlation with the polarization. These observations allow us to investigate the physical processes involved in the radiative alignment torques (RATs) acting on dust grains along the outflow cavity walls, which experience irradiation from accretion processes and outflow shocks. The inner core of SMM1-a presents a polarization pattern with a poloidal magnetic field at the bases of the two lobes of the bipolar outflow. To the south of SMM1-a we see two polarized filaments, one of which seems to trace the redshifted outflow cavity wall. The other may be an accretion streamer of material infalling onto the central protostar. We propose that the polarized emission we see at millimeter wavelengths along the irradiated cavity walls can be reconciled with the expectations of RAT theory if the aligned grains present at <500 au scales in Class 0 envelopes have grown larger than the 0.1 μm size of dust grains in the interstellar medium. Our observations allow us to constrain the magnetic field morphologies of star-forming sources within the central cores, along the outflow cavity walls, and in possible accretion streamers.
The JCMT BISTRO Survey: The Magnetic Field in the Starless Core ρ Ophiuchus CLiu, JunhaoQiu, KepingBerry, Daviddi Francesco, JamesBastien, PierreKoch, Patrick M.Furuya, Ray S.Kim, Kee-TaeCoudé, SimonLee, Chang WonSoam, ArchanaEswaraiah, ChakaliLi, DiHwang, JihyeLyo, A. -RanPattle, KateHasegawa, TetsuoKwon, WoojinLai, Shih-PingWard-Thompson, DerekChing, Tao-ChungChen, ZhiweiGu, QilaoLi, DaleiLi, Hua-BaiLiu, Hong-LiQian, LeiWang, HongchiYuan, JinghuaZhang, Chuan-PengZhang, GuoyinZhang, Ya-PengZhou, JianjunZhu, LeiAndré, PhilippeArzoumanian, DorisAso, YusukeByun, Do-YoungChen, Michael Chun-YuanChen, Huei-Ru VivienChen, Wen PingCho, JungyeonChoi, MinhoChrysostomou, AntonioChung, Eun JungDoi, YasuoDrabek-Maunder, EmilyDowell, C. DarrenEyres, Stewart P. S.Falle, SamFanciullo, LapoFiege, JasonFranzmann, EricaFriberg, PerFriesen, Rachel K.Fuller, GaryGledhill, TimGraves, Sarah F.Greaves, Jane S.Griffin, Matt J.Han, IlseungHatchell, JenniferHayashi, Saeko S.Hoang, ThiemHolland, WayneHoude, MartinInoue, TsuyoshiInutsuka, Shu-ichiroIwasaki, KazunariJeong, Il-GyoJohnstone, DougKanamori, YoshihiroKang, Ji-hyunKang, MijuKang, Sung-juKataoka, AkimasaKawabata, Koji S.Kemper, FranciscaKim, GwanjeongKim, JongsooKim, Kyoung HeeKim, Mi-RyangKim, ShinyoungKirk, Jason M.Kobayashi, Masato I. N.Kusune, TakayoshiKwon, JungmiLacaille, Kevin M.Lee, Chin-FeiLee, Jeong-EunLee, HyeseungLee, Sang-SungLiu, Sheng-YuanLiu, TieVan Loo, SvenMairs, SteveMatsumura, MasafumiMatthews, Brenda C.Moriarty-Schieven, Gerald H.Nagata, TetsuyaNakamura, FumitakaNakanishi, HiroyukiOhashi, NagayoshiOnaka, TakashiParker, JoshParsons, HarrietPascale, EnzoPeretto, NicolasPon, AndyPyo, Tae-SooRao, RamprasadRawlings, Mark G.Retter, BrendanRicher, JohnRigby, AndrewRobitaille, Jean-FrançoisSadavoy, SarahSaito, HiroSavini, GiorgioScaife, Anna M. M.Seta, MasumichiShinnaga, HirokoTamura, MotohideTang, Ya-WenTomisaka, KohjiTsukamoto, YusukeWang, Jia-WeiWhitworth, Anthony P.Yen, Hsi-WeiYoo, HyunjuZenko, TetsuyaDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/ab0958v. 87743
Liu, Junhao, Qiu, Keping, Berry, David, di Francesco, James, Bastien, Pierre, Koch, Patrick M., Furuya, Ray S., Kim, Kee-Tae, Coudé, Simon, Lee, Chang Won, Soam, Archana, Eswaraiah, Chakali, Li, Di, Hwang, Jihye, Lyo, A. -Ran, Pattle, Kate, Hasegawa, Tetsuo, Kwon, Woojin, Lai, Shih-Ping, Ward-Thompson, Derek, Ching, Tao-Chung, Chen, Zhiwei, Gu, Qilao, Li, Dalei, Li, Hua-Bai et al. 2019. "The JCMT BISTRO Survey: The Magnetic Field in the Starless Core ρ Ophiuchus C." The Astrophysical Journal 877:43. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab0958
ID: 151856
Type: article
Authors: Liu, Junhao; Qiu, Keping; Berry, David; di Francesco, James; Bastien, Pierre; Koch, Patrick M.; Furuya, Ray S.; Kim, Kee-Tae; Coudé, Simon; Lee, Chang Won; Soam, Archana; Eswaraiah, Chakali; Li, Di; Hwang, Jihye; Lyo, A. -Ran; Pattle, Kate; Hasegawa, Tetsuo; Kwon, Woojin; Lai, Shih-Ping; Ward-Thompson, Derek; Ching, Tao-Chung; Chen, Zhiwei; Gu, Qilao; Li, Dalei; Li, Hua-Bai; Liu, Hong-Li; Qian, Lei; Wang, Hongchi; Yuan, Jinghua; Zhang, Chuan-Peng; Zhang, Guoyin; Zhang, Ya-Peng; Zhou, Jianjun; Zhu, Lei; André, Philippe; Arzoumanian, Doris; Aso, Yusuke; Byun, Do-Young; Chen, Michael Chun-Yuan; Chen, Huei-Ru Vivien; Chen, Wen Ping; Cho, Jungyeon; Choi, Minho; Chrysostomou, Antonio; Chung, Eun Jung; Doi, Yasuo; Drabek-Maunder, Emily; Dowell, C. Darren; Eyres, Stewart P. S.; Falle, Sam; Fanciullo, Lapo; Fiege, Jason; Franzmann, Erica; Friberg, Per; Friesen, Rachel K.; Fuller, Gary; Gledhill, Tim; Graves, Sarah F.; Greaves, Jane S.; Griffin, Matt J.; Han, Ilseung; Hatchell, Jennifer; Hayashi, Saeko S.; Hoang, Thiem; Holland, Wayne; Houde, Martin; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Iwasaki, Kazunari; Jeong, Il-Gyo; Johnstone, Doug; Kanamori, Yoshihiro; Kang, Ji-hyun; Kang, Miju; Kang, Sung-ju; Kataoka, Akimasa; Kawabata, Koji S.; Kemper, Francisca; Kim, Gwanjeong; Kim, Jongsoo; Kim, Kyoung Hee; Kim, Mi-Ryang; Kim, Shinyoung; Kirk, Jason M.; Kobayashi, Masato I. N.; Kusune, Takayoshi; Kwon, Jungmi; Lacaille, Kevin M.; Lee, Chin-Fei; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Hyeseung; Lee, Sang-Sung; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Liu, Tie; Van Loo, Sven; Mairs, Steve; Matsumura, Masafumi; Matthews, Brenda C.; Moriarty-Schieven, Gerald H.; Nagata, Tetsuya; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Onaka, Takashi; Parker, Josh; Parsons, Harriet; Pascale, Enzo; Peretto, Nicolas; Pon, Andy; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Rao, Ramprasad; Rawlings, Mark G.; Retter, Brendan; Richer, John; Rigby, Andrew; Robitaille, Jean-François; Sadavoy, Sarah; Saito, Hiro; Savini, Giorgio; Scaife, Anna M. M.; Seta, Masumichi; Shinnaga, Hiroko; Tamura, Motohide; Tang, Ya-Wen; Tomisaka, Kohji; Tsukamoto, Yusuke; Wang, Jia-Wei; Whitworth, Anthony P.; Yen, Hsi-Wei; Yoo, Hyunju; Zenko, Tetsuya
Abstract: We report 850 μm dust polarization observations of a low-mass (∼12 M ) starless core in the ρ Ophiuchus cloud, Ophiuchus C, made with the POL-2 instrument on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) as part of the JCMT B-fields In STar-forming Region Observations survey. We detect an ordered magnetic field projected on the plane of the sky in the starless core. The magnetic field across the ∼0.1 pc core shows a predominant northeast–southwest orientation centering between ∼40° and ∼100°, indicating that the field in the core is well aligned with the magnetic field in lower-density regions of the cloud probed by near-infrared observations and also the cloud-scale magnetic field traced by Planck observations. The polarization percentage (P) decreases with increasing total intensity (I), with a power-law index of ‑1.03 ± 0.05. We estimate the plane-of-sky field strength (B pos) using modified Davis–Chandrasekhar–Fermi methods based on structure function (SF), autocorrelation function (ACF), and unsharp masking (UM) analyses. We find that the estimates from the SF, ACF, and UM methods yield strengths of 103 ± 46 μG, 136 ± 69 μG, and 213 ± 115 μG, respectively. Our calculations suggest that the Ophiuchus C core is near magnetically critical or slightly magnetically supercritical (i.e., unstable to collapse). The total magnetic energy calculated from the SF method is comparable to the turbulent energy in Ophiuchus C, while the ACF method and the UM method only set upper limits for the total magnetic energy because of large uncertainties.
The Event Horizon General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Code Comparison ProjectPorth, OliverChatterjee, KoushikNarayan, RameshGammie, Charles F.Mizuno, YosukeAnninos, PeterBaker, John G.Bugli, MatteoChan, Chi-kwanDavelaar, JordyDel Zanna, LucaEtienne, Zachariah B.Fragile, P. ChrisKelly, Bernard J.Liska, MatthewMarkoff, SeraMcKinney, Jonathan C.Mishra, BhupendraNoble, Scott C.Olivares, HéctorPrather, BenRezzolla, LucianoRyan, Benjamin R.Stone, James M.Tomei, NiccolòWhite, Christopher J.Younsi, ZiriAkiyama, KazunoriAlberdi, AntxonAlef, WalterAsada, KeiichiAzulay, RebeccaBaczko, Anne-KathrinBall, DavidBaloković, MislavBarrett, JohnBintley, DanBlackburn, LindyBoland, WilfredBouman, Katherine L.Bower, Geoffrey C.Bremer, MichaelBrinkerink, Christiaan D.Brissenden, RogerBritzen, SilkeBroderick, Avery E.Broguiere, DominiqueBronzwaer, ThomasByun, Do-YoungCarlstrom, John E.Chael, AndrewChatterjee, ShamiChen, Ming-TangChen, YongjunCho, IljeChristian, PierreConway, John E.Cordes, James M.GeoffreyCrew, B.Cui, YuzhuDe Laurentis, MariafeliciaDeane, RogerDempsey, JessicaDesvignes, GregoryDoeleman, Sheperd S.Eatough, Ralph P.Falcke, HeinoFish, Vincent L.Fomalont, EdFraga-Encinas, RaquelFreeman, BillFriberg, PerFromm, Christian M.Gómez, José L.Galison, PeterGarcía, RobertoGentaz, OlivierGeorgiev, BorisGoddi, CiriacoGold, RomanGu, MinfengGurwell, MarkHada, KazuhiroHecht, Michael H.Hesper, RonaldHo, Luis C.Ho, PaulHonma, MarekiHuang, Chih-Wei L.Huang, LeiHughes, David H.Ikeda, ShiroInoue, MakotoIssaoun, SaraJames, David J.Jannuzi, Buell T.Janssen, MichaelJeter, BrittonJiang, WuJohnson, Michael D.Jorstad, SvetlanaJung, TaehyunKarami, MansourKaruppusamy, RameshKawashima, TomohisaKeating, Garrett K.Kettenis, MarkKim, Jae-YoungKim, JunhanKim, JongsooKino, MotokiKoay, Jun YiPatrickKoch, M.Koyama, ShokoKramer, MichaelKramer, CarstenKrichbaum, Thomas P.Kuo, Cheng-YuLauer, Tod R.Lee, Sang-SungLi, Yan-RongLi, ZhiyuanLindqvist, MichaelLiu, KuoLiuzzo, ElisabettaLo, Wen-PingLobanov, Andrei P.Loinard, LaurentLonsdale, ColinLu, Ru-SenMacDonald, Nicholas R.Mao, JirongMarrone, Daniel P.Marscher, Alan P.Martí-Vidal, IvánMatsushita, SatokiMatthews, Lynn D.Medeiros, LiaMenten, Karl M.Mizuno, IzumiMoran, James M.Moriyama, KotaroMoscibrodzka, MonikaMüller, CorneliaNagai, HiroshiNagar, Neil M.Nakamura, MasanoriNarayanan, GopalNatarajan, IniyanNeri, RobertoNi, ChunchongNoutsos, AristeidisOkino, HirokiOyama, TomoakiÖzel, FeryalPalumbo, Daniel C. M.Patel, NimeshPen, Ue-LiPesce, Dominic W.Piétu, VincentPlambeck, RichardPopStefanija, AleksandarPreciado-López, Jorge A.Psaltis, DimitriosPu, Hung-YiRamakrishnan, VenkatesshRao, RamprasadRawlings, Mark G.Raymond, Alexander W.Ripperda, BartRoelofs, FreekRogers, AlanRos, EduardoRose, MelRoshanineshat, ArashRottmann, HelgeRoy, Alan L.Ruszczyk, ChetRygl, Kazi L. J.Sánchez, SalvadorSánchez-Arguelles, DavidSasada, MahitoSavolainen, TuomasSchloerb, F. PeterSchuster, Karl-FriedrichShao, LijingShen, ZhiqiangSmall, DesSohn, Bong WonSooHoo, JasonTazaki, FumieTiede, PaulTilanus, Remo P. J.Titus, MichaelToma, KenjiTorne, PabloTrent, TylerTrippe, SaschaTsuda, Shuichirovan Bemmel, Ilsevan Langevelde, Huib Janvan Rossum, Daniel R.Wagner, JanWardle, JohnWeintroub, JonathanWex, NorbertWharton, RobertWielgus, MaciekWong, George N.Wu, QingwenYoung, KenYoung, AndréYuan, FengYuan, Ye-FeiZensus, J. AntonZhao, GuangyaoZhao, Shan-ShanZhu, ZiyanEvent Horizon Telescope CollaborationDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4365/ab29fdv. 24326
Porth, Oliver, Chatterjee, Koushik, Narayan, Ramesh, Gammie, Charles F., Mizuno, Yosuke, Anninos, Peter, Baker, John G., Bugli, Matteo, Chan, Chi-kwan, Davelaar, Jordy, Del Zanna, Luca, Etienne, Zachariah B., Fragile, P. Chris, Kelly, Bernard J., Liska, Matthew, Markoff, Sera, McKinney, Jonathan C., Mishra, Bhupendra, Noble, Scott C., Olivares, Héctor, Prather, Ben, Rezzolla, Luciano, Ryan, Benjamin R., Stone, James M., Tomei, Niccolò et al. 2019. "The Event Horizon General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Code Comparison Project." The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 243:26. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4365/ab29fd
ID: 154281
Type: article
Authors: Porth, Oliver; Chatterjee, Koushik; Narayan, Ramesh; Gammie, Charles F.; Mizuno, Yosuke; Anninos, Peter; Baker, John G.; Bugli, Matteo; Chan, Chi-kwan; Davelaar, Jordy; Del Zanna, Luca; Etienne, Zachariah B.; Fragile, P. Chris; Kelly, Bernard J.; Liska, Matthew; Markoff, Sera; McKinney, Jonathan C.; Mishra, Bhupendra; Noble, Scott C.; Olivares, Héctor; Prather, Ben; Rezzolla, Luciano; Ryan, Benjamin R.; Stone, James M.; Tomei, Niccolò; White, Christopher J.; Younsi, Ziri; Akiyama, Kazunori; Alberdi, Antxon; Alef, Walter; Asada, Keiichi; Azulay, Rebecca; Baczko, Anne-Kathrin; Ball, David; Baloković, Mislav; Barrett, John; Bintley, Dan; Blackburn, Lindy; Boland, Wilfred; Bouman, Katherine L.; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Bremer, Michael; Brinkerink, Christiaan D.; Brissenden, Roger; Britzen, Silke; Broderick, Avery E.; Broguiere, Dominique; Bronzwaer, Thomas; Byun, Do-Young; Carlstrom, John E.; Chael, Andrew; Chatterjee, Shami; Chen, Ming-Tang; Chen, Yongjun; Cho, Ilje; Christian, Pierre; Conway, John E.; Cordes, James M.; Geoffrey; Crew, B.; Cui, Yuzhu; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Deane, Roger; Dempsey, Jessica; Desvignes, Gregory; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Eatough, Ralph P.; Falcke, Heino; Fish, Vincent L.; Fomalont, Ed; Fraga-Encinas, Raquel; Freeman, Bill; Friberg, Per; Fromm, Christian M.; Gómez, José L.; Galison, Peter; García, Roberto; Gentaz, Olivier; Georgiev, Boris; Goddi, Ciriaco; Gold, Roman; Gu, Minfeng; Gurwell, Mark; Hada, Kazuhiro; Hecht, Michael H.; Hesper, Ronald; Ho, Luis C.; Ho, Paul; Honma, Mareki; Huang, Chih-Wei L.; Huang, Lei; Hughes, David H.; Ikeda, Shiro; Inoue, Makoto; Issaoun, Sara; James, David J.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Janssen, Michael; Jeter, Britton; Jiang, Wu; Johnson, Michael D.; Jorstad, Svetlana; Jung, Taehyun; Karami, Mansour; Karuppusamy, Ramesh; Kawashima, Tomohisa; Keating, Garrett K.; Kettenis, Mark; Kim, Jae-Young; Kim, Junhan; Kim, Jongsoo; Kino, Motoki; Koay, Jun Yi; Patrick; Koch, M.; Koyama, Shoko; Kramer, Michael; Kramer, Carsten; Krichbaum, Thomas P.; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Lauer, Tod R.; Lee, Sang-Sung; Li, Yan-Rong; Li, Zhiyuan; Lindqvist, Michael; Liu, Kuo; Liuzzo, Elisabetta; Lo, Wen-Ping; Lobanov, Andrei P.; Loinard, Laurent; Lonsdale, Colin; Lu, Ru-Sen; MacDonald, Nicholas R.; Mao, Jirong; Marrone, Daniel P.; Marscher, Alan P.; Martí-Vidal, Iván; Matsushita, Satoki; Matthews, Lynn D.; Medeiros, Lia; Menten, Karl M.; Mizuno, Izumi; Moran, James M.; Moriyama, Kotaro; Moscibrodzka, Monika; Müller, Cornelia; Nagai, Hiroshi; Nagar, Neil M.; Nakamura, Masanori; Narayanan, Gopal; Natarajan, Iniyan; Neri, Roberto; Ni, Chunchong; Noutsos, Aristeidis; Okino, Hiroki; Oyama, Tomoaki; Özel, Feryal; Palumbo, Daniel C. M.; Patel, Nimesh; Pen, Ue-Li; Pesce, Dominic W.; Piétu, Vincent; Plambeck, Richard; PopStefanija, Aleksandar; Preciado-López, Jorge A.; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Pu, Hung-Yi; Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh; Rao, Ramprasad; Rawlings, Mark G.; Raymond, Alexander W.; Ripperda, Bart; Roelofs, Freek; Rogers, Alan; Ros, Eduardo; Rose, Mel; Roshanineshat, Arash; Rottmann, Helge; Roy, Alan L.; Ruszczyk, Chet; Rygl, Kazi L. J.; Sánchez, Salvador; Sánchez-Arguelles, David; Sasada, Mahito; Savolainen, Tuomas; Schloerb, F. Peter; Schuster, Karl-Friedrich; Shao, Lijing; Shen, Zhiqiang; Small, Des; Sohn, Bong Won; SooHoo, Jason; Tazaki, Fumie; Tiede, Paul; Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Titus, Michael; Toma, Kenji; Torne, Pablo; Trent, Tyler; Trippe, Sascha; Tsuda, Shuichiro; van Bemmel, Ilse; van Langevelde, Huib Jan; van Rossum, Daniel R.; Wagner, Jan; Wardle, John; Weintroub, Jonathan; Wex, Norbert; Wharton, Robert; Wielgus, Maciek; Wong, George N.; Wu, Qingwen; Young, Ken; Young, André; Yuan, Feng; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Zensus, J. Anton; Zhao, Guangyao; Zhao, Shan-Shan; Zhu, Ziyan; Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration
Abstract: Recent developments in compact object astrophysics, especially the discovery of merging neutron stars by LIGO, the imaging of the black hole in M87 by the Event Horizon Telescope, and high- precision astrometry of the Galactic Center at close to the event horizon scale by the GRAVITY experiment motivate the development of numerical source models that solve the equations of general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD). Here we compare GRMHD solutions for the evolution of a magnetized accretion flow where turbulence is promoted by the magnetorotational instability from a set of nine GRMHD codes: Athena++, BHAC, Cosmos++, ECHO, H-AMR, iharm3D, HARM-Noble, IllinoisGRMHD, and KORAL. Agreement among the codes improves as resolution increases, as measured by a consistently applied, specially developed set of code performance metrics. We conclude that the community of GRMHD codes is mature, capable, and consistent on these test problems.
JCMT BISTRO Survey: Magnetic Fields within the Hub-filament Structure in IC 5146Wang, Jia-WeiLai, Shih-PingEswaraiah, ChakaliPattle, Katedi Francesco, JamesJohnstone, DougKoch, Patrick M.Liu, TieTamura, MotohideFuruya, Ray S.Onaka, TakashiWard-Thompson, DerekSoam, ArchanaKim, Kee-TaeLee, Chang WonLee, Chin-FeiMairs, SteveArzoumanian, DorisKim, GwanjeongHoang, ThiemHwang, JihyeLiu, Sheng-YuanBerry, DavidBastien, PierreHasegawa, TetsuoKwon, WoojinQiu, KepingAndré, PhilippeAso, YusukeByun, Do-YoungChen, Huei-RuChen, Michael C.Chen, Wen PingChing, Tao-ChungCho, JungyeonChoi, MinhoChrysostomou, AntonioChung, Eun JungCoudé, SimonDoi, YasuoDowell, C. DarrenDrabek-Maunder, EmilyDuan, Hao-YuanEyres, Stewart P. S.Falle, SamFanciullo, LapoFiege, JasonFranzmann, EricaFriberg, PerFriesen, Rachel K.Fuller, GaryGledhill, TimGraves, Sarah F.Greaves, Jane S.Griffin, Matt J.Gu, QilaoHan, IlseungHatchell, JenniferHayashi, Saeko S.Holland, WayneHoude, MartinInoue, TsuyoshiInutsuka, Shu-ichiroIwasaki, KazunariJeong, Il-GyoKanamori, YoshihiroKang, Ji-hyunKang, MijuKang, Sung-juKataoka, AkimasaKawabata, Koji S.Kemper, FranciscaKim, JongsooKim, Kyoung HeeKim, Mi-RyangKim, ShinyoungKirk, Jason M.Kobayashi, Masato I. N.Konyves, VeraKwon, JungmiLacaille, Kevin M.Lee, HyeseungLee, Jeong-EunLee, Sang-SungLee, Yong-HeeLi, DaleiLi, DiLi, Hua-BaiLiu, Hong-LiLiu, JunhaoLyo, A. -RanMatsumura, MasafumiMatthews, Brenda C.Moriarty-Schieven, Gerald H.Nagata, TetsuyaNakamura, FumitakaNakanishi, HiroyukiOhashi, NagayoshiPark, GeumsookParsons, HarrietPascale, EnzoPeretto, NicolasPon, AndyPyo, Tae-SooQian, LeiRao, RamprasadRawlings, Mark G.Retter, BrendanRicher, JohnRigby, AndrewRobitaille, Jean-FrançoisSadavoy, SarahSaito, HiroSavini, GiorgioScaife, Anna M. M.Seta, MasumichiShinnaga, HirokoTang, Ya-WenTomisaka, KohjiTsukamoto, YusukeVan Loo, SvenWang, HongchiWhitworth, Anthony P.Yen, Hsi-WeiYoo, HyunjuYuan, JinghuaYun, Hyeong-SikZenko, TetsuyaZhang, Chuan-PengZhang, GuoyinZhang, Ya-PengZhou, JianjunZhu, LeiDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/ab13a2v. 87642
Wang, Jia-Wei, Lai, Shih-Ping, Eswaraiah, Chakali, Pattle, Kate, di Francesco, James, Johnstone, Doug, Koch, Patrick M., Liu, Tie, Tamura, Motohide, Furuya, Ray S., Onaka, Takashi, Ward-Thompson, Derek, Soam, Archana, Kim, Kee-Tae, Lee, Chang Won, Lee, Chin-Fei, Mairs, Steve, Arzoumanian, Doris, Kim, Gwanjeong, Hoang, Thiem, Hwang, Jihye, Liu, Sheng-Yuan, Berry, David, Bastien, Pierre, Hasegawa, Tetsuo et al. 2019. "JCMT BISTRO Survey: Magnetic Fields within the Hub-filament Structure in IC 5146." The Astrophysical Journal 876:42. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab13a2
ID: 151857
Type: article
Authors: Wang, Jia-Wei; Lai, Shih-Ping; Eswaraiah, Chakali; Pattle, Kate; di Francesco, James; Johnstone, Doug; Koch, Patrick M.; Liu, Tie; Tamura, Motohide; Furuya, Ray S.; Onaka, Takashi; Ward-Thompson, Derek; Soam, Archana; Kim, Kee-Tae; Lee, Chang Won; Lee, Chin-Fei; Mairs, Steve; Arzoumanian, Doris; Kim, Gwanjeong; Hoang, Thiem; Hwang, Jihye; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Berry, David; Bastien, Pierre; Hasegawa, Tetsuo; Kwon, Woojin; Qiu, Keping; André, Philippe; Aso, Yusuke; Byun, Do-Young; Chen, Huei-Ru; Chen, Michael C.; Chen, Wen Ping; Ching, Tao-Chung; Cho, Jungyeon; Choi, Minho; Chrysostomou, Antonio; Chung, Eun Jung; Coudé, Simon; Doi, Yasuo; Dowell, C. Darren; Drabek-Maunder, Emily; Duan, Hao-Yuan; Eyres, Stewart P. S.; Falle, Sam; Fanciullo, Lapo; Fiege, Jason; Franzmann, Erica; Friberg, Per; Friesen, Rachel K.; Fuller, Gary; Gledhill, Tim; Graves, Sarah F.; Greaves, Jane S.; Griffin, Matt J.; Gu, Qilao; Han, Ilseung; Hatchell, Jennifer; Hayashi, Saeko S.; Holland, Wayne; Houde, Martin; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Iwasaki, Kazunari; Jeong, Il-Gyo; Kanamori, Yoshihiro; Kang, Ji-hyun; Kang, Miju; Kang, Sung-ju; Kataoka, Akimasa; Kawabata, Koji S.; Kemper, Francisca; Kim, Jongsoo; Kim, Kyoung Hee; Kim, Mi-Ryang; Kim, Shinyoung; Kirk, Jason M.; Kobayashi, Masato I. N.; Konyves, Vera; Kwon, Jungmi; Lacaille, Kevin M.; Lee, Hyeseung; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Sang-Sung; Lee, Yong-Hee; Li, Dalei; Li, Di; Li, Hua-Bai; Liu, Hong-Li; Liu, Junhao; Lyo, A. -Ran; Matsumura, Masafumi; Matthews, Brenda C.; Moriarty-Schieven, Gerald H.; Nagata, Tetsuya; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Park, Geumsook; Parsons, Harriet; Pascale, Enzo; Peretto, Nicolas; Pon, Andy; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Qian, Lei; Rao, Ramprasad; Rawlings, Mark G.; Retter, Brendan; Richer, John; Rigby, Andrew; Robitaille, Jean-François; Sadavoy, Sarah; Saito, Hiro; Savini, Giorgio; Scaife, Anna M. M.; Seta, Masumichi; Shinnaga, Hiroko; Tang, Ya-Wen; Tomisaka, Kohji; Tsukamoto, Yusuke; Van Loo, Sven; Wang, Hongchi; Whitworth, Anthony P.; Yen, Hsi-Wei; Yoo, Hyunju; Yuan, Jinghua; Yun, Hyeong-Sik; Zenko, Tetsuya; Zhang, Chuan-Peng; Zhang, Guoyin; Zhang, Ya-Peng; Zhou, Jianjun; Zhu, Lei
Abstract: We present the 850 μm polarization observations toward the IC 5146 filamentary cloud taken using the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array 2 (SCUBA-2) and its associated polarimeter (POL-2), mounted on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, as part of the B-fields In STar forming Regions Observations. This work is aimed at revealing the magnetic field morphology within a core-scale (≲1.0 pc) hub-filament structure (HFS) located at the end of a parsec-scale filament. To investigate whether the observed polarization traces the magnetic field in the HFS, we analyze the dependence between the observed polarization fraction and total intensity using a Bayesian approach with the polarization fraction described by the Rice likelihood function, which can correctly describe the probability density function of the observed polarization fraction for low signal-to-noise ratio data. We find a power-law dependence between the polarization fraction and total intensity with an index of 0.56 in A V ∼ 20–300 mag regions, suggesting that the dust grains in these dense regions can still be aligned with magnetic fields in the IC 5146 regions. Our polarization maps reveal a curved magnetic field, possibly dragged by the contraction along the parsec-scale filament. We further obtain a magnetic field strength of 0.5 ± 0.2 mG toward the central hub using the Davis–Chandrasekhar–Fermi method, corresponding to a mass-to-flux criticality of ∼1.3 ± 0.4 and an Alfvénic Mach number of <0.6. These results suggest that gravity and magnetic field are currently of comparable importance in the HFS and that turbulence is less important.
ALMA Polarimetry of Sgr A*: Probing the Accretion Flow from the Event Horizon to the Bondi RadiusBower, Geoffrey C.Broderick, AveryDexter, JasonDoeleman, ShepherdFalcke, HeinoFish, VincentJohnson, Michael D.Marrone, Daniel P.Moran, James M.Moscibrodzka, MonikaPeck, AlisonPlambeck, Richard L.Rao, RamprasadDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/aae983v. 868101
Bower, Geoffrey C., Broderick, Avery, Dexter, Jason, Doeleman, Shepherd, Falcke, Heino, Fish, Vincent, Johnson, Michael D., Marrone, Daniel P., Moran, James M., Moscibrodzka, Monika, Peck, Alison, Plambeck, Richard L., and Rao, Ramprasad. 2018. "ALMA Polarimetry of Sgr A*: Probing the Accretion Flow from the Event Horizon to the Bondi Radius." The Astrophysical Journal 868:101. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aae983
ID: 150178
Type: article
Authors: Bower, Geoffrey C.; Broderick, Avery; Dexter, Jason; Doeleman, Shepherd; Falcke, Heino; Fish, Vincent; Johnson, Michael D.; Marrone, Daniel P.; Moran, James M.; Moscibrodzka, Monika; Peck, Alison; Plambeck, Richard L.; Rao, Ramprasad
Abstract: Millimeter polarimetry of Sgr A* probes the linearly polarized emission region on a scale of ∼10 Schwarzschild radii (R S ), as well as the dense, magnetized accretion flow on scales out to the Bondi radius (∼105 R S ) through Faraday rotation. We present here multi-epoch ALMA Band 6 (230 GHz) polarimetry of Sgr A*. The results confirm a mean rotation measure, {RM}≈ -5× {10}5 {rad} {{{m}}}-2, consistent with measurements over the past 20 yr, and support an interpretation of the RM as originating from a radiatively inefficient accretion flow with \dot{M}≈ {10}-8 {M}ȯ {yr}}-1. Variability is observed for the first time in the RM on timescales that range from hours to months. The long-term variations may be the result of changes in the line-of-sight properties in a turbulent accretion flow. Short-term variations in the apparent RM are not necessarily the result of Faraday rotation and may be the result of complex emission and propagatation effects close to the black hole, some of which have been predicted in numerical modeling. We also confirm the detection of circular polarization at a mean value of ‑1.1% ± 0.2%. It is variable in amplitude on timescales from hours to months, but the handedness remains unchanged from that observed in past centimeter- and millimeter-wavelength detections. These results provide critical constraints for the analysis and interpretation of Event Horizon Telescope data of Sgr A*, M87, and similar sources.
SMA observations of polarized dust emission in solar-type Class 0 protostars: Magnetic field properties at envelope scalesGalametz, MaudMaury, AnaëlleGirart, Josep M.Rao, RamprasadZhang, QizhouGaudel, MathildeValdivia, ValeskaKeto, EricLai, Shih-PingDOI: info:10.1051/0004-6361/201833004v. 616A139
Galametz, Maud, Maury, Anaëlle, Girart, Josep M., Rao, Ramprasad, Zhang, Qizhou, Gaudel, Mathilde, Valdivia, Valeska, Keto, Eric, and Lai, Shih-Ping. 2018. "SMA observations of polarized dust emission in solar-type Class 0 protostars: Magnetic field properties at envelope scales." Astronomy and Astrophysics 616:A139. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201833004
ID: 149192
Type: article
Authors: Galametz, Maud; Maury, Anaëlle; Girart, Josep M.; Rao, Ramprasad; Zhang, Qizhou; Gaudel, Mathilde; Valdivia, Valeska; Keto, Eric; Lai, Shih-Ping
Abstract:
Aims: Although from a theoretical point of view magnetic fields are believed to play a significant role during the early stages of star formation, especially during the main accretion phase, the magnetic field strength and topology is poorly constrained in the youngest accreting Class 0 protostars that lead to the formation of solar-type stars.
Methods: We carried out observations of the polarized dust continuum emission with the SMA interferometer at 0.87 mm to probe the structure of the magnetic field in a sample of 12 low-mass Class 0 envelopes in nearby clouds, including both single protostars and multiple systems. Our SMA observations probed the envelope emission at scales 600 - 5000 au with a spatial resolution ranging from 600 to 1500 au depending on the source distance.
Results: We report the detection of linearly polarized dust continuum emission in all of our targets with average polarization fractions ranging from 2% to 10% in these protostellar envelopes. The polarization fraction decreases with the continuum flux density, which translates into a decrease with the H2 column density within an individual envelope. Our analysis show that the envelope-scale magnetic field is preferentially observed either aligned or perpendicular to the outflow direction. Interestingly, our results suggest for the first time a relation between the orientation of the magnetic field and the rotational energy of envelopes, with a larger occurrence of misalignment in sources in which strong rotational motions are detected at hundreds to thousands of au scales. We also show that the best agreement between the magnetic field and outflow orientation is found in sources showing no small-scale multiplicity and no large disks at 100 au scales.
A First Look at BISTRO Observations of the rho Oph-A coreKwon, JungmiDoi, YasuoTamura, MotohideMatsumura, MasafumiPattle, KateBerry, DavidSadavoy, SarahMatthews, Brenda C.Ward-Thompson, DerekHasegawa, TetsuoFuruya, Ray S.Pon, Andydi Francesco, JamesArzoumanian, DorisHayashi, Saeko S.Kawabata, Koji S.Onaka, TakashiChoi, MinhoKang, MijuHoang, ThiemLee, Chang WonLee, Sang-SungLiu, Hong-LiLiu, TieInutsuka, Shu-ichiroEswaraiah, ChakaliBastien, PierreKwon, WoojinLai, Shih-PingQiu, KepingCoudé, SimonFranzmann, EricaFriberg, PerGraves, Sarah F.Greaves, Jane S.Houde, MartinJohnstone, DougKirk, Jason M.Koch, Patrick M.Li, DiParsons, HarrietRao, RamprasadRawlings, Mark G.Shinnaga, HirokoVan Loo, SvenAso, YusukeByun, Do-YoungChen, Huei-RuChen, Mike C. -YChen, Wen PingChing, Tao-ChungCho, JungyeonChrysostomou, AntonioChung, Eun JungDrabek-Maunder, EmilyEyres, Stewart P. S.Fiege, JasonFriesen, Rachel K.Fuller, GaryGledhill, TimGriffin, Matt J.Gu, QilaoHatchell, JenniferHolland, WayneInoue, TsuyoshiIwasaki, KazunariJeong, Il-GyoKang, Ji-hyunKang, Sung-juKemper, FranciscaKim, GwanjeongKim, JongsooKim, Kee-TaeKim, Kyoung HeeKim, Mi-RyangKim, ShinyoungLacaille, Kevin M.Lee, Jeong-EunLi, DaleiLi, Hua-BaiLiu, JunhaoLiu, Sheng-YuanLyo, A. -RanMairs, SteveMoriarty-Schieven, Gerald H.Nakamura, FumitakaNakanishi, HiroyukiOhashi, NagayoshiPeretto, NicolasPyo, Tae-SooQian, LeiRetter, BrendanRicher, JohnRigby, AndrewRobitaille, Jean-FranoisSavini, GiorgioScaife, Anna M. M.Soam, ArchanaTang, Ya-WenTomisaka, KohjiWang, HongchiWang, Jia-WeiWhitworth, Anthony P.Yen, Hsi-WeiYoo, HyunjuYuan, JinghuaZhang, Chuan-PengZhang, GuoyinZhou, JianjunZhu, LeiAndré, PhilippeDowell, C. DarrenFalle, SamTsukamoto, YusukeNakagawa, TakaoKanamori, YoshihiroKataoka, AkimasaKobayashi, Masato I. N.Nagata, TetsuyaSaito, HiroSeta, MasumichiZenko, TetsuyaDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/aabd82v. 8594
Kwon, Jungmi, Doi, Yasuo, Tamura, Motohide, Matsumura, Masafumi, Pattle, Kate, Berry, David, Sadavoy, Sarah, Matthews, Brenda C., Ward-Thompson, Derek, Hasegawa, Tetsuo, Furuya, Ray S., Pon, Andy, di Francesco, James, Arzoumanian, Doris, Hayashi, Saeko S., Kawabata, Koji S., Onaka, Takashi, Choi, Minho, Kang, Miju, Hoang, Thiem, Lee, Chang Won, Lee, Sang-Sung, Liu, Hong-Li, Liu, Tie, Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro et al. 2018. "A First Look at BISTRO Observations of the rho Oph-A core." The Astrophysical Journal 859:4. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aabd82
ID: 147424
Type: article
Authors: Kwon, Jungmi; Doi, Yasuo; Tamura, Motohide; Matsumura, Masafumi; Pattle, Kate; Berry, David; Sadavoy, Sarah; Matthews, Brenda C.; Ward-Thompson, Derek; Hasegawa, Tetsuo; Furuya, Ray S.; Pon, Andy; di Francesco, James; Arzoumanian, Doris; Hayashi, Saeko S.; Kawabata, Koji S.; Onaka, Takashi; Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju; Hoang, Thiem; Lee, Chang Won; Lee, Sang-Sung; Liu, Hong-Li; Liu, Tie; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Eswaraiah, Chakali; Bastien, Pierre; Kwon, Woojin; Lai, Shih-Ping; Qiu, Keping; Coudé, Simon; Franzmann, Erica; Friberg, Per; Graves, Sarah F.; Greaves, Jane S.; Houde, Martin; Johnstone, Doug; Kirk, Jason M.; Koch, Patrick M.; Li, Di; Parsons, Harriet; Rao, Ramprasad; Rawlings, Mark G.; Shinnaga, Hiroko; Van Loo, Sven; Aso, Yusuke; Byun, Do-Young; Chen, Huei-Ru; Chen, Mike C. -Y; Chen, Wen Ping; Ching, Tao-Chung; Cho, Jungyeon; Chrysostomou, Antonio; Chung, Eun Jung; Drabek-Maunder, Emily; Eyres, Stewart P. S.; Fiege, Jason; Friesen, Rachel K.; Fuller, Gary; Gledhill, Tim; Griffin, Matt J.; Gu, Qilao; Hatchell, Jennifer; Holland, Wayne; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Iwasaki, Kazunari; Jeong, Il-Gyo; Kang, Ji-hyun; Kang, Sung-ju; Kemper, Francisca; Kim, Gwanjeong; Kim, Jongsoo; Kim, Kee-Tae; Kim, Kyoung Hee; Kim, Mi-Ryang; Kim, Shinyoung; Lacaille, Kevin M.; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Li, Dalei; Li, Hua-Bai; Liu, Junhao; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Lyo, A. -Ran; Mairs, Steve; Moriarty-Schieven, Gerald H.; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Peretto, Nicolas; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Qian, Lei; Retter, Brendan; Richer, John; Rigby, Andrew; Robitaille, Jean-Franois; Savini, Giorgio; Scaife, Anna M. M.; Soam, Archana; Tang, Ya-Wen; Tomisaka, Kohji; Wang, Hongchi; Wang, Jia-Wei; Whitworth, Anthony P.; Yen, Hsi-Wei; Yoo, Hyunju; Yuan, Jinghua; Zhang, Chuan-Peng; Zhang, Guoyin; Zhou, Jianjun; Zhu, Lei; André, Philippe; Dowell, C. Darren; Falle, Sam; Tsukamoto, Yusuke; Nakagawa, Takao; Kanamori, Yoshihiro; Kataoka, Akimasa; Kobayashi, Masato I. N.; Nagata, Tetsuya; Saito, Hiro; Seta, Masumichi; Zenko, Tetsuya
Abstract: We present 850 mum imaging polarimetry data of the rho Oph-A core taken with the Submillimeter Common-User Bolometer Array-2 (SCUBA-2) and its polarimeter (POL-2) as part of our ongoing survey project, {\boldsymbol{B}}-fields In STar forming RegiOns (BISTRO). The polarization vectors are used to identify the orientation of the magnetic field projected on the plane of the sky at a resolution of 0.01 pc. We identify 10 subregions with distinct polarization fractions and angles in the 0.2 pc rho Oph-A core; some of them can be part of a coherent magnetic field structure in the rho Oph region. The results are consistent with previous observations of the brightest regions of rho Oph-A, where the degrees of polarization are at a level of a few percent, but our data reveal for the first time the magnetic field structures in the fainter regions surrounding the core where the degree of polarization is much higher (>5%). A comparison with previous near-infrared polarimetric data shows that there are several magnetic field components that are consistent at near-infrared and submillimeter wavelengths. Using the Davis--Chandrasekhar--Fermi method, we also derive magnetic field strengths in several subcore regions, which range from approximately 0.2 to 5 mG. We also find a correlation between the magnetic field orientations projected on the sky and the core centroid velocity components.
Magnetic Fields toward Ophiuchus-B Derived from SCUBA-2 Polarization MeasurementsSoam, ArchanaPattle, KateWard-Thompson, DerekLee, Chang WonSadavoy, SarahKoch, Patrick M.Kim, GwanjeongKwon, JungmiKwon, WoojinArzoumanian, DorisBerry, DavidHoang, ThiemTamura, MotohideLee, Sang-SungLiu, TieKim, Kee-TaeJohnstone, DougNakamura, FumitakaLyo, A. -RanOnaka, TakashiKim, JongsooFuruya, Ray S.Hasegawa, TetsuoLai, Shih-PingBastien, PierreChung, Eun JungKim, ShinyoungParsons, HarrietRawlings, Mark G.Mairs, SteveGraves, Sarah F.Robitaille, Jean-FranoisLiu, Hong-LiWhitworth, Anthony P.Eswaraiah, ChakaliRao, RamprasadYoo, HyunjuHoude, MartinKang, Ji-hyunDoi, YasuoChoi, MinhoKang, MijuCoudé, SimonLi, Hua-BaiMatsumura, MasafumiMatthews, Brenda C.Pon, Andydi Francesco, JamesHayashi, Saeko S.Kawabata, Koji S.Inutsuka, Shu-ichiroQiu, KepingFranzmann, EricaFriberg, PerGreaves, Jane S.Kirk, Jason M.Li, DiShinnaga, HirokoVan Loo, SvenAso, YusukeByun, Do-YoungChen, Huei-RuChen, Mike C. -YChen, Wen PingChing, Tao-ChungCho, JungyeonChrysostomou, AntonioDrabek-Maunder, EmilyEyres, Stewart P. S.Fiege, JasonFriesen, Rachel K.Fuller, GaryGledhill, TimGriffin, Matt J.Gu, QilaoHatchell, JenniferHolland, WayneInoue, TsuyoshiIwasaki, KazunariJeong, Il-GyoKang, Sung-juKemper, FranciscaKim, Kyoung HeeKim, Mi-RyangLacaille, Kevin M.Lee, Jeong-EunLi, DaleiLiu, JunhaoLiu, Sheng-YuanMoriarty-Schieven, Gerald H.Nakanishi, HiroyukiOhashi, NagayoshiPeretto, NicolasPyo, Tae-SooQian, LeiRetter, BrendanRicher, JohnRigby, AndrewSavini, GiorgioScaife, Anna M. M.Tang, Ya-WenTomisaka, KohjiWang, HongchiWang, Jia-WeiYen, Hsi-WeiYuan, JinghuaZhang, Chuan-PengZhang, GuoyinZhou, JianjunZhu, LeiAndré, PhilippeDowell, C. DarrenFalle, SamTsukamoto, YusukeKanamori, YoshihiroKataoka, AkimasaKobayashi, Masato I. N.Nagata, TetsuyaSaito, HiroSeta, MasumichiHwang, JihyeHan, IlseungLee, HyeseungZenko, TetsuyaDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/aac4a6v. 86165
Soam, Archana, Pattle, Kate, Ward-Thompson, Derek, Lee, Chang Won, Sadavoy, Sarah, Koch, Patrick M., Kim, Gwanjeong, Kwon, Jungmi, Kwon, Woojin, Arzoumanian, Doris, Berry, David, Hoang, Thiem, Tamura, Motohide, Lee, Sang-Sung, Liu, Tie, Kim, Kee-Tae, Johnstone, Doug, Nakamura, Fumitaka, Lyo, A. -Ran, Onaka, Takashi, Kim, Jongsoo, Furuya, Ray S., Hasegawa, Tetsuo, Lai, Shih-Ping, Bastien, Pierre et al. 2018. "Magnetic Fields toward Ophiuchus-B Derived from SCUBA-2 Polarization Measurements." The Astrophysical Journal 861:65. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aac4a6
ID: 147915
Type: article
Authors: Soam, Archana; Pattle, Kate; Ward-Thompson, Derek; Lee, Chang Won; Sadavoy, Sarah; Koch, Patrick M.; Kim, Gwanjeong; Kwon, Jungmi; Kwon, Woojin; Arzoumanian, Doris; Berry, David; Hoang, Thiem; Tamura, Motohide; Lee, Sang-Sung; Liu, Tie; Kim, Kee-Tae; Johnstone, Doug; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Lyo, A. -Ran; Onaka, Takashi; Kim, Jongsoo; Furuya, Ray S.; Hasegawa, Tetsuo; Lai, Shih-Ping; Bastien, Pierre; Chung, Eun Jung; Kim, Shinyoung; Parsons, Harriet; Rawlings, Mark G.; Mairs, Steve; Graves, Sarah F.; Robitaille, Jean-Franois; Liu, Hong-Li; Whitworth, Anthony P.; Eswaraiah, Chakali; Rao, Ramprasad; Yoo, Hyunju; Houde, Martin; Kang, Ji-hyun; Doi, Yasuo; Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju; Coudé, Simon; Li, Hua-Bai; Matsumura, Masafumi; Matthews, Brenda C.; Pon, Andy; di Francesco, James; Hayashi, Saeko S.; Kawabata, Koji S.; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Qiu, Keping; Franzmann, Erica; Friberg, Per; Greaves, Jane S.; Kirk, Jason M.; Li, Di; Shinnaga, Hiroko; Van Loo, Sven; Aso, Yusuke; Byun, Do-Young; Chen, Huei-Ru; Chen, Mike C. -Y; Chen, Wen Ping; Ching, Tao-Chung; Cho, Jungyeon; Chrysostomou, Antonio; Drabek-Maunder, Emily; Eyres, Stewart P. S.; Fiege, Jason; Friesen, Rachel K.; Fuller, Gary; Gledhill, Tim; Griffin, Matt J.; Gu, Qilao; Hatchell, Jennifer; Holland, Wayne; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Iwasaki, Kazunari; Jeong, Il-Gyo; Kang, Sung-ju; Kemper, Francisca; Kim, Kyoung Hee; Kim, Mi-Ryang; Lacaille, Kevin M.; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Li, Dalei; Liu, Junhao; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Moriarty-Schieven, Gerald H.; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Peretto, Nicolas; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Qian, Lei; Retter, Brendan; Richer, John; Rigby, Andrew; Savini, Giorgio; Scaife, Anna M. M.; Tang, Ya-Wen; Tomisaka, Kohji; Wang, Hongchi; Wang, Jia-Wei; Yen, Hsi-Wei; Yuan, Jinghua; Zhang, Chuan-Peng; Zhang, Guoyin; Zhou, Jianjun; Zhu, Lei; André, Philippe; Dowell, C. Darren; Falle, Sam; Tsukamoto, Yusuke; Kanamori, Yoshihiro; Kataoka, Akimasa; Kobayashi, Masato I. N.; Nagata, Tetsuya; Saito, Hiro; Seta, Masumichi; Hwang, Jihye; Han, Ilseung; Lee, Hyeseung; Zenko, Tetsuya
Abstract: We present the results of dust emission polarization measurements of Ophiuchus-B (Oph-B) carried out using the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array 2 (SCUBA-2) camera with its associated polarimeter (POL-2) on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in Hawaii. This work is part of the B-fields in Star-forming Region Observations survey initiated to understand the role of magnetic fields in star formation for nearby star-forming molecular clouds. We present a first look at the geometry and strength of magnetic fields in Oph-B. The field geometry is traced over ~0.2 pc, with clear detection of both of the sub-clumps of Oph-B. The field pattern appears significantly disordered in sub-clump Oph-B1. The field geometry in Oph-B2 is more ordered, with a tendency to be along the major axis of the clump, parallel to the filamentary structure within which it lies. The degree of polarization decreases systematically toward the dense core material in the two sub-clumps. The field lines in the lower density material along the periphery are smoothly joined to the large-scale magnetic fields probed by NIR polarization observations. We estimated a magnetic field strength of 630 ± 410 muG in the Oph-B2 sub-clump using a Davis--Chandrasekhar--Fermi analysis. With this magnetic field strength, we find a mass-to-flux ratio lambda = 1.6 ± 1.1, which suggests that the Oph-B2 clump is slightly magnetically supercritical.