Publication Search Results

Search Results

Showing 1-20 of about 38 results.
First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. VII. Polarization of the RingEvent Horizon Telescope CollaborationAkiyama, KazunoriAlgaba, Juan CarlosAlberdi, AntxonAlef, WalterAnantua, RichardAsada, KeiichiAzulay, RebeccaBaczko, Anne-KathrinBall, DavidBaloković, MislavBarrett, JohnBenson, Bradford A.Bintley, DanBlackburn, LindyBlundell, RaymondBoland, WilfredBouman, Katherine L.Bower, Geoffrey C.Boyce, HopeBremer, MichaelBrinkerink, Christiaan D.Brissenden, RogerBritzen, SilkeBroderick, Avery E.Broguiere, DominiqueBronzwaer, ThomasByun, Do-YoungCarlstrom, John E.Chael, AndrewChan, Chi-kwanChatterjee, ShamiChatterjee, KoushikChen, Ming-TangChen, YongjunChesler, Paul M.Cho, IljeChristian, PierreConway, John E.Cordes, James M.Crawford, Thomas M.Crew, Geoffrey B.Cruz-Osorio, AlejandroCui, YuzhuDavelaar, JordyDe Laurentis, MariafeliciaDeane, RogerDempsey, JessicaDesvignes, GregoryDexter, JasonDoeleman, Sheperd S.Eatough, Ralph P.Falcke, HeinoFarah, JosephFish, Vincent L.Fomalont, EdFord, H. AlysonFraga-Encinas, RaquelFreeman, William T.Friberg, PerFromm, Christian M.Fuentes, AntonioGalison, PeterGammie, Charles F.García, RobertoGentaz, OlivierGeorgiev, BorisGoddi, CiriacoGold, RomanGómez, José L.Gómez-Ruiz, Arturo I.Gu, MinfengGurwell, MarkHada, KazuhiroHaggard, DarylHecht, Michael H.Hesper, RonaldHo, Luis C.Ho, PaulHonma, MarekiHuang, Chih-Wei L.Huang, LeiHughes, David H.Ikeda, ShiroInoue, MakotoIssaoun, SaraJames, David J.Jannuzi, Buell T.Janssen, MichaelJeter, BrittonJiang, WuJimenez-Rosales, AlejandraJohnson, Michael D.Jorstad, SvetlanaJung, TaehyunKarami, MansourKaruppusamy, RameshKawashima, TomohisaKeating, Garrett K.Kettenis, MarkKim, Dong-JinKim, Jae-YoungKim, JongsooKim, JunhanKino, MotokiKoay, Jun YiKofuji, YutaroKoch, Patrick M.Koyama, ShokoKramer, MichaelKramer, CarstenKrichbaum, Thomas P.Kuo, Cheng-YuLauer, Tod R.Lee, Sang-SungLevis, AviadLi, Yan-RongLi, ZhiyuanLindqvist, MichaelLico, RoccoLindahl, GregLiu, JunLiu, KuoLiuzzo, ElisabettaLo, Wen-PingLobanov, Andrei P.Loinard, LaurentLonsdale, ColinLu, Ru-SenMacDonald, Nicholas R.Mao, JirongMarchili, NicolaMarkoff, SeraMarrone, Daniel P.Marscher, Alan P.Martí-Vidal, IvánMatsushita, SatokiMatthews, Lynn D.Medeiros, LiaMenten, Karl M.Mizuno, IzumiMizuno, YosukeMoran, James M.Moriyama, KotaroMoscibrodzka, MonikaMüller, CorneliaMusoke, GibwaMejías, Alejandro MusMichalik, DanielNadolski, AndrewNagai, HiroshiNagar, Neil M.Nakamura, MasanoriNarayan, RameshNarayanan, GopalNatarajan, IniyanNathanail, AntoniosNeilsen, JoeyNeri, RobertoNi, ChunchongNoutsos, AristeidisNowak, Michael A.Okino, HirokiOlivares, HéctorOrtiz-León, Gisela N.Oyama, TomoakiÖzel, FeryalPalumbo, Daniel C. M.Park, JonghoPatel, NimeshPen, Ue-LiPesce, Dominic W.Piétu, VincentPlambeck, RichardPopStefanija, AleksandarPorth, OliverPötzl, Felix M.Prather, BenPreciado-López, Jorge A.Psaltis, DimitriosPu, Hung-YiRamakrishnan, VenkatesshRao, RamprasadRawlings, Mark G.Raymond, Alexander W.Rezzolla, LucianoRicarte, AngeloRipperda, BartRoelofs, FreekRogers, AlanRos, EduardoRose, MelRoshanineshat, ArashRottmann, HelgeRoy, Alan L.Ruszczyk, ChetRygl, Kazi L. J.Sánchez, SalvadorSánchez-Arguelles, DavidSasada, MahitoSavolainen, TuomasSchloerb, F. PeterSchuster, Karl-FriedrichShao, LijingShen, ZhiqiangSmall, DesSohn, Bong WonSooHoo, JasonSun, HeTazaki, FumieTetarenko, Alexandra J.Tiede, PaulTilanus, Remo P. J.Titus, MichaelToma, KenjiTorne, PabloTrent, TylerTraianou, EfthaliaTrippe, Saschavan Bemmel, Ilsevan Langevelde, Huib Janvan Rossum, Daniel R.Wagner, JanWard-Thompson, DerekWardle, JohnWeintroub, JonathanWex, NorbertWharton, RobertWielgus, MaciekWong, George N.Wu, QingwenYoon, DoosooYoung, AndréYoung, KenYounsi, ZiriYuan, FengYuan, Ye-FeiZensus, J. AntonZhao, Guang-YaoZhao, Shan-ShanDOI: info:10.3847/2041-8213/abe71dv. 910L12
Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration, Akiyama, Kazunori, Algaba, Juan Carlos, Alberdi, Antxon, Alef, Walter, Anantua, Richard, Asada, Keiichi, Azulay, Rebecca, Baczko, Anne-Kathrin, Ball, David, Baloković, Mislav, Barrett, John, Benson, Bradford A., Bintley, Dan, Blackburn, Lindy, Blundell, Raymond, Boland, Wilfred, Bouman, Katherine L., Bower, Geoffrey C., Boyce, Hope, Bremer, Michael, Brinkerink, Christiaan D., Brissenden, Roger, Britzen, Silke, Broderick, Avery E. et al. 2021. "First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. VII. Polarization of the Ring." The Astrophysical Journal 910:L12. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/abe71d
ID: 159286
Type: article
Authors: Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration; Akiyama, Kazunori; Algaba, Juan Carlos; Alberdi, Antxon; Alef, Walter; Anantua, Richard; Asada, Keiichi; Azulay, Rebecca; Baczko, Anne-Kathrin; Ball, David; Baloković, Mislav; Barrett, John; Benson, Bradford A.; Bintley, Dan; Blackburn, Lindy; Blundell, Raymond; Boland, Wilfred; Bouman, Katherine L.; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Boyce, Hope; Bremer, Michael; Brinkerink, Christiaan D.; Brissenden, Roger; Britzen, Silke; Broderick, Avery E.; Broguiere, Dominique; Bronzwaer, Thomas; Byun, Do-Young; Carlstrom, John E.; Chael, Andrew; Chan, Chi-kwan; Chatterjee, Shami; Chatterjee, Koushik; Chen, Ming-Tang; Chen, Yongjun; Chesler, Paul M.; Cho, Ilje; Christian, Pierre; Conway, John E.; Cordes, James M.; Crawford, Thomas M.; Crew, Geoffrey B.; Cruz-Osorio, Alejandro; Cui, Yuzhu; Davelaar, Jordy; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Deane, Roger; Dempsey, Jessica; Desvignes, Gregory; Dexter, Jason; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Eatough, Ralph P.; Falcke, Heino; Farah, Joseph; Fish, Vincent L.; Fomalont, Ed; Ford, H. Alyson; Fraga-Encinas, Raquel; Freeman, William T.; Friberg, Per; Fromm, Christian M.; Fuentes, Antonio; Galison, Peter; Gammie, Charles F.; García, Roberto; Gentaz, Olivier; Georgiev, Boris; Goddi, Ciriaco; Gold, Roman; Gómez, José L.; Gómez-Ruiz, Arturo I.; Gu, Minfeng; Gurwell, Mark; Hada, Kazuhiro; Haggard, Daryl; Hecht, Michael H.; Hesper, Ronald; Ho, Luis C.; Ho, Paul; Honma, Mareki; Huang, Chih-Wei L.; Huang, Lei; Hughes, David H.; Ikeda, Shiro; Inoue, Makoto; Issaoun, Sara; James, David J.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Janssen, Michael; Jeter, Britton; Jiang, Wu; Jimenez-Rosales, Alejandra; Johnson, Michael D.; Jorstad, Svetlana; Jung, Taehyun; Karami, Mansour; Karuppusamy, Ramesh; Kawashima, Tomohisa; Keating, Garrett K.; Kettenis, Mark; Kim, Dong-Jin; Kim, Jae-Young; Kim, Jongsoo; Kim, Junhan; Kino, Motoki; Koay, Jun Yi; Kofuji, Yutaro; Koch, Patrick M.; Koyama, Shoko; Kramer, Michael; Kramer, Carsten; Krichbaum, Thomas P.; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Lauer, Tod R.; Lee, Sang-Sung; Levis, Aviad; Li, Yan-Rong; Li, Zhiyuan; Lindqvist, Michael; Lico, Rocco; Lindahl, Greg; Liu, Jun; Liu, Kuo; Liuzzo, Elisabetta; Lo, Wen-Ping; Lobanov, Andrei P.; Loinard, Laurent; Lonsdale, Colin; Lu, Ru-Sen; MacDonald, Nicholas R.; Mao, Jirong; Marchili, Nicola; Markoff, Sera; Marrone, Daniel P.; Marscher, Alan P.; Martí-Vidal, Iván; Matsushita, Satoki; Matthews, Lynn D.; Medeiros, Lia; Menten, Karl M.; Mizuno, Izumi; Mizuno, Yosuke; Moran, James M.; Moriyama, Kotaro; Moscibrodzka, Monika; Müller, Cornelia; Musoke, Gibwa; Mejías, Alejandro Mus; Michalik, Daniel; Nadolski, Andrew; Nagai, Hiroshi; Nagar, Neil M.; Nakamura, Masanori; Narayan, Ramesh; Narayanan, Gopal; Natarajan, Iniyan; Nathanail, Antonios; Neilsen, Joey; Neri, Roberto; Ni, Chunchong; Noutsos, Aristeidis; Nowak, Michael A.; Okino, Hiroki; Olivares, Héctor; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Oyama, Tomoaki; Özel, Feryal; Palumbo, Daniel C. M.; Park, Jongho; Patel, Nimesh; Pen, Ue-Li; Pesce, Dominic W.; Piétu, Vincent; Plambeck, Richard; PopStefanija, Aleksandar; Porth, Oliver; Pötzl, Felix M.; Prather, Ben; Preciado-López, Jorge A.; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Pu, Hung-Yi; Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh; Rao, Ramprasad; Rawlings, Mark G.; Raymond, Alexander W.; Rezzolla, Luciano; Ricarte, Angelo; Ripperda, Bart; Roelofs, Freek; Rogers, Alan; Ros, Eduardo; Rose, Mel; Roshanineshat, Arash; Rottmann, Helge; Roy, Alan L.; Ruszczyk, Chet; Rygl, Kazi L. J.; Sánchez, Salvador; Sánchez-Arguelles, David; Sasada, Mahito; Savolainen, Tuomas; Schloerb, F. Peter; Schuster, Karl-Friedrich; Shao, Lijing; Shen, Zhiqiang; Small, Des; Sohn, Bong Won; SooHoo, Jason; Sun, He; Tazaki, Fumie; Tetarenko, Alexandra J.; Tiede, Paul; Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Titus, Michael; Toma, Kenji; Torne, Pablo; Trent, Tyler; Traianou, Efthalia; Trippe, Sascha; van Bemmel, Ilse; van Langevelde, Huib Jan; van Rossum, Daniel R.; Wagner, Jan; Ward-Thompson, Derek; Wardle, John; Weintroub, Jonathan; Wex, Norbert; Wharton, Robert; Wielgus, Maciek; Wong, George N.; Wu, Qingwen; Yoon, Doosoo; Young, André; Young, Ken; Younsi, Ziri; Yuan, Feng; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Zensus, J. Anton; Zhao, Guang-Yao; Zhao, Shan-Shan
Abstract: In 2017 April, the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) observed the near-horizon region around the supermassive black hole at the core of the M87 galaxy. These 1.3 mm wavelength observations revealed a compact asymmetric ring-like source morphology. This structure originates from synchrotron emission produced by relativistic plasma located in the immediate vicinity of the black hole. Here we present the corresponding linear-polarimetric EHT images of the center of M87. We find that only a part of the ring is significantly polarized. The resolved fractional linear polarization has a maximum located in the southwest part of the ring, where it rises to the level of ∼15%. The polarization position angles are arranged in a nearly azimuthal pattern. We perform quantitative measurements of relevant polarimetric properties of the compact emission and find evidence for the temporal evolution of the polarized source structure over one week of EHT observations. The details of the polarimetric data reduction and calibration methodology are provided. We carry out the data analysis using multiple independent imaging and modeling techniques, each of which is validated against a suite of synthetic data sets. The gross polarimetric structure and its apparent evolution with time are insensitive to the method used to reconstruct the image. These polarimetric images carry information about the structure of the magnetic fields responsible for the synchrotron emission. Their physical interpretation is discussed in an accompanying publication.
First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. VIII. Magnetic Field Structure near The Event HorizonEvent Horizon Telescope CollaborationAkiyama, KazunoriAlgaba, Juan CarlosAlberdi, AntxonAlef, WalterAnantua, RichardAsada, KeiichiAzulay, RebeccaBaczko, Anne-KathrinBall, DavidBaloković, MislavBarrett, JohnBenson, Bradford A.Bintley, DanBlackburn, LindyBlundell, RaymondBoland, WilfredBouman, Katherine L.Bower, Geoffrey C.Boyce, HopeBremer, MichaelBrinkerink, Christiaan D.Brissenden, RogerBritzen, SilkeBroderick, Avery E.Broguiere, DominiqueBronzwaer, ThomasByun, Do-YoungCarlstrom, John E.Chael, AndrewChan, Chi-kwanChatterjee, ShamiChatterjee, KoushikChen, Ming-TangChen, YongjunChesler, Paul M.Cho, IljeChristian, PierreConway, John E.Cordes, James M.Crawford, Thomas M.Crew, Geoffrey B.Cruz-Osorio, AlejandroCui, YuzhuDavelaar, JordyDe Laurentis, MariafeliciaDeane, RogerDempsey, JessicaDesvignes, GregoryDexter, JasonDoeleman, Sheperd S.Eatough, Ralph P.Falcke, HeinoFarah, JosephFish, Vincent L.Fomalont, EdFord, H. AlysonFraga-Encinas, RaquelFriberg, PerFromm, Christian M.Fuentes, AntonioGalison, PeterGammie, Charles F.García, RobertoGelles, ZacharyGentaz, OlivierGeorgiev, BorisGoddi, CiriacoGold, RomanGómez, José L.Gómez-Ruiz, Arturo I.Gu, MinfengGurwell, MarkHada, KazuhiroHaggard, DarylHecht, Michael H.Hesper, RonaldHimwich, ElizabethHo, Luis C.Ho, PaulHonma, MarekiHuang, Chih-Wei L.Huang, LeiHughes, David H.Ikeda, ShiroInoue, MakotoIssaoun, SaraJames, David J.Jannuzi, Buell T.Janssen, MichaelJeter, BrittonJiang, WuJimenez-Rosales, AlejandraJohnson, Michael D.Jorstad, SvetlanaJung, TaehyunKarami, MansourKaruppusamy, RameshKawashima, TomohisaKeating, Garrett K.Kettenis, MarkKim, Dong-JinKim, Jae-YoungKim, JongsooKim, JunhanKino, MotokiKoay, Jun YiKofuji, YutaroKoch, Patrick M.Koyama, ShokoKramer, MichaelKramer, CarstenKrichbaum, Thomas P.Kuo, Cheng-YuLauer, Tod R.Lee, Sang-SungLevis, AviadLi, Yan-RongLi, ZhiyuanLindqvist, MichaelLico, RoccoLindahl, GregLiu, JunLiu, KuoLiuzzo, ElisabettaLo, Wen-PingLobanov, Andrei P.Loinard, LaurentLonsdale, ColinLu, Ru-SenMacDonald, Nicholas R.Mao, JirongMarchili, NicolaMarkoff, SeraMarrone, Daniel P.Marscher, Alan P.Martí-Vidal, IvánMatsushita, SatokiMatthews, Lynn D.Medeiros, LiaMenten, Karl M.Mizuno, IzumiMizuno, YosukeMoran, James M.Moriyama, KotaroMoscibrodzka, MonikaMüller, CorneliaMusoke, GibwaMus Mejías, AlejandroMichalik, DanielNadolski, AndrewNagai, HiroshiNagar, Neil M.Nakamura, MasanoriNarayan, RameshNarayanan, GopalNatarajan, IniyanNathanail, AntoniosNeilsen, JoeyNeri, RobertoNi, ChunchongNoutsos, AristeidisNowak, Michael A.Okino, HirokiOlivares, HéctorOrtiz-León, Gisela N.Oyama, TomoakiÖzel, FeryalPalumbo, Daniel C. M.Park, JonghoPatel, NimeshPen, Ue-LiPesce, Dominic W.Piétu, VincentPlambeck, RichardPopStefanija, AleksandarPorth, OliverPötzl, Felix M.Prather, BenPreciado-López, Jorge A.Psaltis, DimitriosPu, Hung-YiRamakrishnan, VenkatesshRao, RamprasadRawlings, Mark G.Raymond, Alexander W.Rezzolla, LucianoRicarte, AngeloRipperda, BartRoelofs, FreekRogers, AlanRos, EduardoRose, MelRoshanineshat, ArashRottmann, HelgeRoy, Alan L.Ruszczyk, ChetRygl, Kazi L. J.Sánchez, SalvadorSánchez-Arguelles, DavidSasada, MahitoSavolainen, TuomasSchloerb, F. PeterSchuster, Karl-FriedrichShao, LijingShen, ZhiqiangSmall, DesSohn, Bong WonSooHoo, JasonSun, HeTazaki, FumieTetarenko, Alexandra J.Tiede, PaulTilanus, Remo P. J.Titus, MichaelToma, KenjiTorne, PabloTrent, TylerTraianou, EfthaliaTrippe, Saschavan Bemmel, Ilsevan Langevelde, Huib Janvan Rossum, Daniel R.Wagner, JanWard-Thompson, DerekWardle, JohnWeintroub, JonathanWex, NorbertWharton, RobertWielgus, MaciekWong, George N.Wu, QingwenYoon, DoosooYoung, AndréYoung, KenYounsi, ZiriYuan, FengYuan, Ye-FeiZensus, J. AntonZhao, Guang-YaoZhao, Shan-ShanDOI: info:10.3847/2041-8213/abe4dev. 910L13
Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration, Akiyama, Kazunori, Algaba, Juan Carlos, Alberdi, Antxon, Alef, Walter, Anantua, Richard, Asada, Keiichi, Azulay, Rebecca, Baczko, Anne-Kathrin, Ball, David, Baloković, Mislav, Barrett, John, Benson, Bradford A., Bintley, Dan, Blackburn, Lindy, Blundell, Raymond, Boland, Wilfred, Bouman, Katherine L., Bower, Geoffrey C., Boyce, Hope, Bremer, Michael, Brinkerink, Christiaan D., Brissenden, Roger, Britzen, Silke, Broderick, Avery E. et al. 2021. "First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. VIII. Magnetic Field Structure near The Event Horizon." The Astrophysical Journal 910:L13. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/abe4de
ID: 159442
Type: article
Authors: Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration; Akiyama, Kazunori; Algaba, Juan Carlos; Alberdi, Antxon; Alef, Walter; Anantua, Richard; Asada, Keiichi; Azulay, Rebecca; Baczko, Anne-Kathrin; Ball, David; Baloković, Mislav; Barrett, John; Benson, Bradford A.; Bintley, Dan; Blackburn, Lindy; Blundell, Raymond; Boland, Wilfred; Bouman, Katherine L.; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Boyce, Hope; Bremer, Michael; Brinkerink, Christiaan D.; Brissenden, Roger; Britzen, Silke; Broderick, Avery E.; Broguiere, Dominique; Bronzwaer, Thomas; Byun, Do-Young; Carlstrom, John E.; Chael, Andrew; Chan, Chi-kwan; Chatterjee, Shami; Chatterjee, Koushik; Chen, Ming-Tang; Chen, Yongjun; Chesler, Paul M.; Cho, Ilje; Christian, Pierre; Conway, John E.; Cordes, James M.; Crawford, Thomas M.; Crew, Geoffrey B.; Cruz-Osorio, Alejandro; Cui, Yuzhu; Davelaar, Jordy; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Deane, Roger; Dempsey, Jessica; Desvignes, Gregory; Dexter, Jason; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Eatough, Ralph P.; Falcke, Heino; Farah, Joseph; Fish, Vincent L.; Fomalont, Ed; Ford, H. Alyson; Fraga-Encinas, Raquel; Friberg, Per; Fromm, Christian M.; Fuentes, Antonio; Galison, Peter; Gammie, Charles F.; García, Roberto; Gelles, Zachary; Gentaz, Olivier; Georgiev, Boris; Goddi, Ciriaco; Gold, Roman; Gómez, José L.; Gómez-Ruiz, Arturo I.; Gu, Minfeng; Gurwell, Mark; Hada, Kazuhiro; Haggard, Daryl; Hecht, Michael H.; Hesper, Ronald; Himwich, Elizabeth; Ho, Luis C.; Ho, Paul; Honma, Mareki; Huang, Chih-Wei L.; Huang, Lei; Hughes, David H.; Ikeda, Shiro; Inoue, Makoto; Issaoun, Sara; James, David J.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Janssen, Michael; Jeter, Britton; Jiang, Wu; Jimenez-Rosales, Alejandra; Johnson, Michael D.; Jorstad, Svetlana; Jung, Taehyun; Karami, Mansour; Karuppusamy, Ramesh; Kawashima, Tomohisa; Keating, Garrett K.; Kettenis, Mark; Kim, Dong-Jin; Kim, Jae-Young; Kim, Jongsoo; Kim, Junhan; Kino, Motoki; Koay, Jun Yi; Kofuji, Yutaro; Koch, Patrick M.; Koyama, Shoko; Kramer, Michael; Kramer, Carsten; Krichbaum, Thomas P.; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Lauer, Tod R.; Lee, Sang-Sung; Levis, Aviad; Li, Yan-Rong; Li, Zhiyuan; Lindqvist, Michael; Lico, Rocco; Lindahl, Greg; Liu, Jun; Liu, Kuo; Liuzzo, Elisabetta; Lo, Wen-Ping; Lobanov, Andrei P.; Loinard, Laurent; Lonsdale, Colin; Lu, Ru-Sen; MacDonald, Nicholas R.; Mao, Jirong; Marchili, Nicola; Markoff, Sera; Marrone, Daniel P.; Marscher, Alan P.; Martí-Vidal, Iván; Matsushita, Satoki; Matthews, Lynn D.; Medeiros, Lia; Menten, Karl M.; Mizuno, Izumi; Mizuno, Yosuke; Moran, James M.; Moriyama, Kotaro; Moscibrodzka, Monika; Müller, Cornelia; Musoke, Gibwa; Mus Mejías, Alejandro; Michalik, Daniel; Nadolski, Andrew; Nagai, Hiroshi; Nagar, Neil M.; Nakamura, Masanori; Narayan, Ramesh; Narayanan, Gopal; Natarajan, Iniyan; Nathanail, Antonios; Neilsen, Joey; Neri, Roberto; Ni, Chunchong; Noutsos, Aristeidis; Nowak, Michael A.; Okino, Hiroki; Olivares, Héctor; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Oyama, Tomoaki; Özel, Feryal; Palumbo, Daniel C. M.; Park, Jongho; Patel, Nimesh; Pen, Ue-Li; Pesce, Dominic W.; Piétu, Vincent; Plambeck, Richard; PopStefanija, Aleksandar; Porth, Oliver; Pötzl, Felix M.; Prather, Ben; Preciado-López, Jorge A.; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Pu, Hung-Yi; Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh; Rao, Ramprasad; Rawlings, Mark G.; Raymond, Alexander W.; Rezzolla, Luciano; Ricarte, Angelo; Ripperda, Bart; Roelofs, Freek; Rogers, Alan; Ros, Eduardo; Rose, Mel; Roshanineshat, Arash; Rottmann, Helge; Roy, Alan L.; Ruszczyk, Chet; Rygl, Kazi L. J.; Sánchez, Salvador; Sánchez-Arguelles, David; Sasada, Mahito; Savolainen, Tuomas; Schloerb, F. Peter; Schuster, Karl-Friedrich; Shao, Lijing; Shen, Zhiqiang; Small, Des; Sohn, Bong Won; SooHoo, Jason; Sun, He; Tazaki, Fumie; Tetarenko, Alexandra J.; Tiede, Paul; Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Titus, Michael; Toma, Kenji; Torne, Pablo; Trent, Tyler; Traianou, Efthalia; Trippe, Sascha; van Bemmel, Ilse; van Langevelde, Huib Jan; van Rossum, Daniel R.; Wagner, Jan; Ward-Thompson, Derek; Wardle, John; Weintroub, Jonathan; Wex, Norbert; Wharton, Robert; Wielgus, Maciek; Wong, George N.; Wu, Qingwen; Yoon, Doosoo; Young, André; Young, Ken; Younsi, Ziri; Yuan, Feng; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Zensus, J. Anton; Zhao, Guang-Yao; Zhao, Shan-Shan
Abstract: Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) observations at 230 GHz have now imaged polarized emission around the supermassive black hole in M87 on event-horizon scales. This polarized synchrotron radiation probes the structure of magnetic fields and the plasma properties near the black hole. Here we compare the resolved polarization structure observed by the EHT, along with simultaneous unresolved observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, to expectations from theoretical models. The low fractional linear polarization in the resolved image suggests that the polarization is scrambled on scales smaller than the EHT beam, which we attribute to Faraday rotation internal to the emission region. We estimate the average density ne ∼ 104-7 cm-3, magnetic field strength B ∼ 1-30 G, and electron temperature Te ∼ (1-12) × 1010 K of the radiating plasma in a simple one-zone emission model. We show that the net azimuthal linear polarization pattern may result from organized, poloidal magnetic fields in the emission region. In a quantitative comparison with a large library of simulated polarimetric images from general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations, we identify a subset of physical models that can explain critical features of the polarimetric EHT observations while producing a relativistic jet of sufficient power. The consistent GRMHD models are all of magnetically arrested accretion disks, where near-horizon magnetic fields are dynamically important. We use the models to infer a mass accretion rate onto the black hole in M87 of (3-20) × 10-4 M yr-1.
Polarimetric Properties of Event Horizon Telescope Targets from ALMAGoddi, CiriacoMartí-Vidal, IvánMessias, HugoBower, Geoffrey C.Broderick, Avery E.Dexter, JasonMarrone, Daniel P.Moscibrodzka, MonikaNagai, HiroshiAlgaba, Juan CarlosAsada, KeiichiCrew, Geoffrey B.Gómez, José L.Impellizzeri, C. M. VioletteJanssen, MichaelKadler, MatthiasKrichbaum, Thomas P.Lico, RoccoMatthews, Lynn D.Nathanail, AntoniosRicarte, AngeloRos, EduardoYounsi, ZiriAkiyama, KazunoriAlberdi, AntxonAlef, WalterAnantua, RichardAzulay, RebeccaBaczko, Anne-KathrinBall, DavidBaloković, MislavBarrett, JohnBenson, Bradford A.Bintley, DanBlackburn, LindyBlundell, RaymondBoland, WilfredBouman, Katherine L.Boyce, HopeBremer, MichaelBrinkerink, Christiaan D.Brissenden, RogerBritzen, SilkeBroguiere, DominiqueBronzwaer, ThomasByun, Do-YoungCarlstrom, John E.Chael, AndrewChan, Chi-kwanChatterjee, ShamiChatterjee, KoushikChen, Ming-TangChen, YongjunChesler, Paul M.Cho, IljeChristian, PierreConway, John E.Cordes, James M.Crawford, Thomas M.Cruz-Osorio, AlejandroCui, YuzhuDavelaar, JordyDe Laurentis, MariafeliciaDeane, RogerDempsey, JessicaDesvignes, GregoryDoeleman, Sheperd S.Eatough, Ralph P.Falcke, HeinoFarah, JosephFish, Vincent L.Fomalont, EdFord, H. AlysonFraga-Encinas, RaquelFreeman, William T.Friberg, PerFromm, Christian M.Fuentes, AntonioGalison, PeterGammie, Charles F.García, RobertoGentaz, OlivierGeorgiev, BorisGold, RomanGómez-Ruiz, Arturo I.Gu, MinfengGurwell, MarkHada, KazuhiroHaggard, DarylHecht, Michael H.Hesper, RonaldHo, Luis C.Ho, PaulHonma, MarekiHuang, Chih-Wei L.Huang, LeiHughes, David H.Inoue, MakotoIssaoun, SaraJames, David J.Jannuzi, Buell T.Jeter, BrittonJiang, WuJimenez-Rosales, AlejandraJohnson, Michael D.Jorstad, SvetlanaJung, TaehyunKarami, MansourKaruppusamy, RameshKawashima, TomohisaKeating, Garrett K.Kettenis, MarkKim, Dong-JinKim, Jae-YoungKim, JongsooKim, JunhanKino, MotokiKoay, Jun YiKofuji, YutaroKoch, Patrick M.Koyama, ShokoKramer, MichaelKramer, CarstenKuo, Cheng-YuLauer, Tod R.Lee, Sang-SungLevis, AviadLi, Yan-RongLi, ZhiyuanLindqvist, MichaelLindahl, GregLiu, JunLiu, KuoLiuzzo, ElisabettaLo, Wen-PingLobanov, Andrei P.Loinard, LaurentLonsdale, ColinLu, Ru-SenMacDonald, Nicholas R.Mao, JirongMarchili, NicolaMarkoff, SeraMarscher, Alan P.Matsushita, SatokiMedeiros, LiaMenten, Karl M.Mizuno, IzumiMizuno, YosukeMoran, James M.Moriyama, KotaroMüller, CorneliaMusoke, GibwaMejías, Alejandro MusNagar, Neil M.Nakamura, MasanoriNarayan, RameshNarayanan, GopalNatarajan, IniyanNeilsen, JoeyNeri, RobertoNi, ChunchongNoutsos, AristeidisNowak, Michael A.Okino, HirokiOlivares, HéctorOrtiz-León, Gisela N.Oyama, TomoakiÖzel, FeryalPalumbo, Daniel C. M.Park, JonghoPatel, NimeshPen, Ue-LiPesce, Dominic W.Piétu, VincentPlambeck, RichardPopStefanija, AleksandarPorth, OliverPötzl, Felix M.Prather, BenPreciado-López, Jorge A.Psaltis, DimitriosPu, Hung-YiRamakrishnan, VenkatesshRao, RamprasadRawlings, Mark G.Raymond, Alexander W.Rezzolla, LucianoRipperda, BartRoelofs, FreekRogers, AlanRose, MelRoshanineshat, ArashRottmann, HelgeRoy, Alan L.Ruszczyk, ChetRygl, Kazi L. J.Sánchez, SalvadorSánchez-Arguelles, DavidSasada, MahitoSavolainen, TuomasSchloerb, F. PeterSchuster, Karl-FriedrichShao, LijingShen, ZhiqiangSmall, DesSohn, Bong WonSooHoo, JasonSun, HeTazaki, FumieTetarenko, Alexandra J.Tiede, PaulTilanus, Remo P. J.Titus, MichaelToma, KenjiTorne, PabloTrent, TylerTraianou, EfthaliaTrippe, Saschavan Bemmel, Ilsevan Langevelde, Huib Janvan Rossum, Daniel R.Wagner, JanWard-Thompson, DerekWardle, JohnWeintroub, JonathanWex, NorbertWharton, RobertWielgus, MaciekWong, George N.Wu, QingwenYoon, DoosooYoung, AndréYoung, KenYuan, FengYuan, Ye-FeiZensus, J. AntonZhao, Guang-YaoZhao, Shan-ShanBruni, GabrieleGopakumar, A.Hernández-Gómez, AntonioHerrero-Illana, RubenIngram, AdamKomossa, S.Kovalev, Y. Y.Muders, DirkPerucho, ManelRösch, FlorianValtonen, MauriDOI: info:10.3847/2041-8213/abee6av. 910L14
Goddi, Ciriaco, Martí-Vidal, Iván, Messias, Hugo, Bower, Geoffrey C., Broderick, Avery E., Dexter, Jason, Marrone, Daniel P., Moscibrodzka, Monika, Nagai, Hiroshi, Algaba, Juan Carlos, Asada, Keiichi, Crew, Geoffrey B., Gómez, José L., Impellizzeri, C. M. Violette, Janssen, Michael, Kadler, Matthias, Krichbaum, Thomas P., Lico, Rocco, Matthews, Lynn D., Nathanail, Antonios, Ricarte, Angelo, Ros, Eduardo, Younsi, Ziri, Akiyama, Kazunori, Alberdi, Antxon et al. 2021. "Polarimetric Properties of Event Horizon Telescope Targets from ALMA." The Astrophysical Journal 910:L14. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/abee6a
ID: 159441
Type: article
Authors: Goddi, Ciriaco; Martí-Vidal, Iván; Messias, Hugo; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Broderick, Avery E.; Dexter, Jason; Marrone, Daniel P.; Moscibrodzka, Monika; Nagai, Hiroshi; Algaba, Juan Carlos; Asada, Keiichi; Crew, Geoffrey B.; Gómez, José L.; Impellizzeri, C. M. Violette; Janssen, Michael; Kadler, Matthias; Krichbaum, Thomas P.; Lico, Rocco; Matthews, Lynn D.; Nathanail, Antonios; Ricarte, Angelo; Ros, Eduardo; Younsi, Ziri; Akiyama, Kazunori; Alberdi, Antxon; Alef, Walter; Anantua, Richard; Azulay, Rebecca; Baczko, Anne-Kathrin; Ball, David; Baloković, Mislav; Barrett, John; Benson, Bradford A.; Bintley, Dan; Blackburn, Lindy; Blundell, Raymond; Boland, Wilfred; Bouman, Katherine L.; Boyce, Hope; Bremer, Michael; Brinkerink, Christiaan D.; Brissenden, Roger; Britzen, Silke; Broguiere, Dominique; Bronzwaer, Thomas; Byun, Do-Young; Carlstrom, John E.; Chael, Andrew; Chan, Chi-kwan; Chatterjee, Shami; Chatterjee, Koushik; Chen, Ming-Tang; Chen, Yongjun; Chesler, Paul M.; Cho, Ilje; Christian, Pierre; Conway, John E.; Cordes, James M.; Crawford, Thomas M.; Cruz-Osorio, Alejandro; Cui, Yuzhu; Davelaar, Jordy; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Deane, Roger; Dempsey, Jessica; Desvignes, Gregory; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Eatough, Ralph P.; Falcke, Heino; Farah, Joseph; Fish, Vincent L.; Fomalont, Ed; Ford, H. Alyson; Fraga-Encinas, Raquel; Freeman, William T.; Friberg, Per; Fromm, Christian M.; Fuentes, Antonio; Galison, Peter; Gammie, Charles F.; García, Roberto; Gentaz, Olivier; Georgiev, Boris; Gold, Roman; Gómez-Ruiz, Arturo I.; Gu, Minfeng; Gurwell, Mark; Hada, Kazuhiro; Haggard, Daryl; Hecht, Michael H.; Hesper, Ronald; Ho, Luis C.; Ho, Paul; Honma, Mareki; Huang, Chih-Wei L.; Huang, Lei; Hughes, David H.; Inoue, Makoto; Issaoun, Sara; James, David J.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Jeter, Britton; Jiang, Wu; Jimenez-Rosales, Alejandra; Johnson, Michael D.; Jorstad, Svetlana; Jung, Taehyun; Karami, Mansour; Karuppusamy, Ramesh; Kawashima, Tomohisa; Keating, Garrett K.; Kettenis, Mark; Kim, Dong-Jin; Kim, Jae-Young; Kim, Jongsoo; Kim, Junhan; Kino, Motoki; Koay, Jun Yi; Kofuji, Yutaro; Koch, Patrick M.; Koyama, Shoko; Kramer, Michael; Kramer, Carsten; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Lauer, Tod R.; Lee, Sang-Sung; Levis, Aviad; Li, Yan-Rong; Li, Zhiyuan; Lindqvist, Michael; Lindahl, Greg; Liu, Jun; Liu, Kuo; Liuzzo, Elisabetta; Lo, Wen-Ping; Lobanov, Andrei P.; Loinard, Laurent; Lonsdale, Colin; Lu, Ru-Sen; MacDonald, Nicholas R.; Mao, Jirong; Marchili, Nicola; Markoff, Sera; Marscher, Alan P.; Matsushita, Satoki; Medeiros, Lia; Menten, Karl M.; Mizuno, Izumi; Mizuno, Yosuke; Moran, James M.; Moriyama, Kotaro; Müller, Cornelia; Musoke, Gibwa; Mejías, Alejandro Mus; Nagar, Neil M.; Nakamura, Masanori; Narayan, Ramesh; Narayanan, Gopal; Natarajan, Iniyan; Neilsen, Joey; Neri, Roberto; Ni, Chunchong; Noutsos, Aristeidis; Nowak, Michael A.; Okino, Hiroki; Olivares, Héctor; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Oyama, Tomoaki; Özel, Feryal; Palumbo, Daniel C. M.; Park, Jongho; Patel, Nimesh; Pen, Ue-Li; Pesce, Dominic W.; Piétu, Vincent; Plambeck, Richard; PopStefanija, Aleksandar; Porth, Oliver; Pötzl, Felix M.; Prather, Ben; Preciado-López, Jorge A.; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Pu, Hung-Yi; Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh; Rao, Ramprasad; Rawlings, Mark G.; Raymond, Alexander W.; Rezzolla, Luciano; Ripperda, Bart; Roelofs, Freek; Rogers, Alan; Rose, Mel; Roshanineshat, Arash; Rottmann, Helge; Roy, Alan L.; Ruszczyk, Chet; Rygl, Kazi L. J.; Sánchez, Salvador; Sánchez-Arguelles, David; Sasada, Mahito; Savolainen, Tuomas; Schloerb, F. Peter; Schuster, Karl-Friedrich; Shao, Lijing; Shen, Zhiqiang; Small, Des; Sohn, Bong Won; SooHoo, Jason; Sun, He; Tazaki, Fumie; Tetarenko, Alexandra J.; Tiede, Paul; Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Titus, Michael; Toma, Kenji; Torne, Pablo; Trent, Tyler; Traianou, Efthalia; Trippe, Sascha; van Bemmel, Ilse; van Langevelde, Huib Jan; van Rossum, Daniel R.; Wagner, Jan; Ward-Thompson, Derek; Wardle, John; Weintroub, Jonathan; Wex, Norbert; Wharton, Robert; Wielgus, Maciek; Wong, George N.; Wu, Qingwen; Yoon, Doosoo; Young, André; Young, Ken; Yuan, Feng; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Zensus, J. Anton; Zhao, Guang-Yao; Zhao, Shan-Shan; Bruni, Gabriele; Gopakumar, A.; Hernández-Gómez, Antonio; Herrero-Illana, Ruben; Ingram, Adam; Komossa, S.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Muders, Dirk; Perucho, Manel; Rösch, Florian; Valtonen, Mauri
Abstract: We present the results from a full polarization study carried out with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) during the first Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) campaign, which was conducted in 2017 April in the λ3 mm and λ1.3 mm bands, in concert with the Global mm-VLBI Array (GMVA) and the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), respectively. We determine the polarization and Faraday properties of all VLBI targets, including Sgr A*, M87, and a dozen radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs), in the two bands at several epochs in a time window of 10 days. We detect high linear polarization fractions (2%-15%) and large rotation measures (RM > 103.3-105.5 rad m-2), confirming the trends of previous AGN studies at millimeter wavelengths. We find that blazars are more strongly polarized than other AGNs in the sample, while exhibiting (on average) order-of-magnitude lower RM values, consistent with the AGN viewing angle unification scheme. For Sgr A* we report a mean RM of (-4.2 ± 0.3) × 105 rad m-2 at 1.3 mm, consistent with measurements over the past decade and, for the first time, an RM of (-2.1 ± 0.1) × 105 rad m-2 at 3 mm, suggesting that about half of the Faraday rotation at 1.3 mm may occur between the 3 mm photosphere and the 1.3 mm source. We also report the first unambiguous measurement of RM toward the M87 nucleus at millimeter wavelengths, which undergoes significant changes in magnitude and sign reversals on a one year timescale, spanning the range from -1.2 to 0.3 × 105 rad m-2 at 3 mm and -4.1 to 1.5 × 105 rad m-2 at 1.3 mm. Given this time variability, we argue that, unlike the case of Sgr A*, the RM in M87 does not provide an accurate estimate of the mass accretion rate onto the black hole. We put forward a two-component model, comprised of a variable compact region and a static extended region, that can simultaneously explain the polarimetric properties observed by both the EHT (on horizon scales) and ALMA (which observes the combined emission from both components). These measurements provide critical constraints for the calibration, analysis, and interpretation of simultaneously obtained VLBI data with the EHT and GMVA.
Simultaneous observations of the blazar PKS 2155-304 from ultra-violet to TeV energiesAbdalla, H.Adam, R.Aharonian, F.Ait Benkhali, F.Angüner, E. O.Arakawa, M.Arcaro, C.Armand, C.Ashkar, H.Backes, M.Barbosa Martins, V.Barnard, M.Becherini, Y.Berge, D.Bernlöhr, K.Blackwell, R.Böttcher, M.Boisson, C.Bolmont, J.Bonnefoy, S.Bregeon, J.Breuhaus, M.Brun, F.Brun, P.Bryan, M.Büchele, M.Bulik, T.Bylund, T.Caroff, S.Carosi, A.Casanova, S.Cerruti, M.Chand, T.Chandra, S.Chen, A.Colafrancesco, S.Curyło, M.Davids, I. D.Deil, C.Devin, J.deWilt, P.Dirson, L.Djannati-Ataï, A.Dmytriiev, A.Donath, A.Doroshenko, V.Dyks, J.Egberts, K.Emery, G.Ernenwein, J. -PEschbach, S.Feijen, K.Fegan, S.Fiasson, A.Fontaine, G.Funk, S.Füßling, M.Gabici, S.Gallant, Y. A.Gaté, F.Giavitto, G.Giunti, L.Glawion, D.Glicenstein, J. F.Gottschall, D.Grondin, M. -HHahn, J.Haupt, M.Heinzelmann, G.Henri, G.Hermann, G.Hinton, J. A.Hofmann, W.Hoischen, C.Holch, T. L.Holler, M.Horns, D.Huber, D.Iwasaki, H.Jamrozy, M.Jankowsky, D.Jankowsky, F.Jardin-Blicq, A.Jung-Richardt, I.Kastendieck, M. A.Katarzyński, K.Katsuragawa, M.Katz, U.Khangulyan, D.Khélifi, B.King, J.Klepser, S.Kluźniak, W.Komin, NuKosack, K.Kostunin, D.Kreter, M.Lamanna, G.Lemière, A.Lemoine-Goumard, M.Lenain, J. -PLeser, E.Levy, C.Lohse, T.Lypova, I.Mackey, J.Majumdar, J.Malyshev, D.Marandon, V.Marcowith, A.Mares, A.Mariaud, C.Martí-Devesa, G.Marx, R.Maurin, G.Meintjes, P. J.Mitchell, A. M. W.Moderski, R.Mohamed, M.Mohrmann, L.Moore, C.Moulin, E.Muller, J.Murach, T.Nakashima, S.de Naurois, M.Ndiyavala, H.Niederwanger, F.Niemiec, J.Oakes, L.O'Brien, P.Odaka, H.Ohm, S.de Ona Wilhelmi, E.Ostrowski, M.Oya, I.Panter, M.Parsons, R. D.Perennes, C.Petrucci, P. -OPeyaud, B.Piel, Q.Pita, S.Poireau, V.Priyana Noel, A.Prokhorov, D. A.Prokoph, H.Pühlhofer, G.Punch, M.Quirrenbach, A.Raab, S.Rauth, R.Reimer, A.Reimer, O.Remy, Q.Renaud, M.Rieger, F.Rinchiuso, L.Romoli, C.Rowell, G.Rudak, B.Ruiz-Velasco, E.Sahakian, V.Sailer, S.Saito, S.Sanchez, D. A.Santangelo, A.Sasaki, M.Schlickeiser, R.Schüssler, F.Schulz, A.Schutte, H. M.Schwanke, U.Schwemmer, S.Seglar-Arroyo, M.Senniappan, M.Seyffert, A. S.Shafi, N.Shiningayamwe, K.Simoni, R.Sinha, A.Sol, H.Specovius, A.Spir-Jacob, M.Stawarz, Ł.Steenkamp, R.Stegmann, C.Steppa, C.Takahashi, T.Tavernier, T.Taylor, A. M.Terrier, R.Tiziani, D.Tluczykont, M.Trichard, C.Tsirou, M.Tsuji, N.Tuffs, R.Uchiyama, Y.van der Walt, D. J.van Eldik, C.van Rensburg, C.van Soelen, B.Vasileiadis, G.Veh, J.Venter, C.Vincent, P.Vink, J.Völk, H. J.Vuillaume, T.Wadiasingh, Z.Wagner, S. J.White, R.Wierzcholska, A.Yang, R.Yoneda, H.Zacharias, M.Zanin, R.Zdziarski, A. A.Zech, A.Zorn, J.Żywucka, N.Madejski, G. M.Nalewajko, K.Madsen, K. K.Chiang, J.Baloković, MislavPaneque, D.Furniss, A. K.Hayashida, M.Urry, C. M.Ajello, M.Harrison, F. A.Giebels, B.Stern, D.Forster, K.Giommi, P.Perri, M.Puccetti, S.Zoglauer, A.Tagliaferri, G.DOI: info:10.1051/0004-6361/201936900v. 639A42
Abdalla, H., Adam, R., Aharonian, F., Ait Benkhali, F., Angüner, E. O., Arakawa, M., Arcaro, C., Armand, C., Ashkar, H., Backes, M., Barbosa Martins, V., Barnard, M., Becherini, Y., Berge, D., Bernlöhr, K., Blackwell, R., Böttcher, M., Boisson, C., Bolmont, J., Bonnefoy, S., Bregeon, J., Breuhaus, M., Brun, F., Brun, P., Bryan, M. et al. 2020. "Simultaneous observations of the blazar PKS 2155-304 from ultra-violet to TeV energies." Astronomy and Astrophysics 639:A42. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201936900
ID: 157819
Type: article
Authors: Abdalla, H.; Adam, R.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Angüner, E. O.; Arakawa, M.; Arcaro, C.; Armand, C.; Ashkar, H.; Backes, M.; Barbosa Martins, V.; Barnard, M.; Becherini, Y.; Berge, D.; Bernlöhr, K.; Blackwell, R.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bregeon, J.; Breuhaus, M.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Büchele, M.; Bulik, T.; Bylund, T.; Caroff, S.; Carosi, A.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chand, T.; Chandra, S.; Chen, A.; Colafrancesco, S.; Curyło, M.; Davids, I. D.; Deil, C.; Devin, J.; deWilt, P.; Dirson, L.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Dmytriiev, A.; Donath, A.; Doroshenko, V.; Dyks, J.; Egberts, K.; Emery, G.; Ernenwein, J. -P; Eschbach, S.; Feijen, K.; Fegan, S.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Funk, S.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gallant, Y. A.; Gaté, F.; Giavitto, G.; Giunti, L.; Glawion, D.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Grondin, M. -H; Hahn, J.; Haupt, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hoischen, C.; Holch, T. L.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Huber, D.; Iwasaki, H.; Jamrozy, M.; Jankowsky, D.; Jankowsky, F.; Jardin-Blicq, A.; Jung-Richardt, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katsuragawa, M.; Katz, U.; Khangulyan, D.; Khélifi, B.; King, J.; Klepser, S.; Kluźniak, W.; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K.; Kostunin, D.; Kreter, M.; Lamanna, G.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J. -P; Leser, E.; Levy, C.; Lohse, T.; Lypova, I.; Mackey, J.; Majumdar, J.; Malyshev, D.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Mares, A.; Mariaud, C.; Martí-Devesa, G.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Meintjes, P. J.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Mohrmann, L.; Moore, C.; Moulin, E.; Muller, J.; Murach, T.; Nakashima, S.; de Naurois, M.; Ndiyavala, H.; Niederwanger, F.; Niemiec, J.; Oakes, L.; O'Brien, P.; Odaka, H.; Ohm, S.; de Ona Wilhelmi, E.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Perennes, C.; Petrucci, P. -O; Peyaud, B.; Piel, Q.; Pita, S.; Poireau, V.; Priyana Noel, A.; Prokhorov, D. A.; Prokoph, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Rauth, R.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Remy, Q.; Renaud, M.; Rieger, F.; Rinchiuso, L.; Romoli, C.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Ruiz-Velasco, E.; Sahakian, V.; Sailer, S.; Saito, S.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Sasaki, M.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schutte, H. M.; Schwanke, U.; Schwemmer, S.; Seglar-Arroyo, M.; Senniappan, M.; Seyffert, A. S.; Shafi, N.; Shiningayamwe, K.; Simoni, R.; Sinha, A.; Sol, H.; Specovius, A.; Spir-Jacob, M.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Steppa, C.; Takahashi, T.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tiziani, D.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Tsirou, M.; Tsuji, N.; Tuffs, R.; Uchiyama, Y.; van der Walt, D. J.; van Eldik, C.; van Rensburg, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Völk, H. J.; Vuillaume, T.; Wadiasingh, Z.; Wagner, S. J.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Yang, R.; Yoneda, H.; Zacharias, M.; Zanin, R.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zorn, J.; Żywucka, N.; Madejski, G. M.; Nalewajko, K.; Madsen, K. K.; Chiang, J.; Baloković, Mislav; Paneque, D.; Furniss, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Urry, C. M.; Ajello, M.; Harrison, F. A.; Giebels, B.; Stern, D.; Forster, K.; Giommi, P.; Perri, M.; Puccetti, S.; Zoglauer, A.; Tagliaferri, G.
Abstract: Here we report the results of the first ever contemporaneous multi-wavelength observation campaign on the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304 involving Swift, NuSTAR, Fermi-LAT, and H.E.S.S. The use of these instruments allows us to cover a broad energy range, which is important for disentangling the different radiative mechanisms. The source, observed from June 2013 to October 2013, was found in a low flux state with respect to previous observations but exhibited highly significant flux variability in the X-rays. The high-energy end of the synchrotron spectrum can be traced up to 40 keV without significant contamination by high-energy emission. A one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model was used to reproduce the broadband flux of the source for all the observations presented here but failed for previous observations made in April 2013. A lepto-hadronic solution was then explored to explain these earlier observational results.
NuSTAR observations of four nearby X-ray faint AGNs: low luminosity or heavy obscuration?Annuar, A.Alexander, D. M.Gandhi, P.Lansbury, G. B.Asmus, D.Baloković, MislavBallantyne, D. R.Bauer, F. E.Boorman, P. G.Brandt, W. N.Brightman, M.Chen, C. -T J.Del Moro, A.Farrah, D.Harrison, F. A.Koss, M. J.Lanz, L.Marchesi, S.Masini, A.Nardini, E.Ricci, C.Stern, D.Zappacosta, L.DOI: info:10.1093/mnras/staa1820v. 497229–245
Annuar, A., Alexander, D. M., Gandhi, P., Lansbury, G. B., Asmus, D., Baloković, Mislav, Ballantyne, D. R., Bauer, F. E., Boorman, P. G., Brandt, W. N., Brightman, M., Chen, C. -T J., Del Moro, A., Farrah, D., Harrison, F. A., Koss, M. J., Lanz, L., Marchesi, S., Masini, A., Nardini, E., Ricci, C., Stern, D., and Zappacosta, L. 2020. "NuSTAR observations of four nearby X-ray faint AGNs: low luminosity or heavy obscuration?." Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 497:229– 245. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/staa1820
ID: 157846
Type: article
Authors: Annuar, A.; Alexander, D. M.; Gandhi, P.; Lansbury, G. B.; Asmus, D.; Baloković, Mislav; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Boorman, P. G.; Brandt, W. N.; Brightman, M.; Chen, C. -T J.; Del Moro, A.; Farrah, D.; Harrison, F. A.; Koss, M. J.; Lanz, L.; Marchesi, S.; Masini, A.; Nardini, E.; Ricci, C.; Stern, D.; Zappacosta, L.
Abstract: We present NuSTAR (Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array) observations of four active galactic nuclei (AGNs) located within 15 Mpc. These AGNs, namely ESO 121-G6, NGC 660, NGC 3486, and NGC 5195, have observed X-ray luminosities of L2-10 keV,obs ≲ 1039 erg s-1, classifying them as low-luminosity AGN (LLAGN). We perform broad-band X-ray spectral analysis for the AGN by combining our NuSTAR data with Chandra or XMM-Newton observations to directly measure their column densities (NH) and infer their intrinsic power. We complement our X-ray data with archival and new high-angular resolution mid-infrared (mid-IR) data for all objects, except NGC 5195. Based on our X-ray spectral analysis, we found that both ESO 121-G6 and NGC 660 are heavily obscured (NH > 1023 cm-2; L2-10 keV,int ∼ 1041 erg s-1), and NGC 660 may be Compton thick. We also note that the X-ray flux and spectral slope for ESO 121-G6 have significantly changed over the last decade, indicating significant changes in the obscuration and potentially accretion rate. On the other hand, NGC 3486 and NGC 5195 appear to be unobscured and just mildly obscured, respectively, with L2-10 keV,int 39 erg s-1, i.e. genuine LLAGN. Both of the heavily obscured AGNs have Lbol > 1041 erg s-1 and λEdd ≳ 10-3, and are detected in high-angular resolution mid-IR imaging, indicating the presence of obscuring dust on nuclear scale. NGC 3486, however, is undetected in high-resolution mid-IR imaging, and the current data do not provide stringent constraints on the presence or absence of obscuring nuclear dust in the AGN.
NuSTAR Survey of Obscured Swift/BAT-selected Active Galactic Nuclei. II. Median High-energy Cutoff in Seyfert II Hard X-Ray SpectraBalokovic, MislavHarrison, F. A.Madejski, G.Comastri, A.Ricci, C.Annuar, A.Ballantyne, D. R.Boorman, P.Brandt, W. N.Brightman, M.Gandhi, P.Kamraj, N.Koss, M. J.Marchesi, S.Marinucci, A.Masini, A.Matt, G.Stern, D.Urry, C. M.DOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/abc342v. 90541
Balokovic, Mislav, Harrison, F. A., Madejski, G., Comastri, A., Ricci, C., Annuar, A., Ballantyne, D. R., Boorman, P., Brandt, W. N., Brightman, M., Gandhi, P., Kamraj, N., Koss, M. J., Marchesi, S., Marinucci, A., Masini, A., Matt, G., Stern, D., and Urry, C. M. 2020. "NuSTAR Survey of Obscured Swift/BAT-selected Active Galactic Nuclei. II. Median High-energy Cutoff in Seyfert II Hard X-Ray Spectra." The Astrophysical Journal 905:41. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/abc342
ID: 158765
Type: article
Authors: Balokovic, Mislav; Harrison, F. A.; Madejski, G.; Comastri, A.; Ricci, C.; Annuar, A.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Boorman, P.; Brandt, W. N.; Brightman, M.; Gandhi, P.; Kamraj, N.; Koss, M. J.; Marchesi, S.; Marinucci, A.; Masini, A.; Matt, G.; Stern, D.; Urry, C. M.
Abstract: Broadband X-ray spectroscopy of the X-ray emission produced in the coronae of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) can provide important insights into the physical conditions very close to their central supermassive black holes. The temperature of the Comptonizing plasma that forms the corona is manifested through a high-energy cutoff that has been difficult to directly constrain even in the brightest AGN because it requires high-quality data at energies above 10 keV. In this paper we present a large collection of coronal cutoff constraints for obscured AGNs based on a sample of 130 AGNs selected in the hard X-ray band with Swift/BAT and observed nearly simultaneously with NuSTAR and Swift/XRT. We find that under a reasonable set of assumptions regarding partial constraints the median cutoff is well constrained to 290 ± 20 keV, where the uncertainty is statistical and given at the 68% confidence level. We investigate the sensitivity of this result to our assumptions and find that consideration of various known systematic uncertainties robustly places the median cutoff between 240 and 340 keV. The central 68% of the intrinsic cutoff distribution is found to be between about 140 and 500 keV, with estimated uncertainties of 20 and 100 keV, respectively. In comparison with the literature, we find no clear evidence that the cutoffs in obscured and unobscured AGNs are substantially different. Our analysis highlights the importance of carefully considering partial and potentially degenerate constraints on the coronal high-energy cutoff in AGNs.
THEMIS: A Parameter Estimation Framework for the Event Horizon TelescopeBroderick, Avery E.Gold, RomanKarami, MansourPreciado-López, Jorge A.Tiede, PaulPu, Hung-YiAkiyama, KazunoriAlberdi, AntxonAlef, WalterAsada, KeiichiAzulay, RebeccaBaczko, Anne-KathrinBaloković, MislavBarrett, JohnBintley, DanBlackburn, LindyBoland, WilfredBouman, Katherine L.Bower, Geoffrey C.Bremer, MichaelBrinkerink, Christiaan D.Brissenden, RogerBritzen, SilkeBroguiere, DominiqueBronzwaer, ThomasByun, Do-YoungCarlstrom, John E.Chael, AndrewChatterjee, ShamiChatterjee, KoushikChen, Ming-TangChen, YongjunCho, IljeConway, John E.Cordes, James M.Crew, Geoffrey B.Cui, YuzhuDavelaar, JordyDe Laurentis, MariafeliciaDeane, RogerDempsey, JessicaDesvignes, GregoryDoeleman, Sheperd S.Eatough, Ralph P.Falcke, HeinoFish, Vincent L.Fomalont, EdFraga-Encinas, RaquelFriberg, PerFromm, Christian M.Galison, PeterGammie, Charles F.García, RobertoGentaz, OlivierGeorgiev, BorisGoddi, CiriacoGómez, José L.Gu, MinfengGurwell, MarkHada, KazuhiroHecht, Michael H.Hesper, RonaldHo, Luis C.Ho, PaulHonma, MarekiHuang, Chih-Wei L.Huang, LeiHughes, David H.Inoue, MakotoIssaoun, SaraJames, David J.Janssen, MichaelJeter, BrittonJiang, WuJiménez-Rosales, AlejandraJohnson, Michael D.Jorstad, SvetlanaJung, TaehyunKaruppusamy, RameshKawashima, TomohisaKeating, Garrett K.Kettenis, MarkKim, Jae-YoungKim, JongsooKino, MotokiKoay, Jun YiKoch, Patrick M.Koyama, ShokoKramer, MichaelKramer, CarstenKrichbaum, Thomas P.Kuo, Cheng-YuLee, Sang-SungLi, Yan-RongLi, ZhiyuanLindqvist, MichaelLico, RoccoLiu, KuoLiuzzo, ElisabettaLo, Wen-PingLobanov, Andrei P.Loinard, LaurentLonsdale, ColinLu, Ru-SenMacDonald, Nicholas R.Mao, JirongMarscher, Alan P.Martí-Vidal, IvánMatsushita, SatokiMatthews, Lynn D.Menten, Karl M.Mizuno, YosukeMizuno, IzumiMoran, James M.Moriyama, KotaroMoscibrodzka, MonikaMüller, CorneliaNagai, HiroshiNagar, Neil M.Nakamura, MasanoriNarayan, RameshNarayanan, GopalNatarajan, IniyanNeri, RobertoNi, ChunchongNoutsos, AristeidisOkino, HirokiOlivares, HéctorOrtiz-León, Gisela N.Oyama, TomoakiPalumbo, Daniel C. M.Park, JonghoPen, Ue-LiPesce, Dominic W.Piétu, VincentPlambeck, RichardPopStefanija, AleksandarPorth, OliverPrather, BenRamakrishnan, VenkatesshRao, RamprasadRawlings, Mark G.Raymond, Alexander W.Rezzolla, LucianoRipperda, BartRoelofs, FreekRogers, AlanRos, EduardoRose, MelRottmann, HelgeRuszczyk, ChetRyan, Benjamin R.Rygl, Kazi L. J.Sánchez, SalvadorSánchez-Arguelles, DavidSasada, MahitoSavolainen, TuomasSchloerb, F. PeterSchuster, Karl-FriedrichShao, LijingShen, ZhiqiangSmall, DesSohn, Bong WonSooHoo, JasonTazaki, FumieTilanus, Remo P. J.Titus, MichaelToma, KenjiTorne, PabloTraianou, EfthaliaTrippe, SaschaTsuda, Shuichirovan Bemmel, Ilsevan Langevelde, Huib Janvan Rossum, Daniel R.Wagner, JanWardle, JohnWeintroub, JonathanWex, NorbertWharton, RobertWielgus, MaciekWong, George N.Wu, QingwenYoon, DoosooYoung, AndréYoung, KenYounsi, ZiriYuan, FengYuan, Ye-FeiZensus, J. AntonZhao, GuangyaoZhao, Shan-ShanZhu, ZiyanEvent Horizon Telescope CollaborationDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/ab91a4v. 897139
Broderick, Avery E., Gold, Roman, Karami, Mansour, Preciado-López, Jorge A., Tiede, Paul, Pu, Hung-Yi, Akiyama, Kazunori, Alberdi, Antxon, Alef, Walter, Asada, Keiichi, Azulay, Rebecca, Baczko, Anne-Kathrin, Baloković, Mislav, Barrett, John, Bintley, Dan, Blackburn, Lindy, Boland, Wilfred, Bouman, Katherine L., Bower, Geoffrey C., Bremer, Michael, Brinkerink, Christiaan D., Brissenden, Roger, Britzen, Silke, Broguiere, Dominique, Bronzwaer, Thomas et al. 2020. "THEMIS: A Parameter Estimation Framework for the Event Horizon Telescope." The Astrophysical Journal 897:139. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab91a4
ID: 157837
Type: article
Authors: Broderick, Avery E.; Gold, Roman; Karami, Mansour; Preciado-López, Jorge A.; Tiede, Paul; Pu, Hung-Yi; Akiyama, Kazunori; Alberdi, Antxon; Alef, Walter; Asada, Keiichi; Azulay, Rebecca; Baczko, Anne-Kathrin; Baloković, Mislav; Barrett, John; Bintley, Dan; Blackburn, Lindy; Boland, Wilfred; Bouman, Katherine L.; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Bremer, Michael; Brinkerink, Christiaan D.; Brissenden, Roger; Britzen, Silke; Broguiere, Dominique; Bronzwaer, Thomas; Byun, Do-Young; Carlstrom, John E.; Chael, Andrew; Chatterjee, Shami; Chatterjee, Koushik; Chen, Ming-Tang; Chen, Yongjun; Cho, Ilje; Conway, John E.; Cordes, James M.; Crew, Geoffrey B.; Cui, Yuzhu; Davelaar, Jordy; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Deane, Roger; Dempsey, Jessica; Desvignes, Gregory; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Eatough, Ralph P.; Falcke, Heino; Fish, Vincent L.; Fomalont, Ed; Fraga-Encinas, Raquel; Friberg, Per; Fromm, Christian M.; Galison, Peter; Gammie, Charles F.; García, Roberto; Gentaz, Olivier; Georgiev, Boris; Goddi, Ciriaco; Gómez, José L.; Gu, Minfeng; Gurwell, Mark; Hada, Kazuhiro; Hecht, Michael H.; Hesper, Ronald; Ho, Luis C.; Ho, Paul; Honma, Mareki; Huang, Chih-Wei L.; Huang, Lei; Hughes, David H.; Inoue, Makoto; Issaoun, Sara; James, David J.; Janssen, Michael; Jeter, Britton; Jiang, Wu; Jiménez-Rosales, Alejandra; Johnson, Michael D.; Jorstad, Svetlana; Jung, Taehyun; Karuppusamy, Ramesh; Kawashima, Tomohisa; Keating, Garrett K.; Kettenis, Mark; Kim, Jae-Young; Kim, Jongsoo; Kino, Motoki; Koay, Jun Yi; Koch, Patrick M.; Koyama, Shoko; Kramer, Michael; Kramer, Carsten; Krichbaum, Thomas P.; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Lee, Sang-Sung; Li, Yan-Rong; Li, Zhiyuan; Lindqvist, Michael; Lico, Rocco; Liu, Kuo; Liuzzo, Elisabetta; Lo, Wen-Ping; Lobanov, Andrei P.; Loinard, Laurent; Lonsdale, Colin; Lu, Ru-Sen; MacDonald, Nicholas R.; Mao, Jirong; Marscher, Alan P.; Martí-Vidal, Iván; Matsushita, Satoki; Matthews, Lynn D.; Menten, Karl M.; Mizuno, Yosuke; Mizuno, Izumi; Moran, James M.; Moriyama, Kotaro; Moscibrodzka, Monika; Müller, Cornelia; Nagai, Hiroshi; Nagar, Neil M.; Nakamura, Masanori; Narayan, Ramesh; Narayanan, Gopal; Natarajan, Iniyan; Neri, Roberto; Ni, Chunchong; Noutsos, Aristeidis; Okino, Hiroki; Olivares, Héctor; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Oyama, Tomoaki; Palumbo, Daniel C. M.; Park, Jongho; Pen, Ue-Li; Pesce, Dominic W.; Piétu, Vincent; Plambeck, Richard; PopStefanija, Aleksandar; Porth, Oliver; Prather, Ben; Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh; Rao, Ramprasad; Rawlings, Mark G.; Raymond, Alexander W.; Rezzolla, Luciano; Ripperda, Bart; Roelofs, Freek; Rogers, Alan; Ros, Eduardo; Rose, Mel; Rottmann, Helge; Ruszczyk, Chet; Ryan, Benjamin R.; Rygl, Kazi L. J.; Sánchez, Salvador; Sánchez-Arguelles, David; Sasada, Mahito; Savolainen, Tuomas; Schloerb, F. Peter; Schuster, Karl-Friedrich; Shao, Lijing; Shen, Zhiqiang; Small, Des; Sohn, Bong Won; SooHoo, Jason; Tazaki, Fumie; Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Titus, Michael; Toma, Kenji; Torne, Pablo; Traianou, Efthalia; Trippe, Sascha; Tsuda, Shuichiro; van Bemmel, Ilse; van Langevelde, Huib Jan; van Rossum, Daniel R.; Wagner, Jan; Wardle, John; Weintroub, Jonathan; Wex, Norbert; Wharton, Robert; Wielgus, Maciek; Wong, George N.; Wu, Qingwen; Yoon, Doosoo; Young, André; Young, Ken; Younsi, Ziri; Yuan, Feng; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Zensus, J. Anton; Zhao, Guangyao; Zhao, Shan-Shan; Zhu, Ziyan; Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration
Abstract: The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) provides the unprecedented ability to directly resolve the structure and dynamics of black hole emission regions on scales smaller than their horizons. This has the potential to critically probe the mechanisms by which black holes accrete and launch outflows, and the structure of supermassive black hole spacetimes. However, accessing this information is a formidable analysis challenge for two reasons. First, the EHT natively produces a variety of data types that encode information about the image structure in nontrivial ways; these are subject to a variety of systematic effects associated with very long baseline interferometry and are supplemented by a wide variety of auxiliary data on the primary EHT targets from decades of other observations. Second, models of the emission regions and their interaction with the black hole are complex, highly uncertain, and computationally expensive to construct. As a result, the scientific utilization of EHT observations requires a flexible, extensible, and powerful analysis framework. We present such a framework, THEMIS, which defines a set of interfaces between models, data, and sampling algorithms that facilitates future development. We describe the design and currently existing components of THEMIS, how THEMIS has been validated thus far, and present additional analyses made possible by THEMIS that illustrate its capabilities. Importantly, we demonstrate that THEMIS is able to reproduce prior EHT analyses, extend these, and do so in a computationally efficient manner that can efficiently exploit modern high-performance computing facilities. THEMIS has already been used extensively in the scientific analysis and interpretation of the first EHT observations of M87.
Verification of Radiative Transfer Schemes for the EHTGold, RomanBroderick, Avery E.Younsi, ZiriFromm, Christian M.Gammie, Charles F.Mościbrodzka, MonikaPu, Hung-YiBronzwaer, ThomasDavelaar, JordyDexter, JasonBall, DavidChan, Chi-kwanKawashima, TomohisaMizuno, YosukeRipperda, BartAkiyama, KazunoriAlberdi, AntxonAlef, WalterAsada, KeiichiAzulay, RebeccaBaczko, Anne-KathrinBaloković, MislavBarrett, JohnBintley, DanBlackburn, LindyBoland, WilfredBouman, Katherine L.Bower, Geoffrey C.Bremer, MichaelBrinkerink, Christiaan D.Brissenden, RogerBritzen, SilkeBroguiere, DominiqueByun, Do-YoungCarlstrom, John E.Chael, AndrewChatterjee, KoushikChatterjee, ShamiChen, Ming-TangChen, YongjunCho, IljeChristian, PierreConway, John E.Cordes, James M.Crew, Geoffrey B.Cui, YuzhuDe Laurentis, MariafeliciaDeane, RogerDempsey, JessicaDesvignes, GregoryDoeleman, Sheperd S.Eatough, Ralph?PFalcke, HeinoFish, Vincent L.Fomalont, EdFraga-Encinas, RaquelFreeman, BillFriberg, PerGómez, José L.Galison, PeterGarcía, RobertoGentaz, OlivierGeorgiev, BorisGoddi, CiriacoGu, MinfengGurwell, MarkHada, KazuhiroHecht, Michael H.Hesper, RonaldHo, Luis C.Ho, PaulHonma, MarekiHuang, Chih-Wei L.Huang, LeiHughes, David H.Inoue, MakotoIssaoun, SaraJames, David J.Jannuzi, Buell T.Janssen, MichaelJeter, BrittonJiang, WuJimenez-Rosales, AlejandraJohnson, Michael D.Jorstad, SvetlanaJung, TaehyunKarami, MansourKaruppusamy, RameshKeating, Garrett K.Kettenis, MarkKim, Jae-YoungKim, JunhanKim, JongsooKino, MotokiKoay, Jun YiKoch, Patrick M.Koyama, ShokoKramer, MichaelKramer, CarstenKrichbaum, Thomas P.Kuo, Cheng-YuLauer, Tod R.Lee, Sang-SungLi, Yan-RongLi, ZhiyuanLico, RoccoLindqvist, MichaelLiu, KuoLiuzzo, ElisabettaLo, Wen-PingLobanov, Andrei P.Loinard, LaurentLonsdale, ColinLu, Ru-SenMacDonald, Nicholas R.Markoff, SeraMao, JirongMarrone, Daniel P.Marscher, Alan P.Martí-Vidal, IvánMatsushita, SatokiMatthews, Lynn D.Medeiros, LiaMenten, Karl M.Mizuno, IzumiMoran, James M.Moriyama, KotaroMüller, CorneliaNagai, HiroshiNakamura, MasanoriNagar, Neil M.Narayan, RameshNarayanan, GopalNatarajan, IniyanNeri, RobertoNi, ChunchongNoutsos, AristeidisOkino, HirokiOrtiz-León, Gisela N.Oyama, TomoakiÖzel, FeryalPalumbo, Daniel C. M.Park, JonghoPatel, NimeshPen, Ue-LiPesce, Dominic W.Plambeck, RichardPiétu, VincentPopStefanija, AleksandarPorth, OliverPreciado-López, Jorge A.Psaltis, DimitriosRamakrishnan, VenkatesshRao, RamprasadRawlings, Mark G.Raymond, Alexander W.Rezzolla, LucianoRoelofs, FreekRogers, AlanRos, EduardoRose, MelRoshanineshat, ArashRottmann, HelgeRoy, Alan L.Ruszczyk, ChetRygl, Kazi L. J.Sánchez, SalvadorSánchez-Arguelles, DavidSasada, MahitoSavolainen, TuomasSchuster, Karl-FriedrichSchloerb, F. PeterShao, LijingShen, ZhiqiangSmall, DesSohn, Bong WonSooHoo, JasonTiede, PaulTazaki, FumieTilanus, Remo P. J.Titus, MichaelToma, KenjiTorne, PabloTrent, TylerTraianou, ThaliaTrippe, SaschaTsuda, Shuichirovan Langevelde, Huib Janvan Bemmel, Ilsevan Rossum, Daniel R.Wagner, JanWardle, JohnWex, NorbertWeintroub, JonathanWharton, RobertWielgus, MaciekWong, George N.Wu, QingwenYoon, DoosooYoung, KenYoung, AndréYuan, FengYuan, Ye-FeiZensus, J. AntonZhao, GuangyaoZhao, Shan-ShanZhu, ZiyanEvent Horizon Telescope CollaborationDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/ab96c6v. 897148
Gold, Roman, Broderick, Avery E., Younsi, Ziri, Fromm, Christian M., Gammie, Charles F., Mościbrodzka, Monika, Pu, Hung-Yi, Bronzwaer, Thomas, Davelaar, Jordy, Dexter, Jason, Ball, David, Chan, Chi-kwan, Kawashima, Tomohisa, Mizuno, Yosuke, Ripperda, Bart, Akiyama, Kazunori, Alberdi, Antxon, Alef, Walter, Asada, Keiichi, Azulay, Rebecca, Baczko, Anne-Kathrin, Baloković, Mislav, Barrett, John, Bintley, Dan, Blackburn, Lindy et al. 2020. "Verification of Radiative Transfer Schemes for the EHT." The Astrophysical Journal 897:148. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab96c6
ID: 157835
Type: article
Authors: Gold, Roman; Broderick, Avery E.; Younsi, Ziri; Fromm, Christian M.; Gammie, Charles F.; Mościbrodzka, Monika; Pu, Hung-Yi; Bronzwaer, Thomas; Davelaar, Jordy; Dexter, Jason; Ball, David; Chan, Chi-kwan; Kawashima, Tomohisa; Mizuno, Yosuke; Ripperda, Bart; Akiyama, Kazunori; Alberdi, Antxon; Alef, Walter; Asada, Keiichi; Azulay, Rebecca; Baczko, Anne-Kathrin; Baloković, Mislav; Barrett, John; Bintley, Dan; Blackburn, Lindy; Boland, Wilfred; Bouman, Katherine L.; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Bremer, Michael; Brinkerink, Christiaan D.; Brissenden, Roger; Britzen, Silke; Broguiere, Dominique; Byun, Do-Young; Carlstrom, John E.; Chael, Andrew; Chatterjee, Koushik; Chatterjee, Shami; Chen, Ming-Tang; Chen, Yongjun; Cho, Ilje; Christian, Pierre; Conway, John E.; Cordes, James M.; Crew, Geoffrey B.; Cui, Yuzhu; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Deane, Roger; Dempsey, Jessica; Desvignes, Gregory; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Eatough, Ralph?P; Falcke, Heino; Fish, Vincent L.; Fomalont, Ed; Fraga-Encinas, Raquel; Freeman, Bill; Friberg, Per; Gómez, José L.; Galison, Peter; García, Roberto; Gentaz, Olivier; Georgiev, Boris; Goddi, Ciriaco; Gu, Minfeng; Gurwell, Mark; Hada, Kazuhiro; Hecht, Michael H.; Hesper, Ronald; Ho, Luis C.; Ho, Paul; Honma, Mareki; Huang, Chih-Wei L.; Huang, Lei; Hughes, David H.; Inoue, Makoto; Issaoun, Sara; James, David J.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Janssen, Michael; Jeter, Britton; Jiang, Wu; Jimenez-Rosales, Alejandra; Johnson, Michael D.; Jorstad, Svetlana; Jung, Taehyun; Karami, Mansour; Karuppusamy, Ramesh; Keating, Garrett K.; Kettenis, Mark; Kim, Jae-Young; Kim, Junhan; Kim, Jongsoo; Kino, Motoki; Koay, Jun Yi; Koch, Patrick M.; Koyama, Shoko; Kramer, Michael; Kramer, Carsten; Krichbaum, Thomas P.; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Lauer, Tod R.; Lee, Sang-Sung; Li, Yan-Rong; Li, Zhiyuan; Lico, Rocco; Lindqvist, Michael; Liu, Kuo; Liuzzo, Elisabetta; Lo, Wen-Ping; Lobanov, Andrei P.; Loinard, Laurent; Lonsdale, Colin; Lu, Ru-Sen; MacDonald, Nicholas R.; Markoff, Sera; Mao, Jirong; Marrone, Daniel P.; Marscher, Alan P.; Martí-Vidal, Iván; Matsushita, Satoki; Matthews, Lynn D.; Medeiros, Lia; Menten, Karl M.; Mizuno, Izumi; Moran, James M.; Moriyama, Kotaro; Müller, Cornelia; Nagai, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Masanori; Nagar, Neil M.; Narayan, Ramesh; Narayanan, Gopal; Natarajan, Iniyan; Neri, Roberto; Ni, Chunchong; Noutsos, Aristeidis; Okino, Hiroki; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Oyama, Tomoaki; Özel, Feryal; Palumbo, Daniel C. M.; Park, Jongho; Patel, Nimesh; Pen, Ue-Li; Pesce, Dominic W.; Plambeck, Richard; Piétu, Vincent; PopStefanija, Aleksandar; Porth, Oliver; Preciado-López, Jorge A.; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh; Rao, Ramprasad; Rawlings, Mark G.; Raymond, Alexander W.; Rezzolla, Luciano; Roelofs, Freek; Rogers, Alan; Ros, Eduardo; Rose, Mel; Roshanineshat, Arash; Rottmann, Helge; Roy, Alan L.; Ruszczyk, Chet; Rygl, Kazi L. J.; Sánchez, Salvador; Sánchez-Arguelles, David; Sasada, Mahito; Savolainen, Tuomas; Schuster, Karl-Friedrich; Schloerb, F. Peter; Shao, Lijing; Shen, Zhiqiang; Small, Des; Sohn, Bong Won; SooHoo, Jason; Tiede, Paul; Tazaki, Fumie; Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Titus, Michael; Toma, Kenji; Torne, Pablo; Trent, Tyler; Traianou, Thalia; Trippe, Sascha; Tsuda, Shuichiro; van Langevelde, Huib Jan; van Bemmel, Ilse; van Rossum, Daniel R.; Wagner, Jan; Wardle, John; Wex, Norbert; Weintroub, Jonathan; Wharton, Robert; Wielgus, Maciek; Wong, George N.; Wu, Qingwen; Yoon, Doosoo; Young, Ken; Young, André; Yuan, Feng; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Zensus, J. Anton; Zhao, Guangyao; Zhao, Shan-Shan; Zhu, Ziyan; Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration
Abstract: The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) Collaboration has recently produced the first resolved images of the central supermassive black hole in the giant elliptical galaxy M87. Here we report on tests of the consistency and accuracy of the general relativistic radiative transfer codes used within the collaboration to model M87* and Sgr A*. We compare and evaluate (1) deflection angles for equatorial null geodesics in a Kerr spacetime; (2) images calculated from a series of simple, parameterized matter distributions in the Kerr metric using simplified emissivities and absorptivities; (3) for a subset of codes, images calculated from general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics simulations using different realistic synchrotron emissivities and absorptivities; (4) observables for the 2017 configuration of EHT, including visibility amplitudes and closure phases. The error in total flux is of order 1% when the codes are run with production numerical parameters. The dominant source of discrepancies for small camera distances is the location and detailed setup of the software "camera" that each code uses to produce synthetic images. We find that when numerical parameters are suitably chosen and the camera is sufficiently far away the images converge and that for given transfer coefficients, numerical uncertainties are unlikely to limit parameter estimation for the current generation of EHT observations. The purpose of this paper is to describe a verification and comparison of EHT radiative transfer codes. It is not to verify EHT models more generally.
Event Horizon Telescope imaging of the archetypal blazar 3C 279 at an extreme 20 microarcsecond resolutionKim, Jae-YoungKrichbaum, Thomas P.Broderick, Avery E.Wielgus, MaciekBlackburn, LindyGómez, José L.Johnson, Michael D.Bouman, Katherine L.Chael, AndrewAkiyama, KazunoriJorstad, SvetlanaMarscher, Alan P.Issaoun, SaraJanssen, MichaelChan, Chi-kwanSavolainen, TuomasPesce, Dominic W.Özel, FeryalAlberdi, AntxonAlef, WalterAsada, KeiichiAzulay, RebeccaBaczko, Anne-KathrinBall, DavidBaloković, MislavBarrett, JohnBintley, DanBoland, WilfredBower, Geoffrey C.Bremer, MichaelBrinkerink, Christiaan D.Brissenden, RogerBritzen, SilkeBroguiere, DominiqueBronzwaer, ThomasByun, Do-YoungCarlstrom, John E.Chatterjee, ShamiChatterjee, KoushikChen, Ming-TangChen, YongjunCho, IljeChristian, PierreConway, John E.Cordes, James M.Crew, Geoffrey B.Cui, YuzhuDavelaar, JordyDe Laurentis, MariafeliciaDeane, RogerDempsey, JessicaDesvignes, GregoryDexter, JasonDoeleman, Sheperd S.Eatough, Ralph P.Falcke, HeinoFish, Vincent L.Fomalont, EdFraga-Encinas, RaquelFriberg, PerFromm, Christian M.Galison, PeterGammie, Charles F.García, RobertoGentaz, OlivierGeorgiev, BorisGoddi, CiriacoGold, RomanGómez-Ruiz, Arturo I.Gu, MinfengGurwell, MarkHada, KazuhiroHecht, Michael H.Hesper, RonaldHo, Luis C.Ho, PaulHonma, MarekiHuang, Chih-Wei L.Huang, LeiHughes, David H.Ikeda, ShiroInoue, MakotoJames, David J.Jannuzi, Buell T.Jeter, BrittonJiang, WuJimenez-Rosales, AlejandraJung, TaehyunKarami, MansourKaruppusamy, RameshKawashima, TomohisaKeating, Garrett K.Kettenis, MarkKim, JunhanKim, JongsooKino, MotokiKoay, Jun YiKoch, Patrick M.Koyama, ShokoKramer, MichaelKramer, CarstenKuo, Cheng-YuLauer, Tod R.Lee, Sang-SungLi, Yan-RongLi, ZhiyuanLindqvist, MichaelLico, RoccoLiu, KuoLiuzzo, ElisabettaLo, Wen-PingLobanov, Andrei P.Loinard, LaurentLonsdale, ColinLu, Ru-SenMacDonald, Nicholas R.Mao, JirongMarkoff, SeraMarrone, Daniel P.Martí-Vidal, IvánMatsushita, SatokiMatthews, Lynn D.Medeiros, LiaMenten, Karl M.Mizuno, YosukeMizuno, IzumiMoran, James M.Moriyama, KotaroMoscibrodzka, MonikaMusoke, GibwaMüller, CorneliaNagai, HiroshiNagar, Neil M.Nakamura, MasanoriNarayan, RameshNarayanan, GopalNatarajan, IniyanNeri, RobertoNi, ChunchongNoutsos, AristeidisOkino, HirokiOlivares, HéctorOrtiz-León, Gisela N.Oyama, TomoakiPalumbo, Daniel C. M.Park, JonghoPatel, NimeshPen, Ue-LiPiétu, VincentPlambeck, RichardPopStefanija, AleksandarPorth, OliverPrather, BenPreciado-López, Jorge A.Psaltis, DimitriosPu, Hung-YiRamakrishnan, VenkatesshRao, RamprasadRawlings, Mark G.Raymond, Alexander W.Rezzolla, LucianoRipperda, BartRoelofs, FreekRogers, AlanRos, EduardoRose, MelRoshanineshat, ArashRottmann, HelgeRoy, Alan L.Ruszczyk, ChetRyan, Benjamin R.Rygl, Kazi L. J.Sánchez, SalvadorSánchez-Arguelles, DavidSasada, MahitoSchloerb, F. PeterSchuster, Karl-FriedrichShao, LijingShen, ZhiqiangSmall, DesSohn, Bong WonSooHoo, JasonTazaki, FumieTiede, PaulTilanus, Remo P. J.Titus, MichaelToma, KenjiTorne, PabloTrent, TylerTraianou, EfthaliaTrippe, SaschaTsuda, Shuichirovan Bemmel, Ilsevan Langevelde, Huib Janvan Rossum, Daniel R.Wagner, JanWardle, JohnWard-Thompson, DerekWeintroub, JonathanWex, NorbertWharton, RobertWong, George N.Wu, QingwenYoon, DoosooYoung, AndréYoung, KenYounsi, ZiriYuan, FengYuan, Ye-FeiZensus, J. AntonZhao, GuangyaoZhao, Shan-ShanZhu, ZiyanAlgaba, Juan-CarlosAllardi, AlexanderAmestica, RodrigoAnczarski, JadynBach, UweBaganoff, Frederick K.Beaudoin, ChristopherBenson, Bradford A.Berthold, RyanBlanchard, Jay M.Blundell, RayBustamente, SandraCappallo, RogerCastillo-Domínguez, EdgarChang, Chih-ChengChang, Shu-HaoChang, Song-ChuChen, Chung-ChenChilson, RyanChuter, Tim C.Rosado, Rodrigo CórdovaCoulson, Iain M.Crowley, JosephDerome, MarkDexter, MatthewDornbusch, SvenDudevoir, Kevin A.Dzib, Sergio A.Eckart, AndreasEckert, ChrisErickson, Neal R.Everett, Wendeline B.Faber, AaronFarah, Joseph R.Fath, VernonFolkers, Thomas W.Forbes, David C.Freund, RobertGale, David M.Gao, FengGeertsema, GertieGraham, David A.Greer, Christopher H.Grosslein, RonaldGueth, FrédéricHaggard, DarylHalverson, Nils W.Han, Chih-ChiangHan, Kuo-ChangHao, JinchiHasegawa, YutakaHenning, Jason W.Hernández-Gómez, AntonioHerrero-Illana, RubénHeyminck, StefanHirota, AkihikoHoge, JamesHuang, Yau-DeViolette Impellizzeri, C. M.Jiang, HominJohn, DavidKamble, AtishKeisler, RyanKimura, KimihiroKono, YusukeKubo, DerekKuroda, JohnLacasse, RichardLaing, Robert A.Leitch, Erik M.Li, Chao-TeLin, Lupin C. -CLiu, Ching-TangLiu, Kuan-YuLu, Li-MingMarson, Ralph G.Martin-Cocher, Pierre L.Massingill, Kyle D.Matulonis, CallieMcColl, Martin P.McWhirter, Stephen R.Messias, HugoMeyer-Zhao, ZhengMichalik, DanielMontaña, AlfredoMontgomerie, WilliamMora-Klein, MatiasMuders, DirkNadolski, AndrewNavarro, SantiagoNeilsen, JosephNguyen, Chi H.Nishioka, HiroakiNorton, TimothyNowak, Michael A.Nystrom, GeorgeOgawa, HideoOshiro, PeterParsons, HarrietPeñalver, JuanPhillips, Neil M.Poirier, MichaelPradel, NicolasPrimiani, Rurik A.Raffin, Philippe A.Rahlin, Alexandra S.Reiland, GeorgeRisacher, ChristopherRuiz, IgnacioSáez-Madaín, Alejandro F.Sassella, RemiSchellart, PimShaw, PaulSilva, Kevin M.Shiokawa, HotakaSmith, David R.Snow, WilliamSouccar, KamalSousa, DonSridharan, Tirupati K.Srinivasan, RanjaniStahm, WilliamStark, Antony A.Story, KyleTimmer, Sjoerd T.Vertatschitsch, LauraWalther, CraigWei, Ta-ShunWhitehorn, NathanWhitney, Alan R.Woody, David P.Wouterloot, Jan G. A.Wright, MelvinYamaguchi, PaulYu, Chen-YuZeballos, MilagrosZhang, ShuoZiurys, LucyEvent Horizon Telescope CollaborationDOI: info:10.1051/0004-6361/202037493v. 640A69
Kim, Jae-Young, Krichbaum, Thomas P., Broderick, Avery E., Wielgus, Maciek, Blackburn, Lindy, Gómez, José L., Johnson, Michael D., Bouman, Katherine L., Chael, Andrew, Akiyama, Kazunori, Jorstad, Svetlana, Marscher, Alan P., Issaoun, Sara, Janssen, Michael, Chan, Chi-kwan, Savolainen, Tuomas, Pesce, Dominic W., Özel, Feryal, Alberdi, Antxon, Alef, Walter, Asada, Keiichi, Azulay, Rebecca, Baczko, Anne-Kathrin, Ball, David, Baloković, Mislav et al. 2020. "Event Horizon Telescope imaging of the archetypal blazar 3C 279 at an extreme 20 microarcsecond resolution." Astronomy and Astrophysics 640:A69. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/202037493
ID: 157610
Type: article
Authors: Kim, Jae-Young; Krichbaum, Thomas P.; Broderick, Avery E.; Wielgus, Maciek; Blackburn, Lindy; Gómez, José L.; Johnson, Michael D.; Bouman, Katherine L.; Chael, Andrew; Akiyama, Kazunori; Jorstad, Svetlana; Marscher, Alan P.; Issaoun, Sara; Janssen, Michael; Chan, Chi-kwan; Savolainen, Tuomas; Pesce, Dominic W.; Özel, Feryal; Alberdi, Antxon; Alef, Walter; Asada, Keiichi; Azulay, Rebecca; Baczko, Anne-Kathrin; Ball, David; Baloković, Mislav; Barrett, John; Bintley, Dan; Boland, Wilfred; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Bremer, Michael; Brinkerink, Christiaan D.; Brissenden, Roger; Britzen, Silke; Broguiere, Dominique; Bronzwaer, Thomas; Byun, Do-Young; Carlstrom, John E.; Chatterjee, Shami; Chatterjee, Koushik; Chen, Ming-Tang; Chen, Yongjun; Cho, Ilje; Christian, Pierre; Conway, John E.; Cordes, James M.; Crew, Geoffrey B.; Cui, Yuzhu; Davelaar, Jordy; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Deane, Roger; Dempsey, Jessica; Desvignes, Gregory; Dexter, Jason; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Eatough, Ralph P.; Falcke, Heino; Fish, Vincent L.; Fomalont, Ed; Fraga-Encinas, Raquel; Friberg, Per; Fromm, Christian M.; Galison, Peter; Gammie, Charles F.; García, Roberto; Gentaz, Olivier; Georgiev, Boris; Goddi, Ciriaco; Gold, Roman; Gómez-Ruiz, Arturo I.; Gu, Minfeng; Gurwell, Mark; Hada, Kazuhiro; Hecht, Michael H.; Hesper, Ronald; Ho, Luis C.; Ho, Paul; Honma, Mareki; Huang, Chih-Wei L.; Huang, Lei; Hughes, David H.; Ikeda, Shiro; Inoue, Makoto; James, David J.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Jeter, Britton; Jiang, Wu; Jimenez-Rosales, Alejandra; Jung, Taehyun; Karami, Mansour; Karuppusamy, Ramesh; Kawashima, Tomohisa; Keating, Garrett K.; Kettenis, Mark; Kim, Junhan; Kim, Jongsoo; Kino, Motoki; Koay, Jun Yi; Koch, Patrick M.; Koyama, Shoko; Kramer, Michael; Kramer, Carsten; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Lauer, Tod R.; Lee, Sang-Sung; Li, Yan-Rong; Li, Zhiyuan; Lindqvist, Michael; Lico, Rocco; Liu, Kuo; Liuzzo, Elisabetta; Lo, Wen-Ping; Lobanov, Andrei P.; Loinard, Laurent; Lonsdale, Colin; Lu, Ru-Sen; MacDonald, Nicholas R.; Mao, Jirong; Markoff, Sera; Marrone, Daniel P.; Martí-Vidal, Iván; Matsushita, Satoki; Matthews, Lynn D.; Medeiros, Lia; Menten, Karl M.; Mizuno, Yosuke; Mizuno, Izumi; Moran, James M.; Moriyama, Kotaro; Moscibrodzka, Monika; Musoke, Gibwa; Müller, Cornelia; Nagai, Hiroshi; Nagar, Neil M.; Nakamura, Masanori; Narayan, Ramesh; Narayanan, Gopal; Natarajan, Iniyan; Neri, Roberto; Ni, Chunchong; Noutsos, Aristeidis; Okino, Hiroki; Olivares, Héctor; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Oyama, Tomoaki; Palumbo, Daniel C. M.; Park, Jongho; Patel, Nimesh; Pen, Ue-Li; Piétu, Vincent; Plambeck, Richard; PopStefanija, Aleksandar; Porth, Oliver; Prather, Ben; Preciado-López, Jorge A.; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Pu, Hung-Yi; Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh; Rao, Ramprasad; Rawlings, Mark G.; Raymond, Alexander W.; Rezzolla, Luciano; Ripperda, Bart; Roelofs, Freek; Rogers, Alan; Ros, Eduardo; Rose, Mel; Roshanineshat, Arash; Rottmann, Helge; Roy, Alan L.; Ruszczyk, Chet; Ryan, Benjamin R.; Rygl, Kazi L. J.; Sánchez, Salvador; Sánchez-Arguelles, David; Sasada, Mahito; Schloerb, F. Peter; Schuster, Karl-Friedrich; Shao, Lijing; Shen, Zhiqiang; Small, Des; Sohn, Bong Won; SooHoo, Jason; Tazaki, Fumie; Tiede, Paul; Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Titus, Michael; Toma, Kenji; Torne, Pablo; Trent, Tyler; Traianou, Efthalia; Trippe, Sascha; Tsuda, Shuichiro; van Bemmel, Ilse; van Langevelde, Huib Jan; van Rossum, Daniel R.; Wagner, Jan; Wardle, John; Ward-Thompson, Derek; Weintroub, Jonathan; Wex, Norbert; Wharton, Robert; Wong, George N.; Wu, Qingwen; Yoon, Doosoo; Young, André; Young, Ken; Younsi, Ziri; Yuan, Feng; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Zensus, J. Anton; Zhao, Guangyao; Zhao, Shan-Shan; Zhu, Ziyan; Algaba, Juan-Carlos; Allardi, Alexander; Amestica, Rodrigo; Anczarski, Jadyn; Bach, Uwe; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Beaudoin, Christopher; Benson, Bradford A.; Berthold, Ryan; Blanchard, Jay M.; Blundell, Ray; Bustamente, Sandra; Cappallo, Roger; Castillo-Domínguez, Edgar; Chang, Chih-Cheng; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Song-Chu; Chen, Chung-Chen; Chilson, Ryan; Chuter, Tim C.; Rosado, Rodrigo Córdova; Coulson, Iain M.; Crowley, Joseph; Derome, Mark; Dexter, Matthew; Dornbusch, Sven; Dudevoir, Kevin A.; Dzib, Sergio A.; Eckart, Andreas; Eckert, Chris; Erickson, Neal R.; Everett, Wendeline B.; Faber, Aaron; Farah, Joseph R.; Fath, Vernon; Folkers, Thomas W.; Forbes, David C.; Freund, Robert; Gale, David M.; Gao, Feng; Geertsema, Gertie; Graham, David A.; Greer, Christopher H.; Grosslein, Ronald; Gueth, Frédéric; Haggard, Daryl; Halverson, Nils W.; Han, Chih-Chiang; Han, Kuo-Chang; Hao, Jinchi; Hasegawa, Yutaka; Henning, Jason W.; Hernández-Gómez, Antonio; Herrero-Illana, Rubén; Heyminck, Stefan; Hirota, Akihiko; Hoge, James; Huang, Yau-De; Violette Impellizzeri, C. M.; Jiang, Homin; John, David; Kamble, Atish; Keisler, Ryan; Kimura, Kimihiro; Kono, Yusuke; Kubo, Derek; Kuroda, John; Lacasse, Richard; Laing, Robert A.; Leitch, Erik M.; Li, Chao-Te; Lin, Lupin C. -C; Liu, Ching-Tang; Liu, Kuan-Yu; Lu, Li-Ming; Marson, Ralph G.; Martin-Cocher, Pierre L.; Massingill, Kyle D.; Matulonis, Callie; McColl, Martin P.; McWhirter, Stephen R.; Messias, Hugo; Meyer-Zhao, Zheng; Michalik, Daniel; Montaña, Alfredo; Montgomerie, William; Mora-Klein, Matias; Muders, Dirk; Nadolski, Andrew; Navarro, Santiago; Neilsen, Joseph; Nguyen, Chi H.; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Norton, Timothy; Nowak, Michael A.; Nystrom, George; Ogawa, Hideo; Oshiro, Peter; Oyama, Tomoaki; Parsons, Harriet; Peñalver, Juan; Phillips, Neil M.; Poirier, Michael; Pradel, Nicolas; Primiani, Rurik A.; Raffin, Philippe A.; Rahlin, Alexandra S.; Reiland, George; Risacher, Christopher; Ruiz, Ignacio; Sáez-Madaín, Alejandro F.; Sassella, Remi; Schellart, Pim; Shaw, Paul; Silva, Kevin M.; Shiokawa, Hotaka; Smith, David R.; Snow, William; Souccar, Kamal; Sousa, Don; Sridharan, Tirupati K.; Srinivasan, Ranjani; Stahm, William; Stark, Antony A.; Story, Kyle; Timmer, Sjoerd T.; Vertatschitsch, Laura; Walther, Craig; Wei, Ta-Shun; Whitehorn, Nathan; Whitney, Alan R.; Woody, David P.; Wouterloot, Jan G. A.; Wright, Melvin; Yamaguchi, Paul; Yu, Chen-Yu; Zeballos, Milagros; Zhang, Shuo; Ziurys, Lucy; Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration
Abstract: 3C 279 is an archetypal blazar with a prominent radio jet that show broadband flux density variability across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. We use an ultra-high angular resolution technique - global Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) at 1.3 mm (230 GHz) - to resolve the innermost jet of 3C 279 in order to study its fine-scale morphology close to the jet base where highly variable γ-ray emission is thought to originate, according to various models. The source was observed during four days in April 2017 with the Event Horizon Telescope at 230 GHz, including the phased Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), at an angular resolution of ∼20 μas (at a redshift of z = 0.536 this corresponds to ∼0.13 pc ∼ 1700 Schwarzschild radii with a black hole mass MBH = 8 × 108 M). Imaging and model-fitting techniques were applied to the data to parameterize the fine-scale source structure and its variation. We find a multicomponent inner jet morphology with the northernmost component elongated perpendicular to the direction of the jet, as imaged at longer wavelengths. The elongated nuclear structure is consistent on all four observing days and across different imaging methods and model-fitting techniques, and therefore appears robust. Owing to its compactness and brightness, we associate the northern nuclear structure as the VLBI "core". This morphology can be interpreted as either a broad resolved jet base or a spatially bent jet. We also find significant day-to-day variations in the closure phases, which appear most pronounced on the triangles with the longest baselines. Our analysis shows that this variation is related to a systematic change of the source structure. Two inner jet components move non-radially at apparent speeds of ∼15 c and ∼20 c (∼1.3 and ∼1.7 μas day-1, respectively), which more strongly supports the scenario of traveling shocks or instabilities in a bent, possibly rotating jet. The observed apparent speeds are also coincident with the 3C 279 large-scale jet kinematics observed at longer (cm) wavelengths, suggesting no significant jet acceleration between the 1.3 mm core and the outer jet. The intrinsic brightness temperature of the jet components are ≲1010 K, a magnitude or more lower than typical values seen at ≥7 mm wavelengths. The low brightness temperature and morphological complexity suggest that the core region of 3C 279 becomes optically thin at short (mm) wavelengths.
The data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/640/A69 and at http://https://eventhorizontelescope.org/for-astronomers/data
Is Extended Hard X-Ray Emission Ubiquitous in Compton-thick AGN?Ma, JingzheElvis, MartinFabbiano, GiuseppinaBaloković, MislavMaksym, W. PeterJones, Mackenzie L.Risaliti, GuidoDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/abacbev. 900164
Ma, Jingzhe, Elvis, Martin, Fabbiano, Giuseppina, Baloković, Mislav, Maksym, W. Peter, Jones, Mackenzie L., and Risaliti, Guido. 2020. "Is Extended Hard X-Ray Emission Ubiquitous in Compton-thick AGN?." The Astrophysical Journal 900:164. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/abacbe
ID: 157684
Type: article
Authors: Ma, Jingzhe; Elvis, Martin; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Baloković, Mislav; Maksym, W. Peter; Jones, Mackenzie L.; Risaliti, Guido
Abstract: The recent Chandra discovery of extended ∼kiloparsec-scale hard (>3 keV) X-ray emission in nearby Compton-thick (CT) active galactic nuclei (AGN) opens a new window to improving AGN torus modeling and investigating how the central supermassive black hole interacts with and impacts the host galaxy. Since there are only a handful of detections so far, we need to establish a statistical sample to determine the ubiquity of the extended hard X-ray emission in CT AGN and quantify the amount and extent of this component. In this paper, we present the spatial analysis results of a pilot Chandra imaging survey of seven nearby ( $0.006\lt z\lt 0.013$ ) CT AGN selected from the Swift-BAT spectroscopic AGN survey. We find that five out of the seven CT AGN show extended emission in the 3-7 keV band detected at >3σ above the Chandra point-spread function (PSF), with ∼12%-22% of the total emission in the extended components. ESO 137-G034 and NGC 3281 display biconical ionization structures with extended hard X-ray emission reaching kiloparsec scales (∼1.9 and 3.5 kpc in diameter). The other three show extended hard X-ray emission above the PSF out to at least ∼360 pc in radius. We find a trend that a minimum 3-7 keV count rate of 0.01 counts s-1 and total excess fraction >20% are required to detect a prominent extended hard X-ray component. Given that this extended hard X-ray component appears to be relatively common in this uniformly selected CT AGN sample, we further discuss the implications for torus modeling and AGN feedback.
Gravitational Test beyond the First Post-Newtonian Order with the Shadow of the M87 Black HolePsaltis, DimitriosMedeiros, LiaChristian, PierreÖzel, FeryalAkiyama, KazunoriAlberdi, AntxonAlef, WalterAsada, KeiichiAzulay, RebeccaBall, DavidBalokovic, MislavBarrett, JohnBintley, DanBlackburn, LindyBoland, WilfredBower, Geoffrey C.Bremer, MichaelBrinkerink, Christiaan D.Brissenden, RogerBritzen, SilkeBroguiere, DominiqueBronzwaer, ThomasByun, Do-YoungCarlstrom, John E.Chael, AndrewChan, Chi-kwanChatterjee, ShamiChatterjee, KoushikChen, Ming-TangChen, YongjunCho, IljeConway, John E.Cordes, James M.Crew, Geoffrey B.Cui, YuzhuDavelaar, JordyDe Laurentis, MariafeliciaDeane, RogerDempsey, JessicaDesvignes, GregoryDexter, JasonEatough, Ralph P.Falcke, HeinoFish, Vincent L.Fomalont, EdFraga-Encinas, RaquelFriberg, PerFromm, Christian M.Gammie, Charles F.García, RobertoGentaz, OlivierGoddi, CiriacoGómez, José L.Gu, MinfengGurwell, MarkHada, KazuhiroHesper, RonaldHo, Luis C.Ho, PaulHonma, MarekiHuang, Chih-Wei L.Huang, LeiHughes, David H.Inoue, MakotoIssaoun, SaraJames, David J.Jannuzi, Buell T.Janssen, MichaelJiang, WuJimenez-Rosales, AlejandraJohnson, Michael D.Jorstad, SvetlanaJung, TaehyunKarami, MansourKaruppusamy, RameshKawashima, TomohisaKeating, Garrett K.Kettenis, MarkKim, Jae-YoungKim, JunhanKim, JongsooKino, MotokiKoay, Jun YiKoch, Patrick M.Koyama, ShokoKramer, MichaelKramer, CarstenKrichbaum, Thomas P.Kuo, Cheng-YuLauer, Tod R.Lee, Sang-SungLi, Yan-RongLi, ZhiyuanLindqvist, MichaelLico, RoccoLiu, JunLiu, KuoLiuzzo, ElisabettaLo, Wen-PingLobanov, Andrei P.Lonsdale, ColinLu, Ru-SenMao, JirongMarkoff, SeraMarrone, Daniel P.Marscher, Alan P.Martí-Vidal, IvánMatsushita, SatokiMizuno, YosukeMizuno, IzumiMoran, James M.Moriyama, KotaroMoscibrodzka, MonikaMüller, CorneliaMusoke, GibwaMus Mejías, AlejandroNagai, HiroshiNagar, Neil M.Narayan, RameshNarayanan, GopalNatarajan, IniyanNeri, RobertoNoutsos, AristeidisOkino, HirokiOlivares, HéctorOyama, TomoakiPalumbo, Daniel C. M.Park, JonghoPatel, NimeshPen, Ue-LiPiétu, VincentPlambeck, RichardPopStefanija, AleksandarPrather, BenPreciado-López, Jorge A.Ramakrishnan, VenkatesshRao, RamprasadRawlings, Mark G.Raymond, Alexander W.Ripperda, BartRoelofs, FreekRogers, AlanRos, EduardoRose, MelRoshanineshat, ArashRottmann, HelgeRoy, Alan L.Ruszczyk, ChetRyan, Benjamin R.Rygl, Kazi L. J.Sánchez, SalvadorSánchez-Arguelles, DavidSasada, MahitoSavolainen, TuomasSchloerb, F. PeterSchuster, Karl-FriedrichShao, LijingShen, ZhiqiangSmall, DesSohn, Bong WonSooHoo, JasonTazaki, FumieTilanus, Remo P. J.Titus, MichaelTorne, PabloTrent, TylerTraianou, EfthaliaTrippe, Saschavan Bemmel, Ilsevan Langevelde, Huib Janvan Rossum, Daniel R.Wagner, JanWardle, JohnWard-Thompson, DerekWeintroub, JonathanWex, NorbertWharton, RobertWielgus, MaciekWong, George N.Wu, QingwenYoon, DoosooYoung, AndréYoung, KenYounsi, ZiriYuan, FengYuan, Ye-FeiZhao, Shan-ShanEHT CollaborationDOI: info:10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.141104v. 125141104
Psaltis, Dimitrios, Medeiros, Lia, Christian, Pierre, Özel, Feryal, Akiyama, Kazunori, Alberdi, Antxon, Alef, Walter, Asada, Keiichi, Azulay, Rebecca, Ball, David, Balokovic, Mislav, Barrett, John, Bintley, Dan, Blackburn, Lindy, Boland, Wilfred, Bower, Geoffrey C., Bremer, Michael, Brinkerink, Christiaan D., Brissenden, Roger, Britzen, Silke, Broguiere, Dominique, Bronzwaer, Thomas, Byun, Do-Young, Carlstrom, John E., Chael, Andrew et al. 2020. "Gravitational Test beyond the First Post-Newtonian Order with the Shadow of the M87 Black Hole." Physical Review Letters 125:141104. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.141104
ID: 158749
Type: article
Authors: Psaltis, Dimitrios; Medeiros, Lia; Christian, Pierre; Özel, Feryal; Akiyama, Kazunori; Alberdi, Antxon; Alef, Walter; Asada, Keiichi; Azulay, Rebecca; Ball, David; Balokovic, Mislav; Barrett, John; Bintley, Dan; Blackburn, Lindy; Boland, Wilfred; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Bremer, Michael; Brinkerink, Christiaan D.; Brissenden, Roger; Britzen, Silke; Broguiere, Dominique; Bronzwaer, Thomas; Byun, Do-Young; Carlstrom, John E.; Chael, Andrew; Chan, Chi-kwan; Chatterjee, Shami; Chatterjee, Koushik; Chen, Ming-Tang; Chen, Yongjun; Cho, Ilje; Conway, John E.; Cordes, James M.; Crew, Geoffrey B.; Cui, Yuzhu; Davelaar, Jordy; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Deane, Roger; Dempsey, Jessica; Desvignes, Gregory; Dexter, Jason; Eatough, Ralph P.; Falcke, Heino; Fish, Vincent L.; Fomalont, Ed; Fraga-Encinas, Raquel; Friberg, Per; Fromm, Christian M.; Gammie, Charles F.; García, Roberto; Gentaz, Olivier; Goddi, Ciriaco; Gómez, José L.; Gu, Minfeng; Gurwell, Mark; Hada, Kazuhiro; Hesper, Ronald; Ho, Luis C.; Ho, Paul; Honma, Mareki; Huang, Chih-Wei L.; Huang, Lei; Hughes, David H.; Inoue, Makoto; Issaoun, Sara; James, David J.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Janssen, Michael; Jiang, Wu; Jimenez-Rosales, Alejandra; Johnson, Michael D.; Jorstad, Svetlana; Jung, Taehyun; Karami, Mansour; Karuppusamy, Ramesh; Kawashima, Tomohisa; Keating, Garrett K.; Kettenis, Mark; Kim, Jae-Young; Kim, Junhan; Kim, Jongsoo; Kino, Motoki; Koay, Jun Yi; Koch, Patrick M.; Koyama, Shoko; Kramer, Michael; Kramer, Carsten; Krichbaum, Thomas P.; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Lauer, Tod R.; Lee, Sang-Sung; Li, Yan-Rong; Li, Zhiyuan; Lindqvist, Michael; Lico, Rocco; Liu, Jun; Liu, Kuo; Liuzzo, Elisabetta; Lo, Wen-Ping; Lobanov, Andrei P.; Lonsdale, Colin; Lu, Ru-Sen; Mao, Jirong; Markoff, Sera; Marrone, Daniel P.; Marscher, Alan P.; Martí-Vidal, Iván; Matsushita, Satoki; Mizuno, Yosuke; Mizuno, Izumi; Moran, James M.; Moriyama, Kotaro; Moscibrodzka, Monika; Müller, Cornelia; Musoke, Gibwa; Mus Mejías, Alejandro; Nagai, Hiroshi; Nagar, Neil M.; Narayan, Ramesh; Narayanan, Gopal; Natarajan, Iniyan; Neri, Roberto; Noutsos, Aristeidis; Okino, Hiroki; Olivares, Héctor; Oyama, Tomoaki; Palumbo, Daniel C. M.; Park, Jongho; Patel, Nimesh; Pen, Ue-Li; Piétu, Vincent; Plambeck, Richard; PopStefanija, Aleksandar; Prather, Ben; Preciado-López, Jorge A.; Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh; Rao, Ramprasad; Rawlings, Mark G.; Raymond, Alexander W.; Ripperda, Bart; Roelofs, Freek; Rogers, Alan; Ros, Eduardo; Rose, Mel; Roshanineshat, Arash; Rottmann, Helge; Roy, Alan L.; Ruszczyk, Chet; Ryan, Benjamin R.; Rygl, Kazi L. J.; Sánchez, Salvador; Sánchez-Arguelles, David; Sasada, Mahito; Savolainen, Tuomas; Schloerb, F. Peter; Schuster, Karl-Friedrich; Shao, Lijing; Shen, Zhiqiang; Small, Des; Sohn, Bong Won; SooHoo, Jason; Tazaki, Fumie; Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Titus, Michael; Torne, Pablo; Trent, Tyler; Traianou, Efthalia; Trippe, Sascha; van Bemmel, Ilse; van Langevelde, Huib Jan; van Rossum, Daniel R.; Wagner, Jan; Wardle, John; Ward-Thompson, Derek; Weintroub, Jonathan; Wex, Norbert; Wharton, Robert; Wielgus, Maciek; Wong, George N.; Wu, Qingwen; Yoon, Doosoo; Young, André; Young, Ken; Younsi, Ziri; Yuan, Feng; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Zhao, Shan-Shan; EHT Collaboration
Abstract: The 2017 Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) observations of the central source in M87 have led to the first measurement of the size of a black-hole shadow. This observation offers a new and clean gravitational test of the black-hole metric in the strong-field regime. We show analytically that spacetimes that deviate from the Kerr metric but satisfy weak-field tests can lead to large deviations in the predicted black-hole shadows that are inconsistent with even the current EHT measurements. We use numerical calculations of regular, parametric, non-Kerr metrics to identify the common characteristic among these different parametrizations that control the predicted shadow size. We show that the shadow-size measurements place significant constraints on deviation parameters that control the second post-Newtonian and higher orders of each metric and are, therefore, inaccessible to weak-field tests. The new constraints are complementary to those imposed by observations of gravitational waves from stellar-mass sources.
SYMBA: An end-to-end VLBI synthetic data generation pipeline. Simulating Event Horizon Telescope observations of M 87Roelofs, F.Janßen, M.Natarajan, I.Deane, R.Davelaar, J.Olivares, H.Porth, O.Paine, Scott N.Bouman, Katherine L.Tilanus, R. P. J.van Bemmel, I. M.Falcke, H.Akiyama, K.Alberdi, A.Alef, W.Asada, K.Azulay, R.Baczko, A.Ball, D.Baloković, MislavBarrett, J.Bintley, D.Blackburn, LindyBoland, W.Bower, G. C.Bremer, M.Brinkerink, C. D.Brissenden, RogerBritzen, S.Broderick, A. E.Broguiere, D.Bronzwaer, T.Byun, D.Carlstrom, J. E.Chael, A.Chan, C.Chatterjee, S.Chatterjee, K.Chen, M.Chen, Y.Cho, I.Christian, P.Conway, J. E.Cordes, J. M.Crew, G. B.Cui, Y.De Laurentis, M.Dempsey, J.Desvignes, G.Dexter, J.Doeleman, Sheperd S.Eatough, R. P.Fish, V. L.Fomalont, E.Fraga-Encinas, R.Friberg, P.Fromm, C. M.Gómez, J. L.Galison, P.Gammie, C. F.García, R.Gentaz, O.Georgiev, B.Goddi, C.Gold, R.Gu, M.Gurwell, MarkHada, K.Hecht, M. H.Hesper, R.Ho, L. C.Ho, P.Honma, M.Huang, C. L.Huang, L.Hughes, D. H.Ikeda, S.Inoue, M.Issaoun, S.James, David J.Jannuzi, B. T.Jeter, B.Jiang, W.Johnson, M. D.Jorstad, S.Jung, T.Karami, M.Karuppusamy, R.Kawashima, T.Keating, Garrett K.Kettenis, M.Kim, J.Kino, M.Koay, J. Y.Koch, P. M.Koyama, S.Kramer, M.Kramer, C.Krichbaum, T. P.Kuo, C.Lauer, T. R.Lee, S.Li, Y.Li, Z.Lindqvist, M.Lico, R.Liu, K.Liuzzo, E.Lo, W.Lobanov, A. P.Loinard, L.Lonsdale, C.Lu, R.MacDonald, N. R.Mao, J.Markoff, S.Marrone, D. P.Marscher, A. P.Martí-Vidal, I.Matsushita, S.Matthews, L. D.Medeiros, L.Menten, K. M.Mizuno, Y.Mizuno, I.Moran, James M.Moriyama, K.Moscibrodzka, M.Müller, C.Nagai, H.Nagar, N. M.Nakamura, M.Narayan, RameshNarayanan, G.Neri, R.Ni, C.Noutsos, A.Okino, H.Ortiz-León, G. N.Oyama, T.Özel, F.Palumbo, Daniel C. M.Patel, NimeshPen, U.Pesce, Dominic W.Piétu, V.Plambeck, R.PopStefanija, A.Prather, B.Preciado-López, J. A.Psaltis, D.Pu, H.Ramakrishnan, V.Rao, R.Rawlings, M. G.Raymond, Alexander W.Rezzolla, L.Ripperda, B.Rogers, A.Ros, E.Rose, M.Roshanineshat, A.Rottmann, H.Roy, A. L.Ruszczyk, C.Ryan, B. R.Rygl, K. L. J.Sánchez, S.Sánchez-Arguelles, D.Sasada, M.Savolainen, T.Schloerb, F. P.Schuster, K.Shao, L.Shen, Z.Small, D.Won Sohn, B.SooHoo, J.Tazaki, F.Tiede, P.Titus, M.Toma, K.Torne, P.Traianou, E.Trent, T.Trippe, S.Tsuda, S.van Langevelde, H. J.van Rossum, D. R.Wagner, J.Wardle, J.Weintroub, JonathanWex, N.Wharton, R.Wielgus, MaciekWong, G. N.Wu, Q.Young, A.Young, K.Younsi, Z.Yuan, F.Yuan, Y.Zensus, J. A.Zhao, G.Zhao, S.Zhu, Z.DOI: info:10.1051/0004-6361/201936622v. 636A5
Roelofs, F., Janßen, M., Natarajan, I., Deane, R., Davelaar, J., Olivares, H., Porth, O., Paine, Scott N., Bouman, Katherine L., Tilanus, R. P. J., van Bemmel, I. M., Falcke, H., Akiyama, K., Alberdi, A., Alef, W., Asada, K., Azulay, R., Baczko, A., Ball, D., Baloković, Mislav, Barrett, J., Bintley, D., Blackburn, Lindy, Boland, W., Bower, G. C. et al. 2020. "SYMBA: An end-to-end VLBI synthetic data generation pipeline. Simulating Event Horizon Telescope observations of M 87." Astronomy and Astrophysics 636:A5. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201936622
ID: 157120
Type: article
Authors: Roelofs, F.; Janßen, M.; Natarajan, I.; Deane, R.; Davelaar, J.; Olivares, H.; Porth, O.; Paine, Scott N.; Bouman, Katherine L.; Tilanus, R. P. J.; van Bemmel, I. M.; Falcke, H.; Akiyama, K.; Alberdi, A.; Alef, W.; Asada, K.; Azulay, R.; Baczko, A.; Ball, D.; Baloković, Mislav; Barrett, J.; Bintley, D.; Blackburn, Lindy; Boland, W.; Bower, G. C.; Bremer, M.; Brinkerink, C. D.; Brissenden, Roger; Britzen, S.; Broderick, A. E.; Broguiere, D.; Bronzwaer, T.; Byun, D.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chael, A.; Chan, C.; Chatterjee, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Chen, M.; Chen, Y.; Cho, I.; Christian, P.; Conway, J. E.; Cordes, J. M.; Crew, G. B.; Cui, Y.; De Laurentis, M.; Dempsey, J.; Desvignes, G.; Dexter, J.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Eatough, R. P.; Fish, V. L.; Fomalont, E.; Fraga-Encinas, R.; Friberg, P.; Fromm, C. M.; Gómez, J. L.; Galison, P.; Gammie, C. F.; García, R.; Gentaz, O.; Georgiev, B.; Goddi, C.; Gold, R.; Gu, M.; Gurwell, Mark; Hada, K.; Hecht, M. H.; Hesper, R.; Ho, L. C.; Ho, P.; Honma, M.; Huang, C. L.; Huang, L.; Hughes, D. H.; Ikeda, S.; Inoue, M.; Issaoun, S.; James, David J.; Jannuzi, B. T.; Jeter, B.; Jiang, W.; Johnson, M. D.; Jorstad, S.; Jung, T.; Karami, M.; Karuppusamy, R.; Kawashima, T.; Keating, Garrett K.; Kettenis, M.; Kim, J.; Kim, J.; Kim, J.; Kino, M.; Koay, J. Y.; Koch, P. M.; Koyama, S.; Kramer, M.; Kramer, C.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Kuo, C.; Lauer, T. R.; Lee, S.; Li, Y.; Li, Z.; Lindqvist, M.; Lico, R.; Liu, K.; Liuzzo, E.; Lo, W.; Lobanov, A. P.; Loinard, L.; Lonsdale, C.; Lu, R.; MacDonald, N. R.; Mao, J.; Markoff, S.; Marrone, D. P.; Marscher, A. P.; Martí-Vidal, I.; Matsushita, S.; Matthews, L. D.; Medeiros, L.; Menten, K. M.; Mizuno, Y.; Mizuno, I.; Moran, James M.; Moriyama, K.; Moscibrodzka, M.; Müller, C.; Nagai, H.; Nagar, N. M.; Nakamura, M.; Narayan, Ramesh; Narayanan, G.; Neri, R.; Ni, C.; Noutsos, A.; Okino, H.; Olivares, H.; Ortiz-León, G. N.; Oyama, T.; Özel, F.; Palumbo, Daniel C. M.; Patel, Nimesh; Pen, U.; Pesce, Dominic W.; Piétu, V.; Plambeck, R.; PopStefanija, A.; Prather, B.; Preciado-López, J. A.; Psaltis, D.; Pu, H.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Rao, R.; Rawlings, M. G.; Raymond, Alexander W.; Rezzolla, L.; Ripperda, B.; Rogers, A.; Ros, E.; Rose, M.; Roshanineshat, A.; Rottmann, H.; Roy, A. L.; Ruszczyk, C.; Ryan, B. R.; Rygl, K. L. J.; Sánchez, S.; Sánchez-Arguelles, D.; Sasada, M.; Savolainen, T.; Schloerb, F. P.; Schuster, K.; Shao, L.; Shen, Z.; Small, D.; Won Sohn, B.; SooHoo, J.; Tazaki, F.; Tiede, P.; Titus, M.; Toma, K.; Torne, P.; Traianou, E.; Trent, T.; Trippe, S.; Tsuda, S.; van Langevelde, H. J.; van Rossum, D. R.; Wagner, J.; Wardle, J.; Weintroub, Jonathan; Wex, N.; Wharton, R.; Wielgus, Maciek; Wong, G. N.; Wu, Q.; Young, A.; Young, K.; Younsi, Z.; Yuan, F.; Yuan, Y.; Zensus, J. A.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, S.; Zhu, Z.
Abstract: Context. Realistic synthetic observations of theoretical source models are essential for our understanding of real observational data. In using synthetic data, one can verify the extent to which source parameters can be recovered and evaluate how various data corruption effects can be calibrated. These studies are the most important when proposing observations of new sources, in the characterization of the capabilities of new or upgraded instruments, and when verifying model-based theoretical predictions in a direct comparison with observational data.
Aims: We present the SYnthetic Measurement creator for long Baseline Arrays (SYMBA), a novel synthetic data generation pipeline for Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations. SYMBA takes into account several realistic atmospheric, instrumental, and calibration effects.
Methods: We used SYMBA to create synthetic observations for the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), a millimetre VLBI array, which has recently captured the first image of a black hole shadow. After testing SYMBA with simple source and corruption models, we study the importance of including all corruption and calibration effects, compared to the addition of thermal noise only. Using synthetic data based on two example general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) model images of M 87, we performed case studies to assess the image quality that can be obtained with the current and future EHT array for different weather conditions.
Results: Our synthetic observations show that the effects of atmospheric and instrumental corruptions on the measured visibilities are significant. Despite these effects, we demonstrate how the overall structure of our GRMHD source models can be recovered robustly with the EHT2017 array after performing calibration steps, which include fringe fitting, a priori amplitude and network calibration, and self-calibration. With the planned addition of new stations to the EHT array in the coming years, images could be reconstructed with higher angular resolution and dynamic range. In our case study, these improvements allowed for a distinction between a thermal and a non-thermal GRMHD model based on salient features in reconstructed images.
Monitoring the Morphology of M87* in 2009-2017 with the Event Horizon TelescopeWielgus, MaciekAkiyama, KazunoriBlackburn, LindyChan, Chi-kwanDexter, JasonDoeleman, Sheperd S.Fish, Vincent L.Issaoun, SaraJohnson, Michael D.Krichbaum, Thomas P.Lu, Ru-SenPesce, Dominic W.Wong, George N.Bower, Geoffrey C.Broderick, Avery E.Chael, AndrewChatterjee, KoushikGammie, Charles F.Georgiev, BorisHada, KazuhiroLoinard, LaurentMarkoff, SeraMarrone, Daniel P.Plambeck, RichardWeintroub, JonathanDexter, MatthewMacMahon, David H. E.Wright, MelvynAlberdi, AntxonAlef, WalterAsada, KeiichiAzulay, RebeccaBaczko, Anne-KathrinBall, DavidBaloković, MislavBarausse, EnricoBarrett, JohnBintley, DanBoland, WilfredBouman, Katherine L.Bremer, MichaelBrinkerink, Christiaan D.Brissenden, RogerBritzen, SilkeBroguiere, DominiqueBronzwaer, ThomasByun, Do-YoungCarlstrom, John E.Chatterjee, ShamiChen, Ming-TangChen, YongjunCho, IljeChristian, PierreConway, John E.Cordes, James M.Crew, Geoffrey B.Cui, YuzhuDavelaar, JordyDe Laurentis, MariafeliciaeDeane, RogerDempsey, JessicaDesvignes, GregoryDzib, Sergio A.Eatough, Ralph P.Falcke, HeinoFomalont, EdFraga-Encinas, RaquelFriberg, PerFromm, Christian M.Galison, PeterGarcía, RobertoGentaz, OlivierGoddi, CiriacoGold, RomanGómez, José L.Gómez-Ruiz, Arturo I.Gu, MinfengGurwell, MarkHecht, Michael H.Hesper, RonaldHo, Luis C.Ho, PaulHonma, MarekiHuang, Chih-Wei L.Huang, LeiHughes, David H.Inoue, MakotoJames, David J.Jannuzi, Buell T.Janssen, MichaelJeter, BrittonJiang, WuJimenez-Rosales, AlejandraJorstad, SvetlanaJung, TaehyunKarami, MansourKaruppusamy, RameshKawashima, TomohisaKeating, Garrett K.Kettenis, MarkKim, Jae-YoungKim, JunhanKim, JongsooKino, MotokiKoay, Jun YiKoch, Patrick M.Koyama, ShokoKramer, MichaelKramer, CarstenKuo, Cheng-YuLauer, Tod R.Lee, Sang-SungLi, Yan-RongLi, ZhiyuanLindqvist, MichaelLico, RoccoLiu, KuoLiuzzo, ElisabettaLo, Wen-PingLobanov, Andrei P.Lonsdale, ColinMacDonald, Nicholas R.Mao, JirongMarchili, NicolaMarscher, Alan P.Martí-Vidal, IvánMatsushita, SatokiMatthews, Lynn D.Medeiros, LiaMenten, Karl M.Mizuno, YosukeMizuno, IzumiMoran, James M.Moriyama, KotaroMoscibrodzka, MonikaMüller, CorneliaMusoke, GibwaNagai, HiroshiNagar, Neil M.Nakamura, MasanoriNarayan, RameshNarayanan, GopalNatarajan, IniyanNathanail, AntoniosNeri, RobertoNi, ChunchongNoutsos, AristeidisOkino, HirokiOlivares, HéctorOrtiz-León, Gisela N.Oyama, TomoakiÖzel, FeryalPalumbo, Daniel C. M.Park, JonghoPatel, NimeshPen, Ue-LiPiétu, VincentPopStefanija, AleksandarPorth, OliverPrather, BenPreciado-López, Jorge A.Psaltis, DimitriosPu, Hung-YiRamakrishnan, VenkatesshRao, RamprasadRawlings, Mark G.Raymond, Alexander W.Rezzolla, LucianoRipperda, BartRoelofs, FreekRogers, AlanRos, EduardoRose, MelRoshanineshat, ArashRottmann, HelgeRoy, Alan L.Ruszczyk, ChetRyan, Benjamin R.Rygl, Kazi L. J.Sánchez, SalvadorSánchez-Arguelles, DavidSasada, MahitoSavolainen, TuomasSchloerb, F. PeterSchuster, Karl-FriedrichShao, LijingShen, ZhiqiangSmall, DesSohn, Bong WonSooHoo, JasonTazaki, FumieTiede, PaulTilanus, Remo P. J.Titus, MichaelToma, KenjiTorne, PabloTrent, TylerTraianou, EfthaliaTrippe, SaschaTsuda, Shuichirovan Bemmel, Ilsevan Langevelde, Huib Janvan Rossum, Daniel R.Wagner, JanWardle, JohnWard-Thompson, DerekWex, NorbertWharton, RobertWu, QingwenYoon, DoosooYoung, AndréYoung, KenYounsi, ZiriYuan, FengYuan, Ye-FeiZensus, J. AntonZhao, GuangyaoZhao, Shan-ShanZhu, ZiyanDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/abac0dv. 90167
Wielgus, Maciek, Akiyama, Kazunori, Blackburn, Lindy, Chan, Chi-kwan, Dexter, Jason, Doeleman, Sheperd S., Fish, Vincent L., Issaoun, Sara, Johnson, Michael D., Krichbaum, Thomas P., Lu, Ru-Sen, Pesce, Dominic W., Wong, George N., Bower, Geoffrey C., Broderick, Avery E., Chael, Andrew, Chatterjee, Koushik, Gammie, Charles F., Georgiev, Boris, Hada, Kazuhiro, Loinard, Laurent, Markoff, Sera, Marrone, Daniel P., Plambeck, Richard, Weintroub, Jonathan et al. 2020. "Monitoring the Morphology of M87* in 2009-2017 with the Event Horizon Telescope." The Astrophysical Journal 901:67. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/abac0d
ID: 157688
Type: article
Authors: Wielgus, Maciek; Akiyama, Kazunori; Blackburn, Lindy; Chan, Chi-kwan; Dexter, Jason; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Fish, Vincent L.; Issaoun, Sara; Johnson, Michael D.; Krichbaum, Thomas P.; Lu, Ru-Sen; Pesce, Dominic W.; Wong, George N.; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Broderick, Avery E.; Chael, Andrew; Chatterjee, Koushik; Gammie, Charles F.; Georgiev, Boris; Hada, Kazuhiro; Loinard, Laurent; Markoff, Sera; Marrone, Daniel P.; Plambeck, Richard; Weintroub, Jonathan; Dexter, Matthew; MacMahon, David H. E.; Wright, Melvyn; Alberdi, Antxon; Alef, Walter; Asada, Keiichi; Azulay, Rebecca; Baczko, Anne-Kathrin; Ball, David; Baloković, Mislav; Barausse, Enrico; Barrett, John; Bintley, Dan; Boland, Wilfred; Bouman, Katherine L.; Bremer, Michael; Brinkerink, Christiaan D.; Brissenden, Roger; Britzen, Silke; Broguiere, Dominique; Bronzwaer, Thomas; Byun, Do-Young; Carlstrom, John E.; Chatterjee, Shami; Chen, Ming-Tang; Chen, Yongjun; Cho, Ilje; Christian, Pierre; Conway, John E.; Cordes, James M.; Crew, Geoffrey B.; Cui, Yuzhu; Davelaar, Jordy; De Laurentis, Mariafeliciae; Deane, Roger; Dempsey, Jessica; Desvignes, Gregory; Dzib, Sergio A.; Eatough, Ralph P.; Falcke, Heino; Fomalont, Ed; Fraga-Encinas, Raquel; Friberg, Per; Fromm, Christian M.; Galison, Peter; García, Roberto; Gentaz, Olivier; Goddi, Ciriaco; Gold, Roman; Gómez, José L.; Gómez-Ruiz, Arturo I.; Gu, Minfeng; Gurwell, Mark; Hecht, Michael H.; Hesper, Ronald; Ho, Luis C.; Ho, Paul; Honma, Mareki; Huang, Chih-Wei L.; Huang, Lei; Hughes, David H.; Inoue, Makoto; James, David J.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Janssen, Michael; Jeter, Britton; Jiang, Wu; Jimenez-Rosales, Alejandra; Jorstad, Svetlana; Jung, Taehyun; Karami, Mansour; Karuppusamy, Ramesh; Kawashima, Tomohisa; Keating, Garrett K.; Kettenis, Mark; Kim, Jae-Young; Kim, Junhan; Kim, Jongsoo; Kino, Motoki; Koay, Jun Yi; Koch, Patrick M.; Koyama, Shoko; Kramer, Michael; Kramer, Carsten; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Lauer, Tod R.; Lee, Sang-Sung; Li, Yan-Rong; Li, Zhiyuan; Lindqvist, Michael; Lico, Rocco; Liu, Kuo; Liuzzo, Elisabetta; Lo, Wen-Ping; Lobanov, Andrei P.; Lonsdale, Colin; MacDonald, Nicholas R.; Mao, Jirong; Marchili, Nicola; Marscher, Alan P.; Martí-Vidal, Iván; Matsushita, Satoki; Matthews, Lynn D.; Medeiros, Lia; Menten, Karl M.; Mizuno, Yosuke; Mizuno, Izumi; Moran, James M.; Moriyama, Kotaro; Moscibrodzka, Monika; Müller, Cornelia; Musoke, Gibwa; Nagai, Hiroshi; Nagar, Neil M.; Nakamura, Masanori; Narayan, Ramesh; Narayanan, Gopal; Natarajan, Iniyan; Nathanail, Antonios; Neri, Roberto; Ni, Chunchong; Noutsos, Aristeidis; Okino, Hiroki; Olivares, Héctor; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Oyama, Tomoaki; Özel, Feryal; Palumbo, Daniel C. M.; Park, Jongho; Patel, Nimesh; Pen, Ue-Li; Piétu, Vincent; PopStefanija, Aleksandar; Porth, Oliver; Prather, Ben; Preciado-López, Jorge A.; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Pu, Hung-Yi; Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh; Rao, Ramprasad; Rawlings, Mark G.; Raymond, Alexander W.; Rezzolla, Luciano; Ripperda, Bart; Roelofs, Freek; Rogers, Alan; Ros, Eduardo; Rose, Mel; Roshanineshat, Arash; Rottmann, Helge; Roy, Alan L.; Ruszczyk, Chet; Ryan, Benjamin R.; Rygl, Kazi L. J.; Sánchez, Salvador; Sánchez-Arguelles, David; Sasada, Mahito; Savolainen, Tuomas; Schloerb, F. Peter; Schuster, Karl-Friedrich; Shao, Lijing; Shen, Zhiqiang; Small, Des; Sohn, Bong Won; SooHoo, Jason; Tazaki, Fumie; Tiede, Paul; Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Titus, Michael; Toma, Kenji; Torne, Pablo; Trent, Tyler; Traianou, Efthalia; Trippe, Sascha; Tsuda, Shuichiro; van Bemmel, Ilse; van Langevelde, Huib Jan; van Rossum, Daniel R.; Wagner, Jan; Wardle, John; Ward-Thompson, Derek; Wex, Norbert; Wharton, Robert; Wu, Qingwen; Yoon, Doosoo; Young, André; Young, Ken; Younsi, Ziri; Yuan, Feng; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Zensus, J. Anton; Zhao, Guangyao; Zhao, Shan-Shan; Zhu, Ziyan
Abstract: The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) has recently delivered the first resolved images of M87*, the supermassive black hole in the center of the M87 galaxy. These images were produced using 230 GHz observations performed in 2017 April. Additional observations are required to investigate the persistence of the primary image feature-a ring with azimuthal brightness asymmetry-and to quantify the image variability on event horizon scales. To address this need, we analyze M87* data collected with prototype EHT arrays in 2009, 2011, 2012, and 2013. While these observations do not contain enough information to produce images, they are sufficient to constrain simple geometric models. We develop a modeling approach based on the framework utilized for the 2017 EHT data analysis and validate our procedures using synthetic data. Applying the same approach to the observational data sets, we find the M87* morphology in 2009-2017 to be consistent with a persistent asymmetric ring of ∼40 μas diameter. The position angle of the peak intensity varies in time. In particular, we find a significant difference between the position angle measured in 2013 and 2017. These variations are in broad agreement with predictions of a subset of general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We show that quantifying the variability across multiple observational epochs has the potential to constrain the physical properties of the source, such as the accretion state or the black hole spin.
A Broadband X-Ray Study of a Sample of AGNs with [O III] Measured InclinationsZhao, X.Marchesi, S.Ajello, M.Baloković, MislavFischer, T.DOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/ab879dv. 89471
Zhao, X., Marchesi, S., Ajello, M., Baloković, Mislav, and Fischer, T. 2020. "A Broadband X-Ray Study of a Sample of AGNs with [O III] Measured Inclinations." The Astrophysical Journal 894:71. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab879d
ID: 156912
Type: article
Authors: Zhao, X.; Marchesi, S.; Ajello, M.; Baloković, Mislav; Fischer, T.
Abstract: In modeling the X-ray spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), the inclination angle is a parameter that can play an important role in analyzing the X-ray spectra of AGNs, but it has never been studied in detail. We present a broadband X-ray spectral analysis of the joint Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array-XMM-Newton observations of 13 sources with [O III] measured inclinations determined by Fischer et al. By freezing the inclination angles at the [O III] measured values when modeling the observations, the spectra are well fitted, and the geometrical properties of the obscuring structure of the AGNs are slightly better constrained than those fitted when the inclination angles are left free to vary. We also test if one could freeze the inclinations at other specific angles in fitting the AGN X-ray spectra as has been commonly done in the literature. We find that one should always let the inclination angle be free to vary in modeling the X-ray spectra of AGNs, while fixing the inclination angle at [O III] measured values and fixing the inclination angle at 60° also present correct fits of the sources in our sample. Correlations between the covering factor and the average column density of the obscuring torus with respect to the Eddington ratio are also measured, suggesting that the distribution of the material in the obscuring torus is regulated by the Eddington ratio, which is in agreement with previous studies. In addition, no geometrical correlation is found between the narrow line region of the AGN and the obscuring torus, suggesting that the geometry might be more complex than what is assumed in the simplistic unified model.
Implications of the Warm Corona and Relativistic Reflection Models for the Soft Excess in Mrk 509García, Javier A.Kara, ErinWalton, DominicBeuchert, TobiasDauser, ThomasGatuzz, EfrainBaloković, MislavSteiner, James F.Tombesi, FrancescoConnors, Riley M. T.Kallman, Timothy R.Harrison, Fiona A.Fabian, AndrewWilms, JörnStern, DanielLanz, LauranneRicci, ClaudioBallantyne, David R.DOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/aaf739v. 87188
García, Javier A., Kara, Erin, Walton, Dominic, Beuchert, Tobias, Dauser, Thomas, Gatuzz, Efrain, Baloković, Mislav, Steiner, James F., Tombesi, Francesco, Connors, Riley M. T., Kallman, Timothy R., Harrison, Fiona A., Fabian, Andrew, Wilms, Jörn, Stern, Daniel, Lanz, Lauranne, Ricci, Claudio, and Ballantyne, David R. 2019. "Implications of the Warm Corona and Relativistic Reflection Models for the Soft Excess in Mrk 509." The Astrophysical Journal 871:88. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aaf739
ID: 150438
Type: article
Authors: García, Javier A.; Kara, Erin; Walton, Dominic; Beuchert, Tobias; Dauser, Thomas; Gatuzz, Efrain; Baloković, Mislav; Steiner, James F.; Tombesi, Francesco; Connors, Riley M. T.; Kallman, Timothy R.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Fabian, Andrew; Wilms, Jörn; Stern, Daniel; Lanz, Lauranne; Ricci, Claudio; Ballantyne, David R.
Abstract: We present the analysis of the first Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array observations (∼220 ks), simultaneous with the last Suzaku observations (∼50 ks), of the active galactic nucleus of the bright Seyfert 1 galaxy Mrk 509. The time-averaged spectrum in the 1–79 keV X-ray band is dominated by a power-law continuum (Γ ∼ 1.8–1.9), a strong soft excess around 1 keV, and signatures of X-ray reflection in the form of Fe K emission (∼6.4 keV), an Fe K absorption edge (∼7.1 keV), and a Compton hump due to electron scattering (∼20–30 keV). We show that these data can be described by two very different prescriptions for the soft excess: a warm (kT ∼ 0.5–1 keV) and optically thick (τ ∼ 10–20) Comptonizing corona or a relativistically blurred ionized reflection spectrum from the inner regions of the accretion disk. While these two scenarios cannot be distinguished based on their fit statistics, we argue that the parameters required by the warm corona model are physically incompatible with the conditions of standard coronae. Detailed photoionization calculations show that even in the most favorable conditions, the warm corona should produce strong absorption in the observed spectrum. On the other hand, while the relativistic reflection model provides a satisfactory description of the data, it also requires extreme parameters, such as maximum black hole spin, a very low and compact hot corona, and a very high density for the inner accretion disk. Deeper observations of this source are thus necessary to confirm the presence of relativistic reflection and further understand the nature of its soft excess.
The Broadband X-Ray Spectrum of the X-Ray-obscured Type 1 AGN 2MASX J193013.80+341049.5Kamraj, NikitaBaloković, MislavBrightman, MurrayStern, DanielHarrison, Fiona A.Assef, Roberto J.Koss, Michael J.Oh, KyuseokWalton, Dominic J.DOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/ab57fcv. 887255
Kamraj, Nikita, Baloković, Mislav, Brightman, Murray, Stern, Daniel, Harrison, Fiona A., Assef, Roberto J., Koss, Michael J., Oh, Kyuseok, and Walton, Dominic J. 2019. "The Broadband X-Ray Spectrum of the X-Ray-obscured Type 1 AGN 2MASX J193013.80+341049.5." The Astrophysical Journal 887:255. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab57fc
ID: 154526
Type: article
Authors: Kamraj, Nikita; Baloković, Mislav; Brightman, Murray; Stern, Daniel; Harrison, Fiona A.; Assef, Roberto J.; Koss, Michael J.; Oh, Kyuseok; Walton, Dominic J.
Abstract: We present results from modeling the broadband X-ray spectrum of the Type 1 active galactic nucleus (AGN) 2MASX J193013.80+341049.5 using NuSTAR, Swift, and archival XMM-Newton observations. We find this source to be highly X-ray obscured, with column densities exceeding 1023 cm−2 across all epochs of X-ray observations, spanning an 8 yr period. However, the source exhibits prominent broad optical emission lines, consistent with an unobscured Type 1 AGN classification. We fit the X-ray spectra with both phenomenological reflection models and physically motivated torus models to model the X-ray absorption. We examine the spectral energy distribution of this source and investigate some possible scenarios to explain the mismatch between X-ray and optical classifications. We compare the ratio of reddening to X-ray absorbing column density ({E}B-V/{N}{{H}}) and find that 2MASX J193013.80+341049.5 likely has a much lower dust-to-gas ratio relative to the Galactic interstellar medium, suggesting that the broad line region itself could provide the source of extra X-ray obscuration, being composed of low-ionization, dust-free gas.
The relativistic jet of the γ-ray emitting narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy PKS J1222+0413Kynoch, DanielLandt, HermineWard, Martin J.Done, ChrisBoisson, CatherineBaloković, MislavAngelakis, EmmanouilMyserlis, IoannisDOI: info:10.1093/mnras/stz1193v. 487181–197
Kynoch, Daniel, Landt, Hermine, Ward, Martin J., Done, Chris, Boisson, Catherine, Baloković, Mislav, Angelakis, Emmanouil, and Myserlis, Ioannis. 2019. "The relativistic jet of the γ-ray emitting narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy PKS J1222+0413." Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 487:181– 197. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stz1193
ID: 155118
Type: article
Authors: Kynoch, Daniel; Landt, Hermine; Ward, Martin J.; Done, Chris; Boisson, Catherine; Baloković, Mislav; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Myserlis, Ioannis
Abstract: We present a multifrequency study of PKS J1222+0413 (4C +04.42), currently the highest redshift γ-ray emitting narrow-line Seyfert 1 (γ-NLS1). We assemble a broad spectral energy distribution (SED) including previously unpublished datasets: X-ray data obtained with the NuSTAR and Neil Gehrels Swift observatories; near-infrared, optical, and UV spectroscopy obtained with VLT X-shooter; and multiband radio data from the Effelsberg telescope. These new observations are supplemented by archival data from the literature. We apply physical models to the broad-band SED, parametrizing the accretion flow and jet emission to investigate the disc-jet connection. PKS J1222+0413 has a much greater black hole mass than most other NLS1s, MBH ≈ 2 × 108 M, similar to those found in flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs). Therefore this source provides insight into how the jets of γ-NLS1s relate to those of FSRQs.
Investigating the Covering Fraction Distribution of Swift/BAT AGNs with X-Ray and Infrared ObservationsLanz, LauranneHickox, Ryan C.Baloković, MislavShimizu, TaroRicci, ClaudioGoulding, Andy D.Ballantyne, David R.Bauer, Franz E.Chen, Chien-Ting J.Del Moro, AgneseFarrah, DuncanMichaelKoss, J.LaMassa, StephanieMasini, AlbertoZappacosta, LucaDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/aaee6cv. 87026
Lanz, Lauranne, Hickox, Ryan C., Baloković, Mislav, Shimizu, Taro, Ricci, Claudio, Goulding, Andy D., Ballantyne, David R., Bauer, Franz E., Chen, Chien-Ting J., Del Moro, Agnese, Farrah, Duncan, Michael, Koss, J., LaMassa, Stephanie, Masini, Alberto, and Zappacosta, Luca. 2019. "Investigating the Covering Fraction Distribution of Swift/BAT AGNs with X-Ray and Infrared Observations." The Astrophysical Journal 870:26. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aaee6c
ID: 150422
Type: article
Authors: Lanz, Lauranne; Hickox, Ryan C.; Baloković, Mislav; Shimizu, Taro; Ricci, Claudio; Goulding, Andy D.; Ballantyne, David R.; Bauer, Franz E.; Chen, Chien-Ting J.; Del Moro, Agnese; Farrah, Duncan; Michael; Koss, J.; LaMassa, Stephanie; Masini, Alberto; Zappacosta, Luca
Abstract: We present an analysis of a sample of 69 local obscured Swift/Burst Alert Telescope active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with X-ray spectra from NuSTAR and infrared (IR) spectral energy distributions from Herschel and WISE. We combine this X-ray and IR phenomenological modeling and find a significant correlation between reflected hard X-ray emission and IR AGN emission, with suggestive indications that this correlation may be stronger than the one between intrinsic hard X-ray and IR emissions. This relation between the IR and reflected X-ray emission suggests that both are the result of the processing of intrinsic emission from the corona and accretion disk by the same structure. We explore the resulting implications on the underlying distribution of covering fraction for all AGNs, by generating mock observables for the reflection parameter and IR luminosity ratio using empirical relations found for the covering fraction with each quantity. We find that the observed distributions of the reflection parameter and IR-to-X-ray ratio are reproduced with broad distributions centered around covering fractions of at least ∼40%–50%, whereas narrower distributions match our observations only when centered around covering fractions of ∼70%–80%. Our results are consistent with both independent estimates of the covering fractions of individual objects and the typical covering fraction obtained on the basis of obscured fractions for samples of AGNs. These results suggest that the level of reprocessing in AGNs, including X-ray reflection, is related in a relatively straightforward way to the geometry of the obscuring material.
Compton-thick AGNs in the NuSTAR Era. III. A Systematic Study of the Torus Covering FactorMarchesi, S.Ajello, M.Zhao, X.Marcotulli, L.Baloković, MislavBrightman, M.Comastri, A.Cusumano, G.Lanzuisi, G.La Parola, V.Segreto, A.Vignali, C.DOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/aafbebv. 8728
Marchesi, S., Ajello, M., Zhao, X., Marcotulli, L., Baloković, Mislav, Brightman, M., Comastri, A., Cusumano, G., Lanzuisi, G., La Parola, V., Segreto, A., and Vignali, C. 2019. "Compton-thick AGNs in the NuSTAR Era. III. A Systematic Study of the Torus Covering Factor." The Astrophysical Journal 872:8. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aafbeb
ID: 150512
Type: article
Authors: Marchesi, S.; Ajello, M.; Zhao, X.; Marcotulli, L.; Baloković, Mislav; Brightman, M.; Comastri, A.; Cusumano, G.; Lanzuisi, G.; La Parola, V.; Segreto, A.; Vignali, C.
Abstract: We present the analysis of a sample of 35 candidate Compton-thick active galactic nuclei (AGNs) selected in the nearby universe (average redshift ∼ 0.03) with the Swift-BAT 100-month survey. All sources have available NuSTAR data, thus allowing us to constrain with unprecedented quality important spectral parameters such as the obscuring torus line-of-sight column density (N H,z), the average torus column density (N H,tor), and the torus covering factor (f c ). We compare the best-fit results obtained with the widely used MYTorus (Murphy & Yaqoob 2009) model with those of the recently published borus02 model (Baloković et al. 2018) used in the same geometrical configuration of MYTorus (i.e., with f c = 0.5). We find a remarkable agreement between the two, although with increasing dispersion in N H,z moving toward higher column densities. We then use borus02 to measure f c . High-f c sources have, on average, smaller offset between N H,z and N H,tor than low-f c ones. Therefore, low f c values can be linked to a "patchy torus" scenario, where the AGN is seen through an overdense region in the torus, while high-f c objects are more likely to be obscured by a more uniform gas distribution. Finally, we find potential evidence of an inverse trend between f c and the AGN 2–10 keV luminosity, i.e., sources with higher f c values have on average lower luminosities.
The Event Horizon General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Code Comparison ProjectPorth, OliverChatterjee, KoushikNarayan, RameshGammie, Charles F.Mizuno, YosukeAnninos, PeterBaker, John G.Bugli, MatteoChan, Chi-kwanDavelaar, JordyDel Zanna, LucaEtienne, Zachariah B.Fragile, P. ChrisKelly, Bernard J.Liska, MatthewMarkoff, SeraMcKinney, Jonathan C.Mishra, BhupendraNoble, Scott C.Olivares, HéctorPrather, BenRezzolla, LucianoRyan, Benjamin R.Stone, James M.Tomei, NiccolòWhite, Christopher J.Younsi, ZiriAkiyama, KazunoriAlberdi, AntxonAlef, WalterAsada, KeiichiAzulay, RebeccaBaczko, Anne-KathrinBall, DavidBaloković, MislavBarrett, JohnBintley, DanBlackburn, LindyBoland, WilfredBouman, Katherine L.Bower, Geoffrey C.Bremer, MichaelBrinkerink, Christiaan D.Brissenden, RogerBritzen, SilkeBroderick, Avery E.Broguiere, DominiqueBronzwaer, ThomasByun, Do-YoungCarlstrom, John E.Chael, AndrewChatterjee, ShamiChen, Ming-TangChen, YongjunCho, IljeChristian, PierreConway, John E.Cordes, James M.GeoffreyCrew, B.Cui, YuzhuDe Laurentis, MariafeliciaDeane, RogerDempsey, JessicaDesvignes, GregoryDoeleman, Sheperd S.Eatough, Ralph P.Falcke, HeinoFish, Vincent L.Fomalont, EdFraga-Encinas, RaquelFreeman, BillFriberg, PerFromm, Christian M.Gómez, José L.Galison, PeterGarcía, RobertoGentaz, OlivierGeorgiev, BorisGoddi, CiriacoGold, RomanGu, MinfengGurwell, MarkHada, KazuhiroHecht, Michael H.Hesper, RonaldHo, Luis C.Ho, PaulHonma, MarekiHuang, Chih-Wei L.Huang, LeiHughes, David H.Ikeda, ShiroInoue, MakotoIssaoun, SaraJames, David J.Jannuzi, Buell T.Janssen, MichaelJeter, BrittonJiang, WuJohnson, Michael D.Jorstad, SvetlanaJung, TaehyunKarami, MansourKaruppusamy, RameshKawashima, TomohisaKeating, Garrett K.Kettenis, MarkKim, Jae-YoungKim, JunhanKim, JongsooKino, MotokiKoay, Jun YiPatrickKoch, M.Koyama, ShokoKramer, MichaelKramer, CarstenKrichbaum, Thomas P.Kuo, Cheng-YuLauer, Tod R.Lee, Sang-SungLi, Yan-RongLi, ZhiyuanLindqvist, MichaelLiu, KuoLiuzzo, ElisabettaLo, Wen-PingLobanov, Andrei P.Loinard, LaurentLonsdale, ColinLu, Ru-SenMacDonald, Nicholas R.Mao, JirongMarrone, Daniel P.Marscher, Alan P.Martí-Vidal, IvánMatsushita, SatokiMatthews, Lynn D.Medeiros, LiaMenten, Karl M.Mizuno, IzumiMoran, James M.Moriyama, KotaroMoscibrodzka, MonikaMüller, CorneliaNagai, HiroshiNagar, Neil M.Nakamura, MasanoriNarayanan, GopalNatarajan, IniyanNeri, RobertoNi, ChunchongNoutsos, AristeidisOkino, HirokiOyama, TomoakiÖzel, FeryalPalumbo, Daniel C. M.Patel, NimeshPen, Ue-LiPesce, Dominic W.Piétu, VincentPlambeck, RichardPopStefanija, AleksandarPreciado-López, Jorge A.Psaltis, DimitriosPu, Hung-YiRamakrishnan, VenkatesshRao, RamprasadRawlings, Mark G.Raymond, Alexander W.Ripperda, BartRoelofs, FreekRogers, AlanRos, EduardoRose, MelRoshanineshat, ArashRottmann, HelgeRoy, Alan L.Ruszczyk, ChetRygl, Kazi L. J.Sánchez, SalvadorSánchez-Arguelles, DavidSasada, MahitoSavolainen, TuomasSchloerb, F. PeterSchuster, Karl-FriedrichShao, LijingShen, ZhiqiangSmall, DesSohn, Bong WonSooHoo, JasonTazaki, FumieTiede, PaulTilanus, Remo P. J.Titus, MichaelToma, KenjiTorne, PabloTrent, TylerTrippe, SaschaTsuda, Shuichirovan Bemmel, Ilsevan Langevelde, Huib Janvan Rossum, Daniel R.Wagner, JanWardle, JohnWeintroub, JonathanWex, NorbertWharton, RobertWielgus, MaciekWong, George N.Wu, QingwenYoung, KenYoung, AndréYuan, FengYuan, Ye-FeiZensus, J. AntonZhao, GuangyaoZhao, Shan-ShanZhu, ZiyanEvent Horizon Telescope CollaborationDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4365/ab29fdv. 24326
Porth, Oliver, Chatterjee, Koushik, Narayan, Ramesh, Gammie, Charles F., Mizuno, Yosuke, Anninos, Peter, Baker, John G., Bugli, Matteo, Chan, Chi-kwan, Davelaar, Jordy, Del Zanna, Luca, Etienne, Zachariah B., Fragile, P. Chris, Kelly, Bernard J., Liska, Matthew, Markoff, Sera, McKinney, Jonathan C., Mishra, Bhupendra, Noble, Scott C., Olivares, Héctor, Prather, Ben, Rezzolla, Luciano, Ryan, Benjamin R., Stone, James M., Tomei, Niccolò et al. 2019. "The Event Horizon General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Code Comparison Project." The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 243:26. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4365/ab29fd
ID: 154281
Type: article
Authors: Porth, Oliver; Chatterjee, Koushik; Narayan, Ramesh; Gammie, Charles F.; Mizuno, Yosuke; Anninos, Peter; Baker, John G.; Bugli, Matteo; Chan, Chi-kwan; Davelaar, Jordy; Del Zanna, Luca; Etienne, Zachariah B.; Fragile, P. Chris; Kelly, Bernard J.; Liska, Matthew; Markoff, Sera; McKinney, Jonathan C.; Mishra, Bhupendra; Noble, Scott C.; Olivares, Héctor; Prather, Ben; Rezzolla, Luciano; Ryan, Benjamin R.; Stone, James M.; Tomei, Niccolò; White, Christopher J.; Younsi, Ziri; Akiyama, Kazunori; Alberdi, Antxon; Alef, Walter; Asada, Keiichi; Azulay, Rebecca; Baczko, Anne-Kathrin; Ball, David; Baloković, Mislav; Barrett, John; Bintley, Dan; Blackburn, Lindy; Boland, Wilfred; Bouman, Katherine L.; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Bremer, Michael; Brinkerink, Christiaan D.; Brissenden, Roger; Britzen, Silke; Broderick, Avery E.; Broguiere, Dominique; Bronzwaer, Thomas; Byun, Do-Young; Carlstrom, John E.; Chael, Andrew; Chatterjee, Shami; Chen, Ming-Tang; Chen, Yongjun; Cho, Ilje; Christian, Pierre; Conway, John E.; Cordes, James M.; Geoffrey; Crew, B.; Cui, Yuzhu; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Deane, Roger; Dempsey, Jessica; Desvignes, Gregory; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Eatough, Ralph P.; Falcke, Heino; Fish, Vincent L.; Fomalont, Ed; Fraga-Encinas, Raquel; Freeman, Bill; Friberg, Per; Fromm, Christian M.; Gómez, José L.; Galison, Peter; García, Roberto; Gentaz, Olivier; Georgiev, Boris; Goddi, Ciriaco; Gold, Roman; Gu, Minfeng; Gurwell, Mark; Hada, Kazuhiro; Hecht, Michael H.; Hesper, Ronald; Ho, Luis C.; Ho, Paul; Honma, Mareki; Huang, Chih-Wei L.; Huang, Lei; Hughes, David H.; Ikeda, Shiro; Inoue, Makoto; Issaoun, Sara; James, David J.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Janssen, Michael; Jeter, Britton; Jiang, Wu; Johnson, Michael D.; Jorstad, Svetlana; Jung, Taehyun; Karami, Mansour; Karuppusamy, Ramesh; Kawashima, Tomohisa; Keating, Garrett K.; Kettenis, Mark; Kim, Jae-Young; Kim, Junhan; Kim, Jongsoo; Kino, Motoki; Koay, Jun Yi; Patrick; Koch, M.; Koyama, Shoko; Kramer, Michael; Kramer, Carsten; Krichbaum, Thomas P.; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Lauer, Tod R.; Lee, Sang-Sung; Li, Yan-Rong; Li, Zhiyuan; Lindqvist, Michael; Liu, Kuo; Liuzzo, Elisabetta; Lo, Wen-Ping; Lobanov, Andrei P.; Loinard, Laurent; Lonsdale, Colin; Lu, Ru-Sen; MacDonald, Nicholas R.; Mao, Jirong; Marrone, Daniel P.; Marscher, Alan P.; Martí-Vidal, Iván; Matsushita, Satoki; Matthews, Lynn D.; Medeiros, Lia; Menten, Karl M.; Mizuno, Izumi; Moran, James M.; Moriyama, Kotaro; Moscibrodzka, Monika; Müller, Cornelia; Nagai, Hiroshi; Nagar, Neil M.; Nakamura, Masanori; Narayanan, Gopal; Natarajan, Iniyan; Neri, Roberto; Ni, Chunchong; Noutsos, Aristeidis; Okino, Hiroki; Oyama, Tomoaki; Özel, Feryal; Palumbo, Daniel C. M.; Patel, Nimesh; Pen, Ue-Li; Pesce, Dominic W.; Piétu, Vincent; Plambeck, Richard; PopStefanija, Aleksandar; Preciado-López, Jorge A.; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Pu, Hung-Yi; Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh; Rao, Ramprasad; Rawlings, Mark G.; Raymond, Alexander W.; Ripperda, Bart; Roelofs, Freek; Rogers, Alan; Ros, Eduardo; Rose, Mel; Roshanineshat, Arash; Rottmann, Helge; Roy, Alan L.; Ruszczyk, Chet; Rygl, Kazi L. J.; Sánchez, Salvador; Sánchez-Arguelles, David; Sasada, Mahito; Savolainen, Tuomas; Schloerb, F. Peter; Schuster, Karl-Friedrich; Shao, Lijing; Shen, Zhiqiang; Small, Des; Sohn, Bong Won; SooHoo, Jason; Tazaki, Fumie; Tiede, Paul; Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Titus, Michael; Toma, Kenji; Torne, Pablo; Trent, Tyler; Trippe, Sascha; Tsuda, Shuichiro; van Bemmel, Ilse; van Langevelde, Huib Jan; van Rossum, Daniel R.; Wagner, Jan; Wardle, John; Weintroub, Jonathan; Wex, Norbert; Wharton, Robert; Wielgus, Maciek; Wong, George N.; Wu, Qingwen; Young, Ken; Young, André; Yuan, Feng; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Zensus, J. Anton; Zhao, Guangyao; Zhao, Shan-Shan; Zhu, Ziyan; Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration
Abstract: Recent developments in compact object astrophysics, especially the discovery of merging neutron stars by LIGO, the imaging of the black hole in M87 by the Event Horizon Telescope, and high- precision astrometry of the Galactic Center at close to the event horizon scale by the GRAVITY experiment motivate the development of numerical source models that solve the equations of general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD). Here we compare GRMHD solutions for the evolution of a magnetized accretion flow where turbulence is promoted by the magnetorotational instability from a set of nine GRMHD codes: Athena++, BHAC, Cosmos++, ECHO, H-AMR, iharm3D, HARM-Noble, IllinoisGRMHD, and KORAL. Agreement among the codes improves as resolution increases, as measured by a consistently applied, specially developed set of code performance metrics. We conclude that the community of GRMHD codes is mature, capable, and consistent on these test problems.