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Showing 1-16 of about 16 results.
Effect of the Central American Isthmus on gene flow and divergence of the American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus)Avila-Cervantes, JoseArias, CarlosVenegas-Anaya, MiryamVargas, MartaLarsson, Hans C. E.McMillan, W. OwenDOI: info:10.1111/evo.14139v. 75No. 2245–259
Avila-Cervantes, Jose, Arias, Carlos, Venegas-Anaya, Miryam, Vargas, Marta, Larsson, Hans C. E., and McMillan, W. Owen. 2021. "Effect of the Central American Isthmus on gene flow and divergence of the American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus)." Evolution 75 (2):245– 259. https://doi.org/10.1111/evo.14139
ID: 157996
Type: article
Authors: Avila-Cervantes, Jose; Arias, Carlos; Venegas-Anaya, Miryam; Vargas, Marta; Larsson, Hans C. E.; McMillan, W. Owen
Abstract: The final formation of the Central American Isthmus (CAI) about 3.5 million years ago altered global ocean circulation, connected North and South America terrestrial biotas, and established the Caribbean Sea. The nature of this event creates a natural scenario to test vicariance, divergence, and speciation by allopatry. Studies have shown the effect of the CAI on marine and terrestrial species, but none have examined a large-bodied amphibious taxon. We used RAD sequencing on populations of the American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) to study the genomic variation of C. acutus on both sides of the CAI, infer its demographic history, and measure the effect of the opening of the Panama Canal. Our results showed three genomic clusters: (1) Caribbean and the Panama Canal, (2) Pacific coast, and (3) Coiba island. The estimated divergence times between the Caribbean and Pacific populations are about 20,000 years ago, which is younger than the formation of the CAI, coinciding with the Last Glacial Maximum. We hypothesize the glacial/interglacial cycles facilitated gene flow between the Caribbean and Pacific crocodile populations after the formation of the CAI, masking any genomic divergence the CAI may have caused. There is no evidence of gene flow associated with the opening of the Panama Canal.
A New Species of Mud Turtle of Genus Kinosternon (Testudines: Kinosternidae) from the Pacific Coastal Plain of Northwestern MexicoLoc-Barragan, Jesus A.Reyes-Velasco, JacoboWoolrich-Pina, Guillermo A.Grunwald, Christoph, I.Venegas De Anaya, MyriamRangel-Mendoza, Judith A.Lopez-Luna, Marco A.DOI: info:10.11646/zootaxa.4885.4.3v. 4885No. 4509–529
Loc-Barragan, Jesus A., Reyes-Velasco, Jacobo, Woolrich-Pina, Guillermo A., Grunwald, Christoph, I., Venegas De Anaya, Myriam, Rangel-Mendoza, Judith A., and Lopez-Luna, Marco A. 2020. "A New Species of Mud Turtle of Genus Kinosternon (Testudines: Kinosternidae) from the Pacific Coastal Plain of Northwestern Mexico." Zootaxa 4885 (4):509– 529. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4885.4.3
ID: 157967
Type: article
Authors: Loc-Barragan, Jesus A.; Reyes-Velasco, Jacobo; Woolrich-Pina, Guillermo A.; Grunwald, Christoph, I.; Venegas De Anaya, Myriam; Rangel-Mendoza, Judith A.; Lopez-Luna, Marco A.
Abstract: We describe a new species of mud turtle of the genus Kinosternon from the Pacific Coastal Plain of the Mexican states Sinaloa and Nayarit. The new species shares morphological characters with the recently described Kinosternon vogti, which are unique to these two turtles and separate them from the other species of the genus. The new species differs from K vogti by skin coloration, size, and the scutellation of both carapace and plastron. We also present a molecular phylogeny of the family Kinosternidae based on two mitochondrial and four nuclear loci. Our results show that the new species is most closely related to K. vogti, and together they form the sister group to the K. hirtipes and K integrum species groups of Kinosternon.
How to estimate population size in crocodylians? Population ecology of American crocodiles in Coiba Island as study caseBalaguera-Reina, Sergio A.Venegas-Anaya, Miryam D.Rivera-Rivera, BetzaidaRamírez, Diego A. MoralesDensmore, Llewellyn D.DOI: info:10.1002/ecs2.2474v. 9No. 10
Balaguera-Reina, Sergio A., Venegas-Anaya, Miryam D., Rivera-Rivera, Betzaida, Ramírez, Diego A. Morales, and Densmore, Llewellyn D. 2018. "How to estimate population size in crocodylians? Population ecology of American crocodiles in Coiba Island as study case." Ecosphere 9 (10):https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.2474
ID: 149203
Type: article
Authors: Balaguera-Reina, Sergio A.; Venegas-Anaya, Miryam D.; Rivera-Rivera, Betzaida; Ramírez, Diego A. Morales; Densmore, Llewellyn D.
Abstract: Reliable estimates of crocodylian population size are desirable for both understanding the ecology and natural history of species and developing sound conservation and management plans. However, choosing appropriate methods to estimate population numbers can be difficult due to the paucity of comprehensive analyses regarding their effectiveness, robustness, and applicability. We estimated the American crocodile population size in the southern tip of Coiba Island, Panama, using both spotlight surveys (Messel's and King's visible fraction estimations) and mark-recapture (POPAN formulation-superpopulation) methods. We assessed and compared the outcomes of these methods with the overall capture record for the study area from 2009 to 2013, evaluating their applicability, accuracy, strengths, and limitations. Using historical and current capture data, we defined a minimum population size of 112 non-hatchling animals in our study area, which was larger than both Messel's (19.00 ± 7.50 individuals) and King's (25.71 ± 7.25 individuals) population size estimates, revealing that these latter approaches clearly underestimate population numbers. We estimated a total population size that range between 147 and 257 individuals based on POPAN formulation grouping the data by sex and age groups as the most plausible population size of the American crocodile population in this area at the time. We analyzed and discussed sources of bias in population size estimations for all methods used in the present study, providing recommendations to minimize errors and improve estimations. Finally, we analyzed and compared population ecology attributes obtained in our study with what have been reported in other insular and coastal areas across the American crocodile range, increasing knowledge about the ecology of the species.
Food habits and ontogenetic dietary partitioning of American crocodiles in a tropical Pacific Island in Central AmericaBalaguera-Reina, Sergio A.Venegas-Anaya, MiryamBeltrán-López, ValeriaCristancho, AlejandraDensmore, Llewellyn D.DOI: info:10.1002/ecs2.2393v. 9No. 9
Balaguera-Reina, Sergio A., Venegas-Anaya, Miryam, Beltrán-López, Valeria, Cristancho, Alejandra, and Densmore, Llewellyn D. 2018. "Food habits and ontogenetic dietary partitioning of American crocodiles in a tropical Pacific Island in Central America." Ecosphere 9 (9):https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.2393
ID: 148734
Type: article
Authors: Balaguera-Reina, Sergio A.; Venegas-Anaya, Miryam; Beltrán-López, Valeria; Cristancho, Alejandra; Densmore, Llewellyn D.
Abstract: Studies on food habits are fundamental to understanding the ecology of a species and its interactions with the community to which it belongs. Among crocodylians, diet affects a variety of biological, physiological, and behavioral characteristics. However, despite having one of the largest distributions across the Americas, some aspects of Crocodylus acutus' natural history remain poorly studied, particularly in insular areas. We characterized American crocodiles' food habits in Coiba Island, Panama, assessing ontogenetic dietary variation and dietary overlap by age group and size. We captured and collected stomach content samples from 49 individuals from four transects from March to December 2013. From these samples, we could taxonomically identify three phyla, four subphyla, eight classes, 11 orders, 17 families, 14 genera, and 12 species as prey items. However, not all samples could be identified to the lowest taxon (species), having most of them identified only to family level. Large juveniles had the largest proportion of prey items and subadults the largest proportion of gastroliths and vegetal content. Percent occurrence per major categories (insects, arachnids, crustaceans, fish, reptiles, birds, and mammals) showed crustaceans and insects as the most prominent groups of prey items on this island. Overlapping group analysis showed a reduction in the consumption of invertebrates (crustaceans and insects) as individuals aged. However, these items were the most common throughout all American crocodiles sampled. Dietary overlap analyses showed a likely ontogenetic dietary partitioning with high overlap (>60%) between small and large juveniles and low overlap (<30%) among small juveniles, subadults, and adults. To date, 71 species have been reported as prey items for American crocodiles. However, relying on prey items identified only to genus, we had at least 97 prey items. Thus, C. acutus can be defined as generalist with a broad spectrum of prey inhabiting all types of habitats and having all types of consumption classifications. Overall, American crocodiles inhabiting coastal areas present some differences in both dietary composition and structure with those dwelling inland and freshwater habitats as well as an interindividual diet variation, which reflects the plasticity and adaptability of C. acutus to a variety of conditions.
Scute Patterns as an Individual Identification Tool in an American Crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) Population on Coiba Island, PanamaBalaguera-Reina, SergioVenegas-Anaya, Miryam D.Rivera-Rivera, BetzaidaDensmore, Llewellyn D., IIIDOI: info:10.1670/17-023523–531
Balaguera-Reina, Sergio, Venegas-Anaya, Miryam D., Rivera-Rivera, Betzaida, and Densmore, Llewellyn D., III. 2017. "Scute Patterns as an Individual Identification Tool in an American Crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) Population on Coiba Island, Panama." Journal of Herpetology 523– 531. https://doi.org/10.1670/17-023
ID: 143746
Type: article
Authors: Balaguera-Reina, Sergio; Venegas-Anaya, Miryam D.; Rivera-Rivera, Betzaida; Densmore, Llewellyn D., III
Abstract: Identification of individuals based on morphological patterns is a strategy used primarily in human forensics that has also been applied successfully in several wildlife scenarios. To date, no study has evaluated the potential of these techniques on American Crocodiles (Crocodylus acutus). We assessed whether the dorsal scute number and pattern of 110 American Crocodiles captured from the wild on Coiba Island, Panama could be used for individual recognition. We estimated scute variation using the number and position of scutes, testing both a binary and a coded assessment for scute presence and pattern, respectively. We analyzed scute patterns using 21 transverse scute lines (TSL) including the three most prominent scutes present on each side of the vertebral column axis. We found significant differences in the number of scutes per TSL and longitudinal scute lines (LSL) by individual. Based on both the binary and coded analyses, we identified all American Crocodiles assessed at the individual level, using only the first 13 and 10 TSL, respectively, in an anterior–posterior direction. This gave us a minimum probability of ≤0.0003 based on the coded analysis and ≤2.02 × 10−5 based on the binary analysis to find pattern repetition (one out of 3,333 and one out of 49,504 American Crocodiles have the most-common scute pattern, respectively). Because the C. acutus total population of Coiba Island has been estimated as no more than 1,000 individuals, we could use this individual identification pattern recognition method (IIPR) to identify every American Crocodile inhabiting this island.
Spatial Ecology of the American Crocodile in a Tropical Pacific Island in Central AmericaBalaguera-Reina, SergioVenegas-Anaya, Miryam D.Sánchez, AndrésArbelaez, ItaloLessios, Harilaos A.Densmore, Llewellyn D.DOI: info:10.1371/journal.pone.0157152v. 11No. 61–20
Balaguera-Reina, Sergio, Venegas-Anaya, Miryam D., Sánchez, Andrés, Arbelaez, Italo, Lessios, Harilaos A., and Densmore, Llewellyn D. 2016. "Spatial Ecology of the American Crocodile in a Tropical Pacific Island in Central America." PloS One 11 (6):1– 20. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0157152
ID: 140079
Type: article
Authors: Balaguera-Reina, Sergio; Venegas-Anaya, Miryam D.; Sánchez, Andrés; Arbelaez, Italo; Lessios, Harilaos A.; Densmore, Llewellyn D.
Abstract: Conservation of large predators has long been a challenge for biologists due to the limited information we have about their ecology, generally low numbers in the wild, large home ranges and the continuous expansion of human settlements. The American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) is a typical apex predator, that has suffered from all of these characteristic problems, especially the latter one. Humans have had a major impact on the recovery of this species throughout its range, even though most of the countries it inhabits have banned hunting. The last decade has made it clear that in order to implement sound conservation and management programs, we must increase our understanding of crocodile spatial ecology. However, in only two countries where American crocodiles have telemetry studies even been published. Herein we have characterized the spatial ecology of C. acutus on Coiba Island, Panama, by radio-tracking (VHF transmitters) 24 individuals between 2010 and 2013, to determine movement patterns, home range, and habitat use. We have then compared our findings with those of previous studies to develop the most comprehensive assessment of American crocodile spatial ecology to date. Females showed a higher average movement distance (AMD) than males; similarly, adults showed a higher AMD than sub-adults and juveniles. However, males exhibited larger home ranges than females, and concomitantly sub-adults had larger home ranges than juveniles, hatchlings, and adults. There was an obvious relationship between seasonal precipitation and AMD, with increased AMD in the dry and "low-wet" seasons, and reduced AMD during the "true" wet season. We found disaggregate distributions according to age groups throughout the 9 habitat types in the study area; adults and hatchlings inhabited fewer habitat types than juveniles and sub-adults. These sex- and age-group discrepancies in movement and habitat choice are likely due to the influences of reproductive biology and Coiba's precipitation cycle. Juveniles also showed distinct movement patterns and home ranges; however, with sexual maturation and development, these behaviors became more characteristic of adults and sub-adults. Ours is one of a very small number of studies that will allow future management and conservation planning to be based on the comprehensive integration of the spatial ecology of a Neotropical crocodylian apex predator.
The Biology and Conservation Status of the American Crocodile in ColombiaBalaguera-Reina, Sergio A.Venegas-Anaya, Miryam D.Densmore, Llewellyn D., IIIDOI: info:10.1670/13-065v. 49No. 2200–206
Balaguera-Reina, Sergio A., Venegas-Anaya, Miryam D., and Densmore, Llewellyn D., III. 2015. "The Biology and Conservation Status of the American Crocodile in Colombia." Journal of Herpetology 49 (2):200– 206. https://doi.org/10.1670/13-065
ID: 136622
Type: article
Authors: Balaguera-Reina, Sergio A.; Venegas-Anaya, Miryam D.; Densmore, Llewellyn D., III
Reproductive Ecology and Hatchling Growth Rates of the American Crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) on Coiba Island, PanamaBalaguera-Reina, SergioVenegas-Anaya, Miryam D.Sanjur, Oris I.Lessios, Harilaos A.Densmore, Llewellyn D., IIIDOI: info:10.2994/SAJH-D-14-00024.1v. 10No. 110–22
Balaguera-Reina, Sergio, Venegas-Anaya, Miryam D., Sanjur, Oris I., Lessios, Harilaos A., and Densmore, Llewellyn D., III. 2015. "Reproductive Ecology and Hatchling Growth Rates of the American Crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) on Coiba Island, Panama." South American Journal of Herpetology 10 (1):10– 22. https://doi.org/10.2994/SAJH-D-14-00024.1
ID: 136315
Type: article
Authors: Balaguera-Reina, Sergio; Venegas-Anaya, Miryam D.; Sanjur, Oris I.; Lessios, Harilaos A.; Densmore, Llewellyn D., III
Population Ecology of American Crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) in Coiba National Park, PanamaVenegas-Anaya, Miryam D.Escobedo-Galván, Armando H.Balaguera-Reina, SergioLowrance, FaithSanjur, Oris I.Densmore, Llewellyn D., IIIDOI: info:10.1670/13-193v. 49No. 3349–357
Venegas-Anaya, Miryam D., Escobedo-Galván, Armando H., Balaguera-Reina, Sergio, Lowrance, Faith, Sanjur, Oris I., and Densmore, Llewellyn D., III. 2015. "Population Ecology of American Crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) in Coiba National Park, Panama." Journal of Herpetology 49 (3):349– 357. https://doi.org/10.1670/13-193
ID: 133184
Type: article
Authors: Venegas-Anaya, Miryam D.; Escobedo-Galván, Armando H.; Balaguera-Reina, Sergio; Lowrance, Faith; Sanjur, Oris I.; Densmore, Llewellyn D., III
Abstract: Abstract We conducted nocturnal surveys in the insular and coastal areas of Coiba National Park (CNP) and its mainland buffer zone in Panama (Chiriquí conservation site) from 2009–2012 to determine the conservation status of Crocodylus acutus. In 99 nights, we surveyed 147.2 km and captured 185 animals during nocturnal transects inspection with headlamps. Overall, sex ratio was 1.00:1.01 female/male with significant differences by size/age class and year. Females were slightly larger in total length than males (115.1 ± 56.9 cm-females, 105.4 ± 71.8 cm-males). The encounter rate was calculated based on number of animals captured per km of surveyed transect. The C. acutus encounter rate per year was 1.8 ind/km (60 ind/33.5 km/12 places visited) in 2009, 1.0 ind/km (90 ind/87.4 km/18 places visited) in 2010, and 1.3 ind/km (35 ind/26.3 km/8 places visited) in 2012. Based on our spatial analysis, the animals showed a dispersed pattern in most sites on CNP. Captured C. acutus were found in 581.1 km2 total area within 78% natural habitat, including mangroves and beaches, and 22% disturbed habitat on both the mainland and the islands. In addition, the spatial analysis showed reduction in natural land cover; crocodile habitat showed limited conversion to agricultural land use; and we found correlation between crocodile population size and protected areas. The differences between mainland and island populations regarding ecology suggest that a long-term monitoring program for American Crocodiles is necessary to distinguish between natural fluctuations and anthropogenic changes on population dynamics and conservation status. , Resumen Entre 2009 al 2012 hicimos varias expediciones en la parte insular y en las áreas costeras del Parque Nacional Coiba y su zona de influencia en Panamá (Sitio de conservación para la diversidad), para determinar el estado de conservación de Crocodylus acutus y sus hábitats asociados. En 99 noches recorrimos 147.2 km y capturamos 185 animales usando linternas de cabeza. La proporción de sexos fue 1.00:1.01 hembra/macho, la cual fue significativamente diferente cuando los animales fueron clasificados por grupo etario y año. Las hembras fueron un poco más grandes que los machos (115.1 ± 56.9 cm-hembras, 105.4 ± 71.8 cm-machos). La tasa de encuentro fue calculada con base en el número de animales capturados por kilómetro. La tasa de encuentro para C. acutus por año fue de 1.8 ind/km (n = 60; 33.5 km; lugares visitados: 12) en 2009, 1.0 ind/km (n = 90; 87.4 km; lugares visitados: 18) in 2010 y 1.3 ind/km (n = 35; 26.3 km; 26.3; lugares visitados: 8) en 2012. El análisis espacial mostró a C. acutus distribuido en la isla de Coiba en un patrón disperso, excepto en El María y el Playa Blanca donde el patrón de dispersión fue de agrupamiento. Los animales capturados se encontraban en un área total de 581.12 km2 cubierta por un 78% de manglares y playas y un 22% por hábitats modificados. Comparando la cobertura vegetal de 1992 y 2000, nuestros resultados mostraron baja densidad poblacional asociada a la reducción de hábitat. Las diferencias en la ecología poblacional entre los sitios continentales y los insulares sugieren que un programa de monitoreo a largo plazo del Cocodrilo Americano permite distinguir entre las fluctuaciones naturales y los cambios antropogénicos sobre la dinámica poblacional y el estado de conservación.
Assessment of microsatellites in estimating inter- and intraspecific variation among Neotropical Crocodylus speciesBashyal, A.Gross, B. A.Venegas-Anaya, Miryam D.Lowrance, F.Densmore, L. D., IIIDOI: info:10.4238/2014.July.25.2v. 13No. 35492–5502
Bashyal, A., Gross, B. A., Venegas-Anaya, Miryam D., Lowrance, F., and Densmore, L. D., III. 2014. "Assessment of microsatellites in estimating inter- and intraspecific variation among Neotropical Crocodylus species." Genetics and Molecular Research 13 (3):5492– 5502. https://doi.org/10.4238/2014.July.25.2
ID: 127516
Type: article
Authors: Bashyal, A.; Gross, B. A.; Venegas-Anaya, Miryam D.; Lowrance, F.; Densmore, L. D., III
Sequencing three crocodilian genomes to illuminate the evolution of archosaurs and amniotesSt John, John A.Braun, Edward L.Isberg, Sally R.Miles, Lee G.Chong, Amanda Y.Gongora, JaimeDalzell, PaulineMoran, ChristopherBed'Hom, BertrandAbzhanov, ArhatBurguess, Shane C.Cooksey, Amanda M.Castoe, Todd A.Crawford, Nicholas G.Densmore, Llewellyn D.Drew, Jennifer C.Edwards, Scott V.Faircloth, Brant C.Fujita, Matthew K.Greenwold, Matthew J.Hoffman, Federico G.Howard, Jonathan M.Iguchi, TaisenJanes, Daniel E.Khan, Shaid YarKohno, SatomideKoning, AP JasonLance, Stacey L.McCarthy, Fiona M.McCormack, John E.Merchant, Mark E.Peterson, Daniel G.Pollock, David D.Pourmand, NaderRaney, Brian J.Roessler, Kyria A.Sanford, Jeremy R.Sawyer, Roger H.Schmidt, Carl J.Triplett, Eric W.Tuberville, Tracey D.Venegas-Anaya, Miryam D.Howard, Jason T.Jarvis, Erich D.Guillette Jr., Louis J.Glenn, Travis C.Green, Richard E.Ray, David A.DOI: info:10.1186/gb-2012-13-1-415v. 13No. 1415
St John, John A., Braun, Edward L., Isberg, Sally R., Miles, Lee G., Chong, Amanda Y., Gongora, Jaime, Dalzell, Pauline, Moran, Christopher, Bed'Hom, Bertrand, Abzhanov, Arhat, Burguess, Shane C., Cooksey, Amanda M., Castoe, Todd A., Crawford, Nicholas G., Densmore, Llewellyn D., Drew, Jennifer C., Edwards, Scott V., Faircloth, Brant C., Fujita, Matthew K., Greenwold, Matthew J., Hoffman, Federico G., Howard, Jonathan M., Iguchi, Taisen, Janes, Daniel E., Khan, Shaid Yar et al. 2012. "Sequencing three crocodilian genomes to illuminate the evolution of archosaurs and amniotes." Genome biology 13 (1):415. https://doi.org/10.1186/gb-2012-13-1-415
ID: 111992
Type: article
Authors: St John, John A.; Braun, Edward L.; Isberg, Sally R.; Miles, Lee G.; Chong, Amanda Y.; Gongora, Jaime; Dalzell, Pauline; Moran, Christopher; Bed'Hom, Bertrand; Abzhanov, Arhat; Burguess, Shane C.; Cooksey, Amanda M.; Castoe, Todd A.; Crawford, Nicholas G.; Densmore, Llewellyn D.; Drew, Jennifer C.; Edwards, Scott V.; Faircloth, Brant C.; Fujita, Matthew K.; Greenwold, Matthew J.; Hoffman, Federico G.; Howard, Jonathan M.; Iguchi, Taisen; Janes, Daniel E.; Khan, Shaid Yar; Kohno, Satomi; deKoning, AP Jason; Lance, Stacey L.; McCarthy, Fiona M.; McCormack, John E.; Merchant, Mark E.; Peterson, Daniel G.; Pollock, David D.; Pourmand, Nader; Raney, Brian J.; Roessler, Kyria A.; Sanford, Jeremy R.; Sawyer, Roger H.; Schmidt, Carl J.; Triplett, Eric W.; Tuberville, Tracey D.; Venegas-Anaya, Miryam D.; Howard, Jason T.; Jarvis, Erich D.; Guillette Jr., Louis J.; Glenn, Travis C.; Green, Richard E.; Ray, David A.
Evolutionary History of Cuban Crocodiles Crocodylus rhombifer and Crocodylus acutus Inferred From Multilocus MarkersMilian-Garcia, YoamelVenegas-Anaya, Miryam D.Frias-Soler, RobertoCrawford, Andrew J.Ramos-Targarona, RobertoRodriguez-Soberon, RobertoAlonso-Tabet, ManuelThorbjarnarson, JohnSanjur, Oris I.Espinosa-Lopez, GeorginaBermingham, EldredgeDOI: info:10.1002/jez.683v. 315ANo. 6358–375
Milian-Garcia, Yoamel, Venegas-Anaya, Miryam D., Frias-Soler, Roberto, Crawford, Andrew J., Ramos-Targarona, Roberto, Rodriguez-Soberon, Roberto, Alonso-Tabet, Manuel, Thorbjarnarson, John, Sanjur, Oris I., Espinosa-Lopez, Georgina, and Bermingham, Eldredge. 2011. "Evolutionary History of Cuban Crocodiles Crocodylus rhombifer and Crocodylus acutus Inferred From Multilocus Markers." Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A-Ecological Genetics and Physiology 315A (6):358– 375. https://doi.org/10.1002/jez.683
ID: 101309
Type: article
Authors: Milian-Garcia, Yoamel; Venegas-Anaya, Miryam D.; Frias-Soler, Roberto; Crawford, Andrew J.; Ramos-Targarona, Roberto; Rodriguez-Soberon, Roberto; Alonso-Tabet, Manuel; Thorbjarnarson, John; Sanjur, Oris I.; Espinosa-Lopez, Georgina; Bermingham, Eldredge
Abstract: Among crocodilians, Crocodylus rhombifer is one of the world's most endangered species with the smallest natural distribution. In Cuba, this endemic species coexists with the American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus). Hybridization between these two species is well known in captivity and might occur in the wild, but has never been demonstrated genetically. Here, we combined molecular data with environmental, geographic, and fossil data to infer the evolutionary history of Crocodylus in the Cuban Archipelago, and to evaluate genealogical support for species boundaries. We analyzed seven microsatellite loci plus DNA sequence data from nuclear (RAG-1) and mitochondrial (cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase I) genes from 89 wild-caught individuals in Cuba, Grand Cayman Island, Jamaica, and Central America, and two samples from zoo collections. Microsatellites showed evidence of introgression, suggesting potential hybridization among Cuban groups. In Cuba, C. acutus contained one mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype, whereas C. rhombifer contained two haplotypes. MtDNA data showed that C. acutus is paraphyletic with respect to C. rhombifer, revealing 1% sequence divergence between species within Cuba vs. 8% divergence between Cuban forms and mainland C. acutus. We suggest that hybridization has been a historical as well as a current phenomenon between C. acutus and C. rhombifer. These findings suggest that long-term conservation of crocodiles in Cuba will require identification of genetically pure and hybrid individuals, and a decrease in anthropogenic activities. We also recommend more extensive morphological and genetic analyses of Cuban population to establish clear boundaries of the hybrid zone between C. acutus and C. rhombifer. J. Exp. Zool. 315: 358-375, 2011. (C) 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Conservation of crocodilians in MesoamericaEscobedo Galvan, Armando H.Vanegas-Anaya, MyriamEspinal, Mario R.Platt, Steven G.Buitrago, FabioWilson, Larry DavidTowsend, Josiah H.Johnson, Jerry D.Eagle Mountain Publishing746–757
Escobedo Galvan, Armando H., Vanegas-Anaya, Myriam, Espinal, Mario R., Platt, Steven G., and Buitrago, Fabio. 2010. "Conservation of crocodilians in Mesoamerica." in Conservation of Mesoamerican amphibians and reptiles, edited by Wilson, Larry David, Towsend, Josiah H., and Johnson, Jerry D., 746– 757. Eagle Mountain Publishing.
ID: 110486
Type: chapter
Authors: Escobedo Galvan, Armando H.; Vanegas-Anaya, Myriam; Espinal, Mario R.; Platt, Steven G.; Buitrago, Fabio
Unidos por una lengua y un interés común: nuevos retos que nos impone el problema de la conservación de los cocodrilianos de la región LatinoamericanaVenegas-Anaya, Miryam D.v. 1No. 24–5
Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of Caiman crocodilus in Mesoamerica and South AmericaVanegas-Anaya, MyriamCrawford, Andrew J.Escobedo-Galvan, Armando H.Sanjur, Oris I.Densmore, Llewellyn D., IIIBermingham, EldredgeDOI: info:10.1002/jez.502v. 309ANo. 10614–627
Vanegas-Anaya, Myriam, Crawford, Andrew J., Escobedo-Galvan, Armando H., Sanjur, Oris I., Densmore, Llewellyn D., III, and Bermingham, Eldredge. 2008. "Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of Caiman crocodilus in Mesoamerica and South America." Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A: Ecological Genetics and Physiology 309A (10):614– 627. https://doi.org/10.1002/jez.502
ID: 76977
Type: article
Authors: Vanegas-Anaya, Myriam; Crawford, Andrew J.; Escobedo-Galvan, Armando H.; Sanjur, Oris I.; Densmore, Llewellyn D., III; Bermingham, Eldredge
Abstract: The Neotropical crocodylian species, Caiman crocodilus, is widely distributed through Mesoamerica, northern South America, and the Amazon basin. Four subspecies are recognized within C. crocodilus, suggesting some geographic variation in morphology. In this study, we utilized mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data from 45 individuals of C. crocodilus throughout its range to infer its evolutionary history and population structure, as well as to evaluate genealogical support for subspecies and their geographic distributions. Our molecular phylogenetic results identified five mtDNA haplotype clades with a mean sequence divergence of 3.4%, indicating considerable evolutionary independence among phylogeographic lineages. Our results were also broadly consistent with current subspecific taxonomy, with some important additional findings. First, we found substantial genetic structuring within C. c. fuscus from southern Mesoamerica. Second, though we confirmed the existence of a widespread Amazonian clade, we also discovered a cryptic and divergent mtDNA lineage that was indistinguishable from C. c. crocodilus based on external morphology. Third, we confirm the status of C. c. chiapasius as a distinct evolutionary lineage, and provide evidence that C. c. fuscus may be moving northward and hybridizing with C. c. chiapasius in northern Mesoamerica. Finally, our results parallel previous phylogeographic studies of other organisms that have demonstrated significant genetic structure over shorter geographic distances in Mesoamerica compared with Amazonia. We support conservation efforts for all five independent lineages within C. crocodilus, and highlight the subspecies C. c. chiapasius as a unit of particular conservation concern. J. Exp. Zool. 309A, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Genetic characterization of captive Cuban Crocodiles (Crocodylus rhombifer) and evidence of hybridization with the American Crocodile (Crocodylus acutus)Weaver, Jeremy P.Rodriguez, DavidVenegas-Anaya, Miryam D.Cedeño-Vázquez, José RogelioForstner, Michael R. J.Densmore, Llewellyn D., IIIDOI: info:10.1002/jez.471v. 309ANo. 10649–660
Weaver, Jeremy P., Rodriguez, David, Venegas-Anaya, Miryam D., Cedeño-Vázquez, José Rogelio, Forstner, Michael R. J., and Densmore, Llewellyn D., III. 2008. "Genetic characterization of captive Cuban Crocodiles (Crocodylus rhombifer) and evidence of hybridization with the American Crocodile (Crocodylus acutus)." Journal of Experimental Zoology.Part A: Ecological Genetics and Physiology 309A (10):649– 660. https://doi.org/10.1002/jez.471
ID: 111991
Type: article
Authors: Weaver, Jeremy P.; Rodriguez, David; Venegas-Anaya, Miryam D.; Cedeño-Vázquez, José Rogelio; Forstner, Michael R. J.; Densmore, Llewellyn D., III