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Showing 1-20 of about 47 results.
A Search for Companions via Direct Imaging in the DSHARP Planet-forming DisksJorquera, SebastianPérez, Laura M.Chauvin, GaëlBenisty, MyriamZhu, ZhaohuanIsella, AndreaHuang, JaneRicci, LucaAndrews, Sean M.Zhang, ShangjiaCarpenter, John M.Kurtovic, Nicolás T.Birnstiel, TilmanDOI: info:10.3847/1538-3881/abd40dv. 161146
Jorquera, Sebastian, Pérez, Laura M., Chauvin, Gaël, Benisty, Myriam, Zhu, Zhaohuan, Isella, Andrea, Huang, Jane, Ricci, Luca, Andrews, Sean M., Zhang, Shangjia, Carpenter, John M., Kurtovic, Nicolás T., and Birnstiel, Tilman. 2021. "A Search for Companions via Direct Imaging in the DSHARP Planet-forming Disks." The Astronomical Journal 161:146. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/abd40d
ID: 159329
Type: article
Authors: Jorquera, Sebastian; Pérez, Laura M.; Chauvin, Gaël; Benisty, Myriam; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Isella, Andrea; Huang, Jane; Ricci, Luca; Andrews, Sean M.; Zhang, Shangjia; Carpenter, John M.; Kurtovic, Nicolás T.; Birnstiel, Tilman
Abstract: The "Disk Substructures at High Angular Resolution Project" (DSHARP) has revealed an abundance and ubiquity of rings and gaps over a large sample of young planet-forming disks, which are hypothesized to be induced by the presence of forming planets. In this context, we present the first attempt to directly image these young companions for 10 of the DSHARP disks, by using the NaCo/VLT high-contrast observations in L' band instrument and angular differential imaging techniques. We report the detection of a point-like source candidate at 1"1 (174.9 au) for RU Lup and at 0"42 (55 au) for Elias 24. In the case of RU Lup, the proper motion of the candidate is consistent with a stationary background contaminant, based on the astrometry derived from our observations and available archival data. For Elias 24 the point-like source candidate is located in one of the disk gaps at 55 au. Assuming that it is a planetary companion, our analysis suggests a mass ranging from 0.5MJ up to 5MJ, depending on the presence of a circumplanetary disk and its contribution to the luminosity of the system. However, no clear confirmation is obtained at this stage, and follow-up observations are mandatory to verify that the proposed source is physical, comoving with the stellar host, and associated with a young massive planet sculpting the gap observed at 55 au. For all the remaining systems, the lack of detections suggests the presence of planetary companions with masses lower than 5MJ, based on our derived mass detection limits. This is consistent with predictions of both hydrodynamical simulations and kinematical signatures on the disk and allows us to set upper limits on the presence of massive planets in these young disks.
Disk Evolution Study Through Imaging of Nearby Young Stars (DESTINYS): A close low-mass companion to ET ChaGinski, C.Ménard, F.Rab, ChMamajek, E. E.van Holstein, R. G.Benisty, M.Manara, C. F.Asensio Torres, R.Bohn, A.Birnstiel, T.Delorme, P.Facchini, S.Garufi, A.Gratton, R.Hogerheijde, M.Huang, J.Kenworthy, M.Langlois, M.Pinilla, P.Pinte, C.Ribas, Á.Rosotti, G.Schmidt, T. O. B.van den Ancker, M.Wahhaj, Z.Waters, L. B. F. M.Williams, J.Zurlo, A.DOI: info:10.1051/0004-6361/202038383v. 642A119
Ginski, C., Ménard, F., Rab, Ch, Mamajek, E. E., van Holstein, R. G., Benisty, M., Manara, C. F., Asensio Torres, R., Bohn, A., Birnstiel, T., Delorme, P., Facchini, S., Garufi, A., Gratton, R., Hogerheijde, M., Huang, J., Kenworthy, M., Langlois, M., Pinilla, P., Pinte, C., Ribas, Á., Rosotti, G., Schmidt, T. O. B., van den Ancker, M., Wahhaj, Z. et al. 2020. "Disk Evolution Study Through Imaging of Nearby Young Stars (DESTINYS): A close low-mass companion to ET Cha." Astronomy and Astrophysics 642:A119. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/202038383
ID: 158792
Type: article
Authors: Ginski, C.; Ménard, F.; Rab, Ch; Mamajek, E. E.; van Holstein, R. G.; Benisty, M.; Manara, C. F.; Asensio Torres, R.; Bohn, A.; Birnstiel, T.; Delorme, P.; Facchini, S.; Garufi, A.; Gratton, R.; Hogerheijde, M.; Huang, J.; Kenworthy, M.; Langlois, M.; Pinilla, P.; Pinte, C.; Ribas, Á.; Rosotti, G.; Schmidt, T. O. B.; van den Ancker, M.; Wahhaj, Z.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Williams, J.; Zurlo, A.
Abstract: Context. To understand the formation of planetary systems, it is important to understand the initial conditions of planet formation, that is, the young gas-rich planet forming disks. Spatially resolved, high-contrast observations are of particular interest since substructures in disks that are linked to planet formation can be detected. In addition, we have the opportunity to reveal close companions or even planets in formation that are embedded in the disk.
Aims: In this study, we present the first results of the Disk Evolution Study Through Imaging of Nearby Young Stars (DESTINYS), an ESO/SPHERE large program that is aimed at studying disk evolution in scattered light, mainly focusing on a sample of low-mass stars (?) in nearby (˜200 pc) star-forming regions. In this particular study, we present observations of the ET Cha (RECX 15) system, a nearby "old" classical T Tauri star (5-8 Myr, ˜100 pc), which is still strongly accreting.
Methods: We used SPHERE/IRDIS in the H-band polarimetric imaging mode to obtain high spatial resolution and high-contrast images of the ET Cha system to search for scattered light from the circumstellar disk as well as thermal emission from close companions. We additionally employed VLT/NACO total intensity archival data of the system taken in 2003.
Results: Here, we report the discovery, using SPHERE/IRDIS, of a low-mass (sub)stellar companion to the ? Cha cluster member ET Cha. We estimate the mass of this new companion based on photometry. Depending on the system age, it is either a 5 Myr, 50 MJup brown dwarf or an 8 Myr, 0.10 M? M-type, pre-main-sequence star. We explore possible orbital solutions and discuss the recent dynamic history of the system.
Conclusions: Independent of the precise companion mass, we find that the presence of the companion likely explains the small size of the disk around ET Cha. The small separation of the binary pair indicates that the disk around the primary component is likely clearing from the outside in, which explains the high accretion rate of the system.
Based on data obtained in ESO programs 1104.C-0415(E) and 70.C-0286(A).
Erratum: 'The Disk Substructures at High Angular Resolution Project (DSHARP). II. Characteristics of Annular Substructures' (2018, ApJL, 869, L42)Huang, JaneAndrews, Sean M.Dullemond, Cornelis P.Isella, AndreaPérez, Laura M.Guzmán, Viviana V.Öberg, Karin I.Zhu, ZhaohuanZhang, ShangjiaBai, Xue-NingBenisty, MyriamBirnstiel, TilmanCarpenter, John M.Hughes, A. MeredithRicci, LucaWeaver, ErikWilner, David J.DOI: info:10.3847/2041-8213/aba83bv. 898L57
Huang, Jane, Andrews, Sean M., Dullemond, Cornelis P., Isella, Andrea, Pérez, Laura M., Guzmán, Viviana V., Öberg, Karin I., Zhu, Zhaohuan, Zhang, Shangjia, Bai, Xue-Ning, Benisty, Myriam, Birnstiel, Tilman, Carpenter, John M., Hughes, A. Meredith, Ricci, Luca, Weaver, Erik, and Wilner, David J. 2020. "Erratum: "The Disk Substructures at High Angular Resolution Project (DSHARP). II. Characteristics of Annular Substructures" (2018, ApJL, 869, L42)." The Astrophysical Journal 898:L57. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/aba83b
ID: 157658
Type: article
Authors: Huang, Jane; Andrews, Sean M.; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Isella, Andrea; Pérez, Laura M.; Guzmán, Viviana V.; Öberg, Karin I.; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Zhang, Shangjia; Bai, Xue-Ning; Benisty, Myriam; Birnstiel, Tilman; Carpenter, John M.; Hughes, A. Meredith; Ricci, Luca; Weaver, Erik; Wilner, David J.
A Multifrequency ALMA Characterization of Substructures in the GM Aur Protoplanetary DiskHuang, JaneAndrews, Sean M.Dullemond, Cornelis P.Öberg, Karin I.Qi, ChunhuaZhu, ZhaohuanBirnstiel, TilmanCarpenter, John M.Isella, AndreaMacías, EnriqueMcClure, Melissa K.Pérez, Laura M.Teague, RichardWilner, David J.Zhang, ShangjiaDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/ab711ev. 89148
Huang, Jane, Andrews, Sean M., Dullemond, Cornelis P., Öberg, Karin I., Qi, Chunhua, Zhu, Zhaohuan, Birnstiel, Tilman, Carpenter, John M., Isella, Andrea, Macías, Enrique, McClure, Melissa K., Pérez, Laura M., Teague, Richard, Wilner, David J., and Zhang, Shangjia. 2020. "A Multifrequency ALMA Characterization of Substructures in the GM Aur Protoplanetary Disk." The Astrophysical Journal 891:48. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab711e
ID: 156375
Type: article
Authors: Huang, Jane; Andrews, Sean M.; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Öberg, Karin I.; Qi, Chunhua; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Birnstiel, Tilman; Carpenter, John M.; Isella, Andrea; Macías, Enrique; McClure, Melissa K.; Pérez, Laura M.; Teague, Richard; Wilner, David J.; Zhang, Shangjia
Abstract: The protoplanetary disk around the T Tauri star GM Aur was one of the first hypothesized to be in the midst of being cleared out by a forming planet. As a result, GM Aur has had an outsized influence on our understanding of disk structure and evolution. We present 1.1 and 2.1 mm ALMA continuum observations of the GM Aur disk at a resolution of ∼50 mas (∼8 au), as well as HCO+ J = 3 - 2 observations at a resolution of ∼100 mas. The dust continuum shows at least three rings atop faint, extended emission. Unresolved emission is detected at the center of the disk cavity at both wavelengths, likely due to a combination of dust and free-free emission. Compared to the 1.1 mm image, the 2.1 mm image shows a more pronounced "shoulder" near R ∼ 40 au, highlighting the utility of longer-wavelength observations for characterizing disk substructures. The spectral index α features strong radial variations, with minima near the emission peaks and maxima near the gaps. While low spectral indices have often been ascribed to grain growth and dust trapping, the optical depth of GM Aur's inner two emission rings renders their dust properties ambiguous. The gaps and outer disk (R > 100 au) are optically thin at both wavelengths. Meanwhile, the HCO+ emission indicates that the gas cavity is more compact than the dust cavity traced by the millimeter continuum, similar to other disks traditionally classified as "transitional."
The DSHARP Rings: Evidence of Ongoing Planetesimal Formation?Stammler, Sebastian M.Drążkowska, JoannaBirnstiel, TilKlahr, HubertDullemond, Cornelis P.Andrews, Sean M.DOI: info:10.3847/2041-8213/ab4423v. 884L5
Stammler, Sebastian M., Drążkowska, Joanna, Birnstiel, Til, Klahr, Hubert, Dullemond, Cornelis P., and Andrews, Sean M. 2019. "The DSHARP Rings: Evidence of Ongoing Planetesimal Formation?." The Astrophysical Journal 884:L5. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/ab4423
ID: 154637
Type: article
Authors: Stammler, Sebastian M.; Drążkowska, Joanna; Birnstiel, Til; Klahr, Hubert; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Andrews, Sean M.
Abstract: Recent high-resolution interferometric observations of protoplanetary disks at (sub)millimeter wavelengths reveal omnipresent substructures, such as rings, spirals, and asymmetries. A detailed investigation of eight rings detected in five disks by the DSHARP survey came to the conclusion that all rings are just marginally optically thick with optical depths between 0.2 and 0.5 at a wavelength of 1.25 mm. This surprising result could either be coincidental or indicate that the optical depth in all of the rings is regulated by the same process. We investigated if ongoing planetesimal formation could explain the "fine- tuned" optical depths in the DSHARP rings by removing dust and transforming it into "invisible" planetesimals. We performed a one- dimensional simulation of dust evolution in the second dust ring of the protoplanetary disk around HD 163296, including radial transport of gas and dust, dust growth and fragmentation, and planetesimal formation via gravitational collapse of sufficiently dense pebble concentrations. We show that planetesimal formation can naturally explain the observed optical depths if streaming instability regulates the midplane dust-to- gas ratio to unity. Furthermore, our simple monodisperse analytical model supports the hypothesis that planetesimal formation in dust rings should universally limit their optical depth to the observed range.
One Solution to the Mass Budget Problem for Planet Formation: Optically Thick Disks with Dust ScatteringZhu, ZhaohuanZhang, ShangjiaJiang, Yan-FeiKataoka, AkimasaBirnstiel, TilmanDullemond, Cornelis P.Andrews, Sean M.Huang, JanePérez, Laura M.Carpenter, John M.Bai, Xue-NingWilner, David J.Ricci, LucaDOI: info:10.3847/2041-8213/ab1f8cv. 877L18
Zhu, Zhaohuan, Zhang, Shangjia, Jiang, Yan-Fei, Kataoka, Akimasa, Birnstiel, Tilman, Dullemond, Cornelis P., Andrews, Sean M., Huang, Jane, Pérez, Laura M., Carpenter, John M., Bai, Xue-Ning, Wilner, David J., and Ricci, Luca. 2019. "One Solution to the Mass Budget Problem for Planet Formation: Optically Thick Disks with Dust Scattering." Astrophysical Journal Letters 877:L18. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/ab1f8c
ID: 152927
Type: article
Authors: Zhu, Zhaohuan; Zhang, Shangjia; Jiang, Yan-Fei; Kataoka, Akimasa; Birnstiel, Tilman; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Andrews, Sean M.; Huang, Jane; Pérez, Laura M.; Carpenter, John M.; Bai, Xue-Ning; Wilner, David J.; Ricci, Luca
Abstract: Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) surveys have suggested that the dust in Class II disks may not be enough to explain the averaged solid mass in exoplanets, under the assumption that the mm disk continuum emission is optically thin. This optically thin assumption seems to be supported by recent Disk Substructures at High Angular Resolution Project (DSHARP) observations where the measured optical depths are mostly less than one. However, we point out that dust scattering can considerably reduce the emission from an optically thick region. If that scattering is ignored, an optically thick disk with scattering can be misidentified as an optically thin disk. Dust scattering in more inclined disks can reduce the intensity even further, making the disk look even fainter. The measured optical depth of ∼0.6 in several DSHARP disks can be naturally explained by optically thick dust with an albedo of ∼0.9 at 1.25 mm. Using the DSHARP opacity, this albedo corresponds to a dust population with the maximum grain size (s max) of 0.1–1 mm. For optically thick scattering disks, the measured spectral index α can be either larger or smaller than 2 depending on whether the dust albedo increases or decreases with wavelength. We describe how this optically thick scattering scenario could explain the observed scaling between submm continuum sizes and luminosities, and might help ease the tension between the dust size constraints from polarization and dust continuum measurements. We suggest that a significant amount of disk mass can be hidden from ALMA observations and longer wavelength observations (e.g., Very Large Array or Square Kilometre Array) are desired to probe the dust mass in disks.
The Disk Substructures at High Angular Resolution Project (DSHARP). I. Motivation, Sample, Calibration, and OverviewAndrews, Sean M.Huang, JanePérez, Laura M.Isella, AndreaDullemond, Cornelis P.Kurtovic, Nicolás T.Guzmán, Viviana V.Carpenter, John M.Wilner, David J.Zhang, ShangjiaZhu, ZhaohuanBirnstiel, TilmanBai, Xue-NingBenisty, MyriamHughes, A. MeredithÖberg, Karin I.Ricci, LucaDOI: info:10.3847/2041-8213/aaf741v. 869L41
Andrews, Sean M., Huang, Jane, Pérez, Laura M., Isella, Andrea, Dullemond, Cornelis P., Kurtovic, Nicolás T., Guzmán, Viviana V., Carpenter, John M., Wilner, David J., Zhang, Shangjia, Zhu, Zhaohuan, Birnstiel, Tilman, Bai, Xue-Ning, Benisty, Myriam, Hughes, A. Meredith, Öberg, Karin I., and Ricci, Luca. 2018. "The Disk Substructures at High Angular Resolution Project (DSHARP). I. Motivation, Sample, Calibration, and Overview." Astrophysical Journal Letters 869:L41. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/aaf741
ID: 150171
Type: article
Authors: Andrews, Sean M.; Huang, Jane; Pérez, Laura M.; Isella, Andrea; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Kurtovic, Nicolás T.; Guzmán, Viviana V.; Carpenter, John M.; Wilner, David J.; Zhang, Shangjia; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Birnstiel, Tilman; Bai, Xue-Ning; Benisty, Myriam; Hughes, A. Meredith; Öberg, Karin I.; Ricci, Luca
Abstract: We introduce the Disk Substructures at High Angular Resolution Project (DSHARP), one of the initial Large Programs conducted with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The primary goal of DSHARP is to find and characterize substructures in the spatial distributions of solid particles for a sample of 20 nearby protoplanetary disks, using very high resolution (∼0.″035, or 5 au, FWHM) observations of their 240 GHz (1.25 mm) continuum emission. These data provide a first homogeneous look at the small-scale features in disks that are directly relevant to the planet formation process, quantifying their prevalence, morphologies, spatial scales, spacings, symmetry, and amplitudes, for targets with a variety of disk and stellar host properties. We find that these substructures are ubiquitous in this sample of large, bright disks. They are most frequently manifested as concentric, narrow emission rings and depleted gaps, although large-scale spiral patterns and small arc-shaped azimuthal asymmetries are also present in some cases. These substructures are found at a wide range of disk radii (from a few astronomical units to more than 100 au), are usually compact (≲10 au), and show a wide range of amplitudes (brightness contrasts). Here we discuss the motivation for the project, describe the survey design and the sample properties, detail the observations and data calibration, highlight some basic results, and provide a general overview of the key conclusions that are presented in more detail in a series of accompanying articles. The DSHARP data—including visibilities, images, calibration scripts, and more—are released for community use at https://almascience.org/alma-data/lp/DSHARP.
The Disk Substructures at High Angular Resolution Project (DSHARP). V. Interpreting ALMA Maps of Protoplanetary Disks in Terms of a Dust ModelBirnstiel, TilmanDullemond, Cornelis P.Zhu, ZhaohuanAndrews, Sean M.Bai, Xue-NingWilner, David J.Carpenter, John M.Huang, JaneIsella, AndreaBenisty, MyriamPérez, Laura M.Zhang, ShangjiaDOI: info:10.3847/2041-8213/aaf743v. 869L45
Birnstiel, Tilman, Dullemond, Cornelis P., Zhu, Zhaohuan, Andrews, Sean M., Bai, Xue-Ning, Wilner, David J., Carpenter, John M., Huang, Jane, Isella, Andrea, Benisty, Myriam, Pérez, Laura M., and Zhang, Shangjia. 2018. "The Disk Substructures at High Angular Resolution Project (DSHARP). V. Interpreting ALMA Maps of Protoplanetary Disks in Terms of a Dust Model." Astrophysical Journal Letters 869:L45. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/aaf743
ID: 150174
Type: article
Authors: Birnstiel, Tilman; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Andrews, Sean M.; Bai, Xue-Ning; Wilner, David J.; Carpenter, John M.; Huang, Jane; Isella, Andrea; Benisty, Myriam; Pérez, Laura M.; Zhang, Shangjia
Abstract: The Disk Substructures at High Angular Resolution Project (DSHARP) is the largest homogeneous high-resolution (∼0.″035, or ∼5 au) disk continuum imaging survey with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) so far. In the coming years, many more disks will be mapped with ALMA at similar resolution. Interpreting the results in terms of the properties and quantities of the emitting dusty material is, however, a very non-trivial task. This is in part due to the uncertainty in the dust opacities, an uncertainty that is not likely to be resolved any time soon. It is also partly due to the fact that, as the DSHARP survey has shown, these disk often contain regions of intermediate to high optical depth, even at millimeter wavelengths and at relatively large radius in the disk. This makes the interpretation challenging, in particular if the grains are large and have a large albedo. On the other hand, the highly structured features seen in the DSHARP survey, of which strong indications were already seen in earlier observations, provide a unique opportunity to study the dust growth and dynamics. To provide continuity within the DSHARP project, its follow-up projects, and projects by other teams interested in these data, we present here the methods and opacity choices used within the DSHARP collaboration to link the measured intensity I ν to dust surface density Σ d .
The Disk Substructures at High Angular Resolution Project (DSHARP). VI. Dust Trapping in Thin-ringed Protoplanetary DisksDullemond, Cornelis P.Birnstiel, TilmanHuang, JaneKurtovic, Nicolás T.Andrews, Sean M.Guzmán, Viviana V.Pérez, Laura M.Isella, AndreaZhu, ZhaohuanBenisty, MyriamWilner, David J.Bai, Xue-NingCarpenter, John M.Zhang, ShangjiaRicci, LucaDOI: info:10.3847/2041-8213/aaf742v. 869L46
Dullemond, Cornelis P., Birnstiel, Tilman, Huang, Jane, Kurtovic, Nicolás T., Andrews, Sean M., Guzmán, Viviana V., Pérez, Laura M., Isella, Andrea, Zhu, Zhaohuan, Benisty, Myriam, Wilner, David J., Bai, Xue-Ning, Carpenter, John M., Zhang, Shangjia, and Ricci, Luca. 2018. "The Disk Substructures at High Angular Resolution Project (DSHARP). VI. Dust Trapping in Thin-ringed Protoplanetary Disks." Astrophysical Journal Letters 869:L46. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/aaf742
ID: 150186
Type: article
Authors: Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Birnstiel, Tilman; Huang, Jane; Kurtovic, Nicolás T.; Andrews, Sean M.; Guzmán, Viviana V.; Pérez, Laura M.; Isella, Andrea; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Benisty, Myriam; Wilner, David J.; Bai, Xue-Ning; Carpenter, John M.; Zhang, Shangjia; Ricci, Luca
Abstract: A large fraction of the protoplanetary disks observed with ALMA display multiple well-defined and nearly perfectly circular rings in the continuum, in many cases with substantial peak-to-valley contrast. The DSHARP campaign shows that several of these rings are very narrow in radial extent. In this Letter we test the hypothesis that these dust rings are caused by dust trapping in radial pressure bumps, and if confirmed, put constraints on the physics of the dust trapping mechanism. We model this process analytically in 1D, assuming axisymmetry. By comparing this model to the data, we find that all rings are consistent with dust trapping. Based on a plausible model of the dust temperature we find that several rings are narrower than the pressure scale height, providing strong evidence for dust trapping. The rings have peak absorption optical depth in the range between 0.2 and 0.5. The dust masses stored in each of these rings is of the order of tens of Earth masses, though much ambiguity remains due to the uncertainty of the dust opacities. The dust rings are dense enough to potentially trigger the streaming instability, but our analysis cannot give proof of this mechanism actually operating. Our results show, however, that the combination of very low {α }turb}\ll 5× {10}-4 and very large grains {a}grain}\gg 0.1 {cm} can be excluded by the data for all the rings studied in this Letter.
Optical Dimming of RW Aur Associated with an Iron-rich Corona and Exceptionally High Absorbing Column DensityGünther, Hans MoritzBirnstiel, T.Huenemoerder, D. P.Principe, D. A.Schneider, P. C.Wolk, S. J.Dubois, FrankyLogie, LudwigRau, SteveVanaverbeke, SigfriedDOI: info:10.3847/1538-3881/aac9bdv. 15656
Günther, Hans Moritz, Birnstiel, T., Huenemoerder, D. P., Principe, D. A., Schneider, P. C., Wolk, S. J., Dubois, Franky, Logie, Ludwig, Rau, Steve, and Vanaverbeke, Sigfried. 2018. "Optical Dimming of RW Aur Associated with an Iron-rich Corona and Exceptionally High Absorbing Column Density." The Astronomical Journal 156:56. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/aac9bd
ID: 149002
Type: article
Authors: Günther, Hans Moritz; Birnstiel, T.; Huenemoerder, D. P.; Principe, D. A.; Schneider, P. C.; Wolk, S. J.; Dubois, Franky; Logie, Ludwig; Rau, Steve; Vanaverbeke, Sigfried
Abstract: RW Aur is a binary system composed of two young, low-mass stars. The primary, RW Aur A, has undergone visual dimming events (DeltaV = 2-3 mag) in 2011, 2014-16, and 2017-2018. Visual and
The Disk Substructures at High Angular Resolution Program (DSHARP). VIII. The Rich Ringed Substructures in the AS 209 DiskGuzmán, Viviana V.Huang, JaneAndrews, Sean M.Isella, AndreaPérez, Laura M.Carpenter, John M.Dullemond, Cornelis P.Ricci, LucaBirnstiel, TilmanZhang, ShangjiaZhu, ZhaohuanBai, Xue-NingBenisty, MyriamÖberg, Karin I.Wilner, David J.DOI: info:10.3847/2041-8213/aaedaev. 869L48
Guzmán, Viviana V., Huang, Jane, Andrews, Sean M., Isella, Andrea, Pérez, Laura M., Carpenter, John M., Dullemond, Cornelis P., Ricci, Luca, Birnstiel, Tilman, Zhang, Shangjia, Zhu, Zhaohuan, Bai, Xue-Ning, Benisty, Myriam, Öberg, Karin I., and Wilner, David J. 2018. "The Disk Substructures at High Angular Resolution Program (DSHARP). VIII. The Rich Ringed Substructures in the AS 209 Disk." Astrophysical Journal Letters 869:L48. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/aaedae
ID: 150193
Type: article
Authors: Guzmán, Viviana V.; Huang, Jane; Andrews, Sean M.; Isella, Andrea; Pérez, Laura M.; Carpenter, John M.; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Ricci, Luca; Birnstiel, Tilman; Zhang, Shangjia; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Bai, Xue-Ning; Benisty, Myriam; Öberg, Karin I.; Wilner, David J.
Abstract: We present a detailed analysis of the high angular resolution (0.″037, corresponding to 5 au) observations of the 1.25 mm continuum and 12CO 2 ‑ 1 emission from the disk around the T Tauri star AS 209. AS 209 hosts one of the most unusual disks from the Disk Substructures at High Angular Resolution Project sample, the first high angular resolution Atacama Large Millimeter Array survey of disks, as nearly all of the emission can be explained with concentric Gaussian rings. In particular, the dust emission consists of a series of narrow and closely spaced rings in the inner ∼60 au, two well-separated bright rings in the outer disk, centered at 74 and 120 au, and at least two fainter emission features at 90 and 130 au. We model the visibilities with a parametric representation of the radial surface brightness profile, consisting of a central core and seven concentric Gaussian rings. Recent hydrodynamical simulations of low-viscosity disks show that super-Earth planets can produce the multiple gaps seen in AS 209 millimeter continuum emission. The 12CO line emission is centrally peaked and extends out to ∼300 au, much farther than the millimeter dust emission. We find axisymmetric, localized deficits of CO emission around four distinct radii, near 45, 75, 120, and 210 au. The outermost gap is located well beyond the edge of the millimeter dust emission, and therefore cannot be due to dust opacity and must be caused by a genuine CO surface density reduction, due either to chemical effects or depletion of the overall gas content.
CO and Dust Properties in the TW Hya Disk from High-resolution ALMA ObservationsHuang, JaneAndrews, Sean M.Cleeves, L. IlsedoreÖberg, Karin I.Wilner, David J.Bai, XueningBirnstiel, TilCarpenter, JohnHughes, A. MeredithIsella, AndreaPérez, Laura M.Ricci, LucaZhu, ZhaohuanDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/aaa1e7v. 852122
Huang, Jane, Andrews, Sean M., Cleeves, L. Ilsedore, Öberg, Karin I., Wilner, David J., Bai, Xuening, Birnstiel, Til, Carpenter, John, Hughes, A. Meredith, Isella, Andrea, Pérez, Laura M., Ricci, Luca, and Zhu, Zhaohuan. 2018. "CO and Dust Properties in the TW Hya Disk from High-resolution ALMA Observations." The Astrophysical Journal 852:122. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aaa1e7
ID: 145762
Type: article
Authors: Huang, Jane; Andrews, Sean M.; Cleeves, L. Ilsedore; Öberg, Karin I.; Wilner, David J.; Bai, Xuening; Birnstiel, Til; Carpenter, John; Hughes, A. Meredith; Isella, Andrea; Pérez, Laura M.; Ricci, Luca; Zhu, Zhaohuan
Abstract: We analyze high angular resolution ALMA observations of the TW Hya disk to place constraints on the CO and dust properties. We present new, sensitive observations of the 12CO J = 3 - 2 line at a spatial resolution of 8 au (0."14). The CO emission exhibits a bright inner core, a shoulder at r ≈ 70 au, and a prominent break in slope at r ≈ 90 au. Radiative transfer modeling is used to demonstrate that the emission morphology can be reasonably reproduced with a 12CO column density profile featuring a steep decrease at r ≈ 15 au and a secondary bump peaking at r ≈ 70 au. Similar features have been identified in observations of rarer CO isotopologues, which trace heights closer to the midplane. Substructure in the underlying gas distribution or radially varying CO depletion that affects much of the disk's vertical extent may explain the shared emission features of the main CO isotopologues. We also combine archival 1.3 mm and 870 mum continuum observations to produce a spectral index map at a spatial resolution of 2 au. The spectral index rises sharply at the continuum emission gaps at radii of 25, 41, and 47 au. This behavior suggests that the grains within the gaps are no larger than a few millimeters. Outside the continuum gaps, the low spectral index values of alpha ≈ 2 indicate either that grains up to centimeter size are present or that the bright continuum rings are marginally optically thick at millimeter wavelengths.
The Disk Substructures at High Angular Resolution Project (DSHARP). II. Characteristics of Annular SubstructuresHuang, JaneAndrews, Sean M.Dullemond, Cornelis P.Isella, AndreaPérez, Laura M.Guzmán, Viviana V.Öberg, Karin I.Zhu, ZhaohuanZhang, ShangjiaBai, Xue-NingBenisty, MyriamBirnstiel, TilmanCarpenter, John M.Hughes, A. MeredithRicci, LucaWeaver, ErikWilner, David J.DOI: info:10.3847/2041-8213/aaf740v. 869L42
Huang, Jane, Andrews, Sean M., Dullemond, Cornelis P., Isella, Andrea, Pérez, Laura M., Guzmán, Viviana V., Öberg, Karin I., Zhu, Zhaohuan, Zhang, Shangjia, Bai, Xue-Ning, Benisty, Myriam, Birnstiel, Tilman, Carpenter, John M., Hughes, A. Meredith, Ricci, Luca, Weaver, Erik, and Wilner, David J. 2018. "The Disk Substructures at High Angular Resolution Project (DSHARP). II. Characteristics of Annular Substructures." Astrophysical Journal Letters 869:L42. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/aaf740
ID: 150197
Type: article
Authors: Huang, Jane; Andrews, Sean M.; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Isella, Andrea; Pérez, Laura M.; Guzmán, Viviana V.; Öberg, Karin I.; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Zhang, Shangjia; Bai, Xue-Ning; Benisty, Myriam; Birnstiel, Tilman; Carpenter, John M.; Hughes, A. Meredith; Ricci, Luca; Weaver, Erik; Wilner, David J.
Abstract: The Disk Substructures at High Angular Resolution Project (DSHARP) used ALMA to map the 1.25 mm continuum of protoplanetary disks at a spatial resolution of ∼5 au. We present a systematic analysis of annular substructures in the 18 single-disk systems targeted in this survey. No dominant architecture emerges from this sample; instead, remarkably diverse morphologies are observed. Annular substructures can occur at virtually any radius where millimeter continuum emission is detected and range in widths from a few astronomical units to tens of astronomical units. Intensity ratios between gaps and adjacent rings range from near-unity to just a few percent. In a minority of cases, annular substructures coexist with other types of substructures, including spiral arms (3/18) and crescent-like azimuthal asymmetries (2/18). No clear trend is observed between the positions of the substructures and stellar host properties. In particular, the absence of an obvious association with stellar host luminosity (and hence the disk thermal structure) suggests that substructures do not occur preferentially near major molecular snowlines. Annular substructures like those observed in DSHARP have long been hypothesized to be due to planet–disk interactions. A few disks exhibit characteristics particularly suggestive of this scenario, including substructures in possible mean-motion resonance and “double gap” features reminiscent of hydrodynamical simulations of multiple gaps opened by a planet in a low-viscosity disk.
The Disk Substructures at High Angular Resolution Project (DSHARP). III. Spiral Structures in the Millimeter Continuum of the Elias 27, IM Lup, and WaOph 6 DisksHuang, JaneAndrews, Sean M.Pérez, Laura M.Zhu, ZhaohuanDullemond, Cornelis P.Isella, AndreaBenisty, MyriamBai, Xue-NingBirnstiel, TilmanCarpenter, John M.Guzmán, Viviana V.Hughes, A. MeredithÖberg, Karin I.Ricci, LucaWilner, David J.Zhang, ShangjiaDOI: info:10.3847/2041-8213/aaf7a0v. 869L43
Huang, Jane, Andrews, Sean M., Pérez, Laura M., Zhu, Zhaohuan, Dullemond, Cornelis P., Isella, Andrea, Benisty, Myriam, Bai, Xue-Ning, Birnstiel, Tilman, Carpenter, John M., Guzmán, Viviana V., Hughes, A. Meredith, Öberg, Karin I., Ricci, Luca, Wilner, David J., and Zhang, Shangjia. 2018. "The Disk Substructures at High Angular Resolution Project (DSHARP). III. Spiral Structures in the Millimeter Continuum of the Elias 27, IM Lup, and WaOph 6 Disks." Astrophysical Journal Letters 869:L43. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/aaf7a0
ID: 150198
Type: article
Authors: Huang, Jane; Andrews, Sean M.; Pérez, Laura M.; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Isella, Andrea; Benisty, Myriam; Bai, Xue-Ning; Birnstiel, Tilman; Carpenter, John M.; Guzmán, Viviana V.; Hughes, A. Meredith; Öberg, Karin I.; Ricci, Luca; Wilner, David J.; Zhang, Shangjia
Abstract: We present an analysis of Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array 1.25 mm continuum observations of spiral structures in three protoplanetary disks from the Disk Substructures at High Angular Resolution Project. The disks around Elias 27, IM Lup, and WaOph 6 were observed at a resolution of ∼40–60 mas (∼6–7 au). All three disks feature m = 2 spiral patterns in conjunction with annular substructures. Gas kinematics established by 12CO J = 2‑1 observations indicate that the continuum spiral arms are trailing. The arm–interarm intensity contrasts are modest, typically less than 3. The Elias 27 spiral pattern extends throughout much of the disk, and the arms intersect the gap at R ∼ 69 au. The spiral pattern in the IM Lup disk is particularly complex—it extends about halfway radially through the disk, exhibiting pitch angle variations with radius and interarm features that may be part of ring substructures or spiral arm branches. Spiral arms also extend most of the way through the WaOph 6 disk, but the source overall is much more compact than the other two disks. We discuss possible origins for the spiral structures, including gravitational instability and density waves induced by a stellar or planetary companion. Unlike the millimeter continuum counterparts of many of the disks with spiral arms detected in scattered light, these three sources do not feature high-contrast crescent-like asymmetries or large (R > 20 au) emission cavities. This difference may point to multiple spiral formation mechanisms operating in disks.
The Disk Substructures at High Angular Resolution Project (DSHARP). IX. A High-definition Study of the HD 163296 Planet-forming DiskIsella, AndreaHuang, JaneAndrews, Sean M.Dullemond, Cornelis P.Birnstiel, TilmanZhang, ShangjiaZhu, ZhaohuanGuzmán, Viviana V.Pérez, Laura M.Bai, Xue-NingBenisty, MyriamCarpenter, John M.Ricci, LucaWilner, David J.DOI: info:10.3847/2041-8213/aaf747v. 869L49
Isella, Andrea, Huang, Jane, Andrews, Sean M., Dullemond, Cornelis P., Birnstiel, Tilman, Zhang, Shangjia, Zhu, Zhaohuan, Guzmán, Viviana V., Pérez, Laura M., Bai, Xue-Ning, Benisty, Myriam, Carpenter, John M., Ricci, Luca, and Wilner, David J. 2018. "The Disk Substructures at High Angular Resolution Project (DSHARP). IX. A High-definition Study of the HD 163296 Planet-forming Disk." Astrophysical Journal Letters 869:L49. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/aaf747
ID: 150200
Type: article
Authors: Isella, Andrea; Huang, Jane; Andrews, Sean M.; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Birnstiel, Tilman; Zhang, Shangjia; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Guzmán, Viviana V.; Pérez, Laura M.; Bai, Xue-Ning; Benisty, Myriam; Carpenter, John M.; Ricci, Luca; Wilner, David J.
Abstract: The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations of protoplanetary disks acquired by the Disk Substructure at High Angular Resolution Project resolve the dust and gas emission on angular scales as small as 3 astronomical units, offering an unprecedented detailed view of the environment where planets form. In this Letter, we present and discuss observations of the HD 163296 protoplanetary disk that imaged the 1.25 mm dust continuum and 12CO J = 2–1 rotational line emission at a spatial resolution of 4 and 10 au, respectively. The continuum observations resolve and allow us to characterize the previously discovered dust rings at radii of 68 and 100. They also reveal new small-scale structures, such as a dark gap at 10 au, a bright ring at 15 au, a dust crescent at a radius of 55 au, and several fainter azimuthal asymmetries. The observations of the CO and dust emission provide information about the vertical structure of the disk and allow us to directly constrain the dust extinction optical depth at the dust rings. Furthermore, the observed asymmetries in the dust continuum emission corroborate the hypothesis that the complex structure of the HD 163296 disk is the result of the gravitational interaction with yet-unseen planets.
The Disk Substructures at High Angular Resolution Project (DSHARP). X. Multiple Rings, a Misaligned Inner Disk, and a Bright Arc in the Disk around the T Tauri star HD 143006Pérez, Laura M.Benisty, MyriamAndrews, Sean M.Isella, AndreaDullemond, Cornelis P.Huang, JaneKurtovic, Nicolás T.Guzmán, Viviana V.Zhu, ZhaohuanBirnstiel, TilmanZhang, ShangjiaCarpenter, John M.Wilner, David J.Ricci, LucaBai, Xue-NingWeaver, ErikÖberg, Karin I.DOI: info:10.3847/2041-8213/aaf745v. 869L50
Pérez, Laura M., Benisty, Myriam, Andrews, Sean M., Isella, Andrea, Dullemond, Cornelis P., Huang, Jane, Kurtovic, Nicolás T., Guzmán, Viviana V., Zhu, Zhaohuan, Birnstiel, Tilman, Zhang, Shangjia, Carpenter, John M., Wilner, David J., Ricci, Luca, Bai, Xue-Ning, Weaver, Erik, and Öberg, Karin I. 2018. "The Disk Substructures at High Angular Resolution Project (DSHARP). X. Multiple Rings, a Misaligned Inner Disk, and a Bright Arc in the Disk around the T Tauri star HD 143006." Astrophysical Journal Letters 869:L50. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/aaf745
ID: 150212
Type: article
Authors: Pérez, Laura M.; Benisty, Myriam; Andrews, Sean M.; Isella, Andrea; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Huang, Jane; Kurtovic, Nicolás T.; Guzmán, Viviana V.; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Birnstiel, Tilman; Zhang, Shangjia; Carpenter, John M.; Wilner, David J.; Ricci, Luca; Bai, Xue-Ning; Weaver, Erik; Öberg, Karin I.
Abstract: We present a detailed analysis of new Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the disk around the T-Tauri star HD 143006, which at 46 mas (7.6 au) resolution reveals new substructures in the 1.25 mm continuum emission. The disk resolves into a series of concentric rings and gaps, together with a bright arc exterior to the rings that resembles hydrodynamical simulations of a vortex and a bridge-like feature connecting the two innermost rings. Although our 12CO observations at similar spatial resolution do not show obvious substructure, they reveal an inner disk depleted of CO emission. From the continuum emission and the CO velocity field we find that the innermost ring has a higher inclination than the outermost rings and the arc. This is evidence for either a small (∼8°) or moderate (∼41°) misalignment between the inner and outer disk, depending on the specific orientation of the near/far sides of the inner/outer disk. We compare the observed substructures in the ALMA observations with recent scattered-light data of this object from the Very Large Telescope/Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet REsearch (SPHERE). In particular, the location of narrow shadow lanes in the SPHERE image, combined with pressure-scale height estimates, favor a large misalignment of about 41°. We discuss our findings in the context of a dust-trapping vortex, planet-carved gaps, and a misaligned inner disk due to the presence of an inclined companion to HD 143006.
The Millimeter Continuum Size--Frequency Relationship in the UZ Tau E DiskTripathi, AnjaliAndrews, Sean M.Birnstiel, TilmanChandler, Claire J.Isella, AndreaPérez, Laura M.Harris, R. J.Ricci, LucaWilner, David J.Carpenter, John M.Calvet, N.Corder, S. A.Deller, A. T.Dullemond, C. P.Greaves, J. S.Henning, ThKwon, W.Lazio, J.Linz, H.Testi, L.DOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/aac5d6v. 86164
Tripathi, Anjali, Andrews, Sean M., Birnstiel, Tilman, Chandler, Claire J., Isella, Andrea, Pérez, Laura M., Harris, R. J., Ricci, Luca, Wilner, David J., Carpenter, John M., Calvet, N., Corder, S. A., Deller, A. T., Dullemond, C. P., Greaves, J. S., Henning, Th, Kwon, W., Lazio, J., Linz, H., and Testi, L. 2018. "The Millimeter Continuum Size--Frequency Relationship in the UZ Tau E Disk." The Astrophysical Journal 861:64. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aac5d6
ID: 147916
Type: article
Authors: Tripathi, Anjali; Andrews, Sean M.; Birnstiel, Tilman; Chandler, Claire J.; Isella, Andrea; Pérez, Laura M.; Harris, R. J.; Ricci, Luca; Wilner, David J.; Carpenter, John M.; Calvet, N.; Corder, S. A.; Deller, A. T.; Dullemond, C. P.; Greaves, J. S.; Henning, Th; Kwon, W.; Lazio, J.; Linz, H.; Testi, L.
Abstract: We present high spatial resolution observations of the continuum emission from the young multiple star system UZ Tau at frequencies from 6 to 340 GHz. To quantify the spatial variation of dust emission in the
The Disk Substructures at High Angular Resolution Project (DSHARP). VII. The Planet–Disk Interactions InterpretationZhang, ShangjiaZhu, ZhaohuanHuang, JaneGuzmán, Viviana V.Andrews, Sean M.Birnstiel, TilmanDullemond, Cornelis P.Carpenter, John M.Isella, AndreaPérez, Laura M.Benisty, MyriamWilner, David J.Baruteau, ClémentBai, Xue-NingRicci, LucaDOI: info:10.3847/2041-8213/aaf744v. 869L47
Zhang, Shangjia, Zhu, Zhaohuan, Huang, Jane, Guzmán, Viviana V., Andrews, Sean M., Birnstiel, Tilman, Dullemond, Cornelis P., Carpenter, John M., Isella, Andrea, Pérez, Laura M., Benisty, Myriam, Wilner, David J., Baruteau, Clément, Bai, Xue-Ning, and Ricci, Luca. 2018. "The Disk Substructures at High Angular Resolution Project (DSHARP). VII. The Planet–Disk Interactions Interpretation." Astrophysical Journal Letters 869:L47. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/aaf744
ID: 150228
Type: article
Authors: Zhang, Shangjia; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Huang, Jane; Guzmán, Viviana V.; Andrews, Sean M.; Birnstiel, Tilman; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Carpenter, John M.; Isella, Andrea; Pérez, Laura M.; Benisty, Myriam; Wilner, David J.; Baruteau, Clément; Bai, Xue-Ning; Ricci, Luca
Abstract: The Disk Substructures at High Angular Resolution Project (DSHARP) provides a large sample of protoplanetary disks with substructures that could be induced by young forming planets. To explore the properties of planets that may be responsible for these substructures, we systematically carry out a grid of 2D hydrodynamical simulations, including both gas and dust components. We present the resulting gas structures, including the relationship between the planet mass, as well as (1) the gaseous gap depth/width and (2) the sub/super-Keplerian motion across the gap. We then compute dust continuum intensity maps at the frequency of the DSHARP observations. We provide the relationship between the planet mass, as well as (1) the depth/width of the gaps at millimeter intensity maps, (2) the gap edge ellipticity and asymmetry, and (3) the position of secondary gaps induced by the planet. With these relationships, we lay out the procedure to constrain the planet mass using gap properties, and study the potential planets in the DSHARP disks. We highlight the excellent agreement between observations and simulations for AS 209 and the detectability of the young solar system analog. Finally, under the assumption that the detected gaps are induced by young planets, we characterize the young planet population in the planet mass–semimajor axis diagram. We find that the occurrence rate for >5 M J planets beyond 5–10 au is consistent with direct imaging constraints. Disk substructures allow us to probe a wide-orbit planet population (Neptune to Jupiter mass planets beyond 10 au) that is not accessible to other planet searching techniques.
Testing dust trapping in the circumbinary disk around GG Tauri ACazzoletti, P.Ricci, L.Birnstiel, TilmanLodato, G.DOI: info:10.1051/0004-6361/201629721v. 599A102
Cazzoletti, P., Ricci, L., Birnstiel, Tilman, and Lodato, G. 2017. "Testing dust trapping in the circumbinary disk around GG Tauri A." Astronomy and Astrophysics 599:A102. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201629721
ID: 142866
Type: article
Authors: Cazzoletti, P.; Ricci, L.; Birnstiel, Tilman; Lodato, G.
Abstract: Context. The protoplanetary disk around the GG Tau A binary system is one of the most studied young circumbinary disk, and it has been observed at many different wavelengths. Observations of the dust continuum emission at sub-mm/mm wavelengths have detected a dust ring located between 200 AU and 300 AU from the center of mass of the system. According to the classical theory of tidal interaction between a binary system and its circumbinary disk, the measured inner radius of the mm-sized dust ring is significantly larger than the predicted truncation radius, given the observed projected separation of the stars in the binary system (0.25'', corresponding to 34 AU). A possible explanation for this apparent tension between observations and theory is that a local maximum in the gas radial pressure is created at the location of the center of the dust ring in the disk as a result of the tidal interaction with the binary. An alternative scenario invokes the presence of a misalignment between the disk and the stellar orbital planes.
Aims: We investigate the origin of this dust ring structure in the GG Tau A circumbinary disk, test whether the interaction between the binary and the disk can produce a gas pressure radial bump at the location of the observed ring, and discuss whether the alternative hypothesis of a misaligned disk offers a more viable solution.
Methods: We run a set of 3D hydrodynamical simulations for an orbit consistent with the astrometric solutions for the GG Tau A stellar proper motions, different disk temperature profiles, and for different levels of viscosity. Using the obtained gas surface density and radial velocity profiles, we then apply a dust evolution model in post-processing in order to to retrieve the expected distribution of mm-sized grains.
Results: We compare the results of our models with the observational results and show that, if the binary orbit and the disk were coplanar, not only would the tidal truncation of the circumbinary disk occur at a radius that is too small with respect to the inner edge inferred by the dust observations - which is in agreement with classical theory of tidal truncation - but also that the pressure bump and the dust ring in the models would be located at <150 AU from the center of mass of the stellar system. This shows that the GG Tau A circumbinary disk cannot be coplanar with the orbital plane of the binary. We also discuss the viability of the misaligned disk scenario, suggesting that in order for dust trapping to occur at the observed radius, the disk and orbital plane must be misaligned by an angle of about 25-30 degrees.
Composition of early planetary atmospheres - II. Coupled Dust and chemical evolution in protoplanetary discsCridland, A. J.Pudritz, Ralph E.Birnstiel, TilmanCleeves, L. IlsedoreBergin, Edwin A.DOI: info:10.1093/mnras/stx1069v. 4693910–3927
Cridland, A. J., Pudritz, Ralph E., Birnstiel, Tilman, Cleeves, L. Ilsedore, and Bergin, Edwin A. 2017. "Composition of early planetary atmospheres - II. Coupled Dust and chemical evolution in protoplanetary discs." Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 469:3910– 3927. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stx1069
ID: 143845
Type: article
Authors: Cridland, A. J.; Pudritz, Ralph E.; Birnstiel, Tilman; Cleeves, L. Ilsedore; Bergin, Edwin A.
Abstract: We present the next step in a series of papers devoted to connecting the composition of the atmospheres of forming planets with the chemistry of their natal evolving protoplanetary discs. The model presented here computes the coupled chemical and dust evolution of the disc and the formation of three planets per disc model. Our three canonical planet traps produce a Jupiter near 1 AU, a Hot Jupiter and a Super-Earth. We study the dependence of the final orbital radius, mass, and atmospheric chemistry of planets forming in disc models with initial disc masses that vary by 0.02 M? above and below our fiducial model (M_{disc,0} = 0.1 M_{?}). We compute C/O and C/N for the atmospheres formed in our three models and find that C/Oplanet ~ C/O_{disc}, which does not vary strongly between different planets formed in our model. The nitrogen content of atmospheres can vary in planets that grow in different disc models. These differences are related to the formation history of the planet, the time and location that the planet accretes its atmosphere, and are encoded in the bulk abundance of NH3. These results suggest that future observations of atmospheric NH3 and an estimation of the planetary C/O and C/N can inform the formation history of particular planetary systems.