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Showing 1-20 of about 154 results.
Hard diffuse X-ray emission around the PSR J2032+4127: A pulsar wind nebula in the Cygnus OB2 associationAlbacete Colombo, J. F.Drake, J. J.Filócomo, A.Wright, N. J.v. 61B204–206
Albacete Colombo, J. F., Drake, J. J., Filócomo, A., and Wright, N. J. 2020. "Hard diffuse X-ray emission around the PSR J2032+4127: A pulsar wind nebula in the Cygnus OB2 association." Boletin de la Asociacion Argentina de Astronomia La Plata Argentina 61B:204– 206.
ID: 158880
Type: article
Authors: Albacete Colombo, J. F.; Drake, J. J.; Filócomo, A.; Wright, N. J.
Abstract: The Cygnus OB2 region, ∼3.5−5 Myr old, contains one of the most significant populations of massive stars of the {Milky Way}. Such stars substantially contribute to producing large scale soft ({$3~\text{keV}$}) diffuse X-ray emission in the direction of the pulsar PSR J2032+4127. The torus-shaped emission spans a $\approx 3'\times 2'$ jet-like structure. It is spatially coincident with the Fermi $\gamma$-ray source 4FGL J2032.3+4127. We suggest that the hard diffuse X-ray emission is the pulsar wind nebula bearing the pulsar PSR J2032+4127, a consequence of a past {core-collapse} SN explosion in the region.
Tuning the Exospace Weather Radio for Stellar Coronal Mass EjectionsAlvarado-Gómez, Julián D.Drake, Jeremy J.Fraschetti, FedericoGarraffo, CeciliaCohen, OferVocks, ChristianPoppenhäger, KatjaMoschou, Sofia P.Yadav, Rakesh K.Manchester, Ward B.,IVDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/ab88a3v. 89547
Alvarado-Gómez, Julián D., Drake, Jeremy J., Fraschetti, Federico, Garraffo, Cecilia, Cohen, Ofer, Vocks, Christian, Poppenhäger, Katja, Moschou, Sofia P., Yadav, Rakesh K., and Manchester, Ward B.,IV. 2020. "Tuning the Exospace Weather Radio for Stellar Coronal Mass Ejections." The Astrophysical Journal 895:47. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab88a3
ID: 156892
Type: article
Authors: Alvarado-Gómez, Julián D.; Drake, Jeremy J.; Fraschetti, Federico; Garraffo, Cecilia; Cohen, Ofer; Vocks, Christian; Poppenhäger, Katja; Moschou, Sofia P.; Yadav, Rakesh K.; Manchester, Ward B.,IV
Abstract: Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) on stars other than the Sun have proven very difficult to detect. One promising pathway lies in the detection of type II radio bursts. Their appearance and distinctive properties are associated with the development of an outward propagating CME-driven shock. However, dedicated radio searches have not been able to identify these transient features in other stars. Large Alfvén speeds and the magnetic suppression of CMEs in active stars have been proposed to render stellar eruptions "radio-quiet." Employing 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we study the distribution of the coronal Alfvén speed, focusing on two cases representative of a young Sun-like star and a mid- activity M-dwarf (Proxima Centauri). These results are compared with a standard solar simulation and used to characterize the shock-prone regions in the stellar corona and wind. Furthermore, using a flux-rope eruption model, we drive realistic CME events within our M-dwarf simulation. We consider eruptions with different energies to probe the regimes of weak and partial CME magnetic confinement. While these CMEs are able to generate shocks in the corona, those are pushed much farther out compared to their solar counterparts. This drastically reduces the resulting type II radio burst frequencies down to the ionospheric cutoff, which impedes their detection with ground-based instrumentation.
An Earth-like Stellar Wind Environment for Proxima Centauri cAlvarado-Gómez, Julián D.Drake, Jeremy J.Garraffo, CeciliaCohen, OferPoppenhaeger, KatjaYadav, Rakesh K.Moschou, Sofia P.DOI: info:10.3847/2041-8213/abb885v. 902L9
Alvarado-Gómez, Julián D., Drake, Jeremy J., Garraffo, Cecilia, Cohen, Ofer, Poppenhaeger, Katja, Yadav, Rakesh K., and Moschou, Sofia P. 2020. "An Earth-like Stellar Wind Environment for Proxima Centauri c." The Astrophysical Journal 902:L9. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/abb885
ID: 157612
Type: article
Authors: Alvarado-Gómez, Julián D.; Drake, Jeremy J.; Garraffo, Cecilia; Cohen, Ofer; Poppenhaeger, Katja; Yadav, Rakesh K.; Moschou, Sofia P.
Abstract: A new planet has been recently discovered around Proxima Centauri. With an orbital separation of ∼1.44 au and a minimum mass of about $7\,{M}_{\oplus }$ , Proxima c is a prime direct imaging target for atmospheric characterization. The latter can only be performed with a good understanding of the space environment of the planet, as multiple processes can have profound effects on the atmospheric structure and evolution. Here, we take one step in this direction by generating physically realistic numerical simulations of Proxima's stellar wind, coupled to a magnetosphere and ionosphere model around Proxima c. We evaluate their expected variation due to the magnetic cycle of the host star, as well as for plausible inclination angles for the exoplanet orbit. Our results indicate stellar wind dynamic pressures comparable to present-day Earth, with a slight increase (by a factor of 2) during high-activity periods of the star. A relatively weak interplanetary magnetic field at the distance of Proxima c leads to negligible stellar wind Joule heating of the upper atmosphere (about 10% of the solar wind contribution on Earth) for an Earth-like planetary magnetic field (0.3 G). Finally, we provide an assessment of the likely extreme conditions experienced by the exoplanet candidate Proxima d, tentatively located at 0.029 au with a minimum mass of 0.29 M.
The Space Environment and Atmospheric Joule Heating of the Habitable Zone Exoplanet TOI 700 dCohen, OferGarraffo, CeciliaMoschou, Sofia-ParaskeviDrake, Jeremy J.Alvarado-Gómez, J. D.Glocer, AlexFraschetti, FedericoDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/ab9637v. 897101
Cohen, Ofer, Garraffo, Cecilia, Moschou, Sofia-Paraskevi, Drake, Jeremy J., Alvarado-Gómez, J. D., Glocer, Alex, and Fraschetti, Federico. 2020. "The Space Environment and Atmospheric Joule Heating of the Habitable Zone Exoplanet TOI 700 d." The Astrophysical Journal 897:101. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab9637
ID: 157761
Type: article
Authors: Cohen, Ofer; Garraffo, Cecilia; Moschou, Sofia-Paraskevi; Drake, Jeremy J.; Alvarado-Gómez, J. D.; Glocer, Alex; Fraschetti, Federico
Abstract: We investigate the space environment conditions near the Earth-size planet TOI 700 d using a set of numerical models for the stellar corona and wind, the planetary magnetosphere, and the planetary ionosphere. We drive our simulations using a scaled-down stellar input and a scaled-up solar input in order to obtain two independent solutions. We find that for the particular parameters used in our study, the stellar wind conditions near the planet are not very extreme-slightly stronger than that near the Earth in terms of the stellar wind ram pressure and the intensity of the interplanetary magnetic field. Thus, the space environment near TOI 700 d may not be extremely harmful to the planetary atmosphere, assuming the planet resembles the Earth. Nevertheless, we stress that the stellar input parameters and the actual planetary parameters are unconstrained, and different parameters may result in a much greater effect on the atmosphere of TOI 700 d. Finally, we compare our results to solar wind measurements in the solar system and stress that modest stellar wind conditions may not guarantee atmospheric retention of exoplanets.
Pointing Chandra toward the Extreme Ultraviolet Fluxes of Very Low Mass StarsDrake, Jeremy J.Kashyap, Vinay L.Wargelin, Bradford J.Wolk, Scott J.DOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/ab7b5cv. 893137
Drake, Jeremy J., Kashyap, Vinay L., Wargelin, Bradford J., and Wolk, Scott J. 2020. "Pointing Chandra toward the Extreme Ultraviolet Fluxes of Very Low Mass Stars." The Astrophysical Journal 893:137. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab7b5c
ID: 157121
Type: article
Authors: Drake, Jeremy J.; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Wargelin, Bradford J.; Wolk, Scott J.
Abstract: The X-ray and EUV emission of stars plays a key role in the loss and evolution of the atmospheres of their planets. The coronae of dwarf stars later than M6 appear to behave differently from those of earlier spectral types and are more X-ray dim and radio bright. Too faint to have been observed by the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer, their EUV behavior is currently highly uncertain. We have devised a method to use the Chandra X-ray Observatory High Resolution Camera to provide a measure of EUV emission in the 50-170 Å range and applied it to the M6.5 dwarf LHS 248 in a pilot 10 ks exposure. Analysis with model spectra using simple, idealized coronal emission measure distributions inspired by the Chandra Low Energy Transmission Grating spectra of the M5.5 dwarf Proxima Cen and results from the literature finds the greatest consistency with a very shallow emission measure distribution slope, DEM ∝ T3/2 or shallower, in the range log T = 5.5-6.5, although this could be an artifact of systematic errors. Instead, cooler, more solar-like differential emission measures (DEMs) with a wide range of slopes were able to match the observations. Within the limitations of systematic errors, model spectra constrained by this method can provide accurate (within a factor of 2-4) synthesis and extrapolation of EUV spectra for wavelengths <400-500 Å. At longer wavelengths, models are uncertain by an order of magnitude or more and depend on the details of the emission measure distribution at temperatures log T < 5.5. The method is sensitive to the possible incompleteness of plasma radiative loss models in the 30-170 Å range for which reexamination would be warranted.
X-Ray Observations of the Peculiar Cepheid V473 Lyr Identify A Low-mass CompanionEvans, Nancy RemagePillitteri, IgnazioMolnar, LaszloSzabados, LaszloPlachy, EmeseSzabo, RobertEngle, ScottGuinan, EdwardWolk, ScottGünther, H. MoritzNeilson, HildingMarengo, MassimoMatthews, Lynn D.Moschou, SofiaDrake, Jeremy J.Kashyap, VinayKervella, PierreTordai, TamasSomogyi, PeterBurki, GilbertDOI: info:10.3847/1538-3881/ab7121v. 159121
Evans, Nancy Remage, Pillitteri, Ignazio, Molnar, Laszlo, Szabados, Laszlo, Plachy, Emese, Szabo, Robert, Engle, Scott, Guinan, Edward, Wolk, Scott, Günther, H. Moritz, Neilson, Hilding, Marengo, Massimo, Matthews, Lynn D., Moschou, Sofia, Drake, Jeremy J., Kashyap, Vinay, Kervella, Pierre, Tordai, Tamas, Somogyi, Peter, and Burki, Gilbert. 2020. "X-Ray Observations of the Peculiar Cepheid V473 Lyr Identify A Low-mass Companion." The Astronomical Journal 159:121. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/ab7121
ID: 156367
Type: article
Authors: Evans, Nancy Remage; Pillitteri, Ignazio; Molnar, Laszlo; Szabados, Laszlo; Plachy, Emese; Szabo, Robert; Engle, Scott; Guinan, Edward; Wolk, Scott; Günther, H. Moritz; Neilson, Hilding; Marengo, Massimo; Matthews, Lynn D.; Moschou, Sofia; Drake, Jeremy J.; Kashyap, Vinay; Kervella, Pierre; Tordai, Tamas; Somogyi, Peter; Burki, Gilbert
Abstract: V473 Lyr is a classical Cepheid that is unique in having substantial amplitude variations with a period of approximately 3.3 yr, thought to be similar to the Blazhko variations in RR Lyrae stars. We obtained an XMM-Newton observation of this star to follow up a previous detection in X-rays. Rather than the X-ray burst and rapid decline near maximum radius seen in δ Cephei itself, the X-ray flux in V473 Lyr remained constant for a third of the pulsation cycle covered by the observation. Thus the X-rays are probably not produced by the changes around the pulsation cycle. The X-ray spectrum is soft (kT = 0.6 keV), with X-ray properties consistent with a young low-mass companion. Previously there was no evidence of a companion in radial velocities or in Gaia and Hipparcos proper motions. While this rules out companions that are very close or very distant, a binary companion at a separation between 30 and 300 au is possible. This is an example of an X-ray observation revealing evidence of a low-mass companion, which is important in completing the mass ratio statistics of binary Cepheids. Furthermore, the detection of a young X-ray bright companion is a further indication that the Cepheid (primary) is a Population I star, even though its pulsation behavior differs from other classical Cepheids.
The High-energy Radiation Environment around a 10 Gyr M Dwarf: Habitable at Last?France, KevinDuvvuri, GirishEgan, HilaryKoskinen, TommiWilson, David J.Youngblood, AllisonFroning, Cynthia S.Brown, AlexanderAlvarado-Gómez, Julián D.Berta-Thompson, Zachory K.Drake, Jeremy J.Garraffo, CeciliaKaltenegger, LisaKowalski, Adam F.Linsky, Jeffrey L.Loyd, R. O. ParkeMauas, Pablo J. D.Miguel, YamilaPineda, J. SebastianRugheimer, SarahSchneider, P. ChristianTian, FengVieytes, MarielaDOI: info:10.3847/1538-3881/abb465v. 160237
France, Kevin, Duvvuri, Girish, Egan, Hilary, Koskinen, Tommi, Wilson, David J., Youngblood, Allison, Froning, Cynthia S., Brown, Alexander, Alvarado-Gómez, Julián D., Berta-Thompson, Zachory K., Drake, Jeremy J., Garraffo, Cecilia, Kaltenegger, Lisa, Kowalski, Adam F., Linsky, Jeffrey L., Loyd, R. O. Parke, Mauas, Pablo J. D., Miguel, Yamila, Pineda, J. Sebastian, Rugheimer, Sarah, Schneider, P. Christian, Tian, Feng, and Vieytes, Mariela. 2020. "The High-energy Radiation Environment around a 10 Gyr M Dwarf: Habitable at Last?." The Astronomical Journal 160:237. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/abb465
ID: 158876
Type: article
Authors: France, Kevin; Duvvuri, Girish; Egan, Hilary; Koskinen, Tommi; Wilson, David J.; Youngblood, Allison; Froning, Cynthia S.; Brown, Alexander; Alvarado-Gómez, Julián D.; Berta-Thompson, Zachory K.; Drake, Jeremy J.; Garraffo, Cecilia; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Kowalski, Adam F.; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Loyd, R. O. Parke; Mauas, Pablo J. D.; Miguel, Yamila; Pineda, J. Sebastian; Rugheimer, Sarah; Schneider, P. Christian; Tian, Feng; Vieytes, Mariela
Abstract: Recent work has demonstrated that high levels of X-ray and UV activity on young M dwarfs may drive rapid atmospheric escape on temperate, terrestrial planets orbiting within the habitable zone. However, secondary atmospheres on planets orbiting older, less active M dwarfs may be stable and present more promising candidates for biomarker searches. In order to evaluate the potential habitability of Earth-like planets around old, inactive M dwarfs, we present new Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of Barnard&'s Star (GJ 699), a 10 Gyr old M3.5 dwarf, acquired as part of the Mega-MUSCLES program. Despite the old age and long rotation period of Barnard&'s Star, we observe two FUV (d130 ? 5000 s; E130 ? 1029.5 erg each) and one X-ray (EX ? 1029.2 erg) flares, and we estimate a high-energy flare duty cycle (defined here as the fraction of the time the star is in a flare state) of ˜25%. A publicly available 5 Å to 10 µm spectral energy distribution of GJ 699 is created and used to evaluate the atmospheric stability of a hypothetical, unmagnetized terrestrial planet in the habitable zone (rHZ ˜ 0.1 au). Both thermal and nonthermal escape modeling indicate (1) the quiescent stellar XUV flux does not lead to strong atmospheric escape: atmospheric heating rates are comparable to periods of high solar activity on modern Earth, and (2) the flare environment could drive the atmosphere into a hydrodynamic loss regime at the observed flare duty cycle: sustained exposure to the flare environment of GJ 699 results in the loss of ?87 Earth atmospheres Gyr-1 through thermal processes and ?3 Earth atmospheres Gyr-1 through ion loss processes. These results suggest that if rocky planet atmospheres can survive the initial ˜5 Gyr of high stellar activity, or if a second-generation atmosphere can be formed or acquired, the flare duty cycle may be the controlling stellar parameter for the stability of Earth-like atmospheres around old M stars.
Atmospheric Escape Processes and Planetary Atmospheric EvolutionGronoff, G.Arras, P.Baraka, S.Bell, J. M.Cessateur, G.Cohen, O.Curry, S. M.Drake, Jeremy J.Elrod, M.Erwin, J.Garcia-Sage, K.Garraffo, CeciliaGlocer, A.Heavens, N. G.Lovato, K.Maggiolo, R.Parkinson, C. D.Simon Wedlund, C.Weimer, D. R.Moore, W. B.DOI: info:10.1029/2019JA027639v. 125e27639
Gronoff, G., Arras, P., Baraka, S., Bell, J. M., Cessateur, G., Cohen, O., Curry, S. M., Drake, Jeremy J., Elrod, M., Erwin, J., Garcia-Sage, K., Garraffo, Cecilia, Glocer, A., Heavens, N. G., Lovato, K., Maggiolo, R., Parkinson, C. D., Simon Wedlund, C., Weimer, D. R., and Moore, W. B. 2020. "Atmospheric Escape Processes and Planetary Atmospheric Evolution." Journal of Geophysical Research (Space Physics) 125:e27639. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019JA027639
ID: 157762
Type: article
Authors: Gronoff, G.; Arras, P.; Baraka, S.; Bell, J. M.; Cessateur, G.; Cohen, O.; Curry, S. M.; Drake, Jeremy J.; Elrod, M.; Erwin, J.; Garcia-Sage, K.; Garraffo, Cecilia; Glocer, A.; Heavens, N. G.; Lovato, K.; Maggiolo, R.; Parkinson, C. D.; Simon Wedlund, C.; Weimer, D. R.; Moore, W. B.
Abstract: The habitability of the surface of any planet is determined by a complex evolution of its interior, surface, and atmosphere. The electromagnetic and particle radiation of stars drive thermal, chemical, and physical alteration of planetary atmospheres, including escape. Many known extrasolar planets experience vastly different stellar environments than those in our solar system: It is crucial to understand the broad range of processes that lead to atmospheric escape and evolution under a wide range of conditions if we are to assess the habitability of worlds around other stars. One problem encountered between the planetary and the astrophysics communities is a lack of common language for describing escape processes. Each community has customary approximations that may be questioned by the other, such as the hypothesis of H-dominated thermosphere for astrophysicists or the Sun-like nature of the stars for planetary scientists. Since exoplanets are becoming one of the main targets for the detection of life, a common set of definitions and hypotheses are required. We review the different escape mechanisms proposed for the evolution of planetary and exoplanetary atmospheres. We propose a common definition for the different escape mechanisms, and we show the important parameters to take into account when evaluating the escape at a planet in time. We show that the paradigm of the magnetic field as an atmospheric shield should be changed and that recent work on the history of Xenon in Earth's atmosphere gives an elegant explanation to its enrichment in heavier isotopes: the so-called Xenon paradox.
COBRaS: The e-MERLIN 21 cm Legacy survey of Cygnus OB2Morford, J. C.Fenech, D. M.Prinja, R. K.Blomme, R.Yates, J. A.Drake, J. J.Eyres, S. P. S.Richards, A. M. S.Stevens, I. R.Wright, N. J.Clark, J. S.Dougherty, S.Pittard, J. M.Smith, Howard A.Vink, J. S.DOI: info:10.1051/0004-6361/201731379v. 637A64
Morford, J. C., Fenech, D. M., Prinja, R. K., Blomme, R., Yates, J. A., Drake, J. J., Eyres, S. P. S., Richards, A. M. S., Stevens, I. R., Wright, N. J., Clark, J. S., Dougherty, S., Pittard, J. M., Smith, Howard A., and Vink, J. S. 2020. "COBRaS: The e-MERLIN 21 cm Legacy survey of Cygnus OB2." Astronomy and Astrophysics 637:A64. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201731379
ID: 156956
Type: article
Authors: Morford, J. C.; Fenech, D. M.; Prinja, R. K.; Blomme, R.; Yates, J. A.; Drake, J. J.; Eyres, S. P. S.; Richards, A. M. S.; Stevens, I. R.; Wright, N. J.; Clark, J. S.; Dougherty, S.; Pittard, J. M.; Smith, Howard A.; Vink, J. S.
Abstract: Context. The role of massive stars is central to an understanding of galactic ecology. It is important to establish the details of how massive stars provide radiative, chemical, and mechanical feedback in galaxies. Central to these issues is an understanding of the evolution of massive stars, and the critical role of mass loss via strongly structured winds and stellar binarity. Ultimately, and acting collectively, massive stellar clusters shape the structure and energetics of galaxies.
Aims: We aim to conduct high-resolution, deep field mapping at 21 cm of the core of the massive Cygnus OB2 association and to characterise the properties of the massive stars and colliding winds at this waveband.
Methods: We used seven stations of the e-MERLIN radio facility, with its upgraded bandwidth and enhanced sensitivity to conduct a 21 cm census of Cygnus OB2. Based on 42 hours of observations, seven overlapping pointings were employed over multiple epochs during 2014 resulting in 1σ sensitivities down to ∼21 μJy and a resolution of ∼180 mas.
Results: A total of 61 sources are detected at 21 cm over a ∼0.48° × 0.48° region centred on the heart of the Cyg OB2 association. Of these 61 sources, 33 are detected for the first time. We detect a number of previously identified sources including four massive stellar binary systems, two YSOs, and several known X-ray and radio sources. We also detect the LBV candidate (possible binary system) and blue hypergiant star of Cyg OB2 #12.
Conclusions: The 21 cm observations secured in the COBRaS Legacy project provide data to constrain conditions in the outer wind regions of massive stars; determine the non-thermal properties of massive interacting binaries; examine evidence for transient sources, including those associated with young stellar objects; and provide unidentified sources that merit follow-up observations. The 21 cm data are of lasting value and will serve in combination with other key surveys of Cyg OB2, including Chandra and Spitzer.
Phase-modulated X-Ray Emission from Cepheids due to Pulsation-driven ShocksMoschou, Sofia-ParaskeviVlahakis, NektariosDrake, Jeremy J.Evans, Nancy RemageNeilson, Hilding R.Guzik, Joyce AnnZuhone, JohnDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/aba8fav. 900157
Moschou, Sofia-Paraskevi, Vlahakis, Nektarios, Drake, Jeremy J., Evans, Nancy Remage, Neilson, Hilding R., Guzik, Joyce Ann, and Zuhone, John. 2020. "Phase-modulated X-Ray Emission from Cepheids due to Pulsation-driven Shocks." The Astrophysical Journal 900:157. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aba8fa
ID: 157760
Type: article
Authors: Moschou, Sofia-Paraskevi; Vlahakis, Nektarios; Drake, Jeremy J.; Evans, Nancy Remage; Neilson, Hilding R.; Guzik, Joyce Ann; Zuhone, John
Abstract: Cepheids are pulsating variable stars with a periodic chromospheric response at UV wavelengths close to their minimum radius phase. Recently, an X-ray variable signature was captured in observations during the maximum radius phase. This X-ray emission came as a surprise and is not understood. In this work, we use the modern astrophysical code PLUTO to investigate the effects of pulsations on Cepheid X-ray emission. We run a number of hydrodynamic numerical simulations with a variety of initial and boundary conditions in order to explore the capability of shocks to produce the observed phase-dependent X-ray behavior. Finally, we use the Simulated Observations of X-ray Sources (SOXS) package to create synthetic spectra for each simulation case and link our simulations to observables. We show that, for certain conditions, we can reproduce observed X-ray fluxes at phases 0.4-0.8 when the Cepheid is at maximum radius. Our results span a wide range of mass-loss rates, 2 × 10-13 M yr-1 to 3 × 10-8 M yr-1, and peak X-ray luminosities, 5 × 10-17 erg cm-2 s-1 to 1.4 × 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1. We conclude that Cepheids exhibit two-component emission with (a) shock waves being responsible for the phase-dependent variable emission (phases 0.2-0.6) and (b) a separate quiescent mechanism being the dominant emission mechanism for the remaining phases.
Chandra High Energy Transmission Gratings Spectra of V3890 SgrOrio, M.Drake, Jeremy J.Ness, J. -UBehar, E.Luna, G. J. M.Darnley, M. J.Gallagher, J.Gehrz, R. D.Kuin, N. P. M.Mikolajewska, J.Ospina, N.Page, K. L.Poggiani, R.Starrfield, S.Williams, R.Woodward, C. E.DOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/ab8c4dv. 89580
Orio, M., Drake, Jeremy J., Ness, J. -U, Behar, E., Luna, G. J. M., Darnley, M. J., Gallagher, J., Gehrz, R. D., Kuin, N. P. M., Mikolajewska, J., Ospina, N., Page, K. L., Poggiani, R., Starrfield, S., Williams, R., and Woodward, C. E. 2020. "Chandra High Energy Transmission Gratings Spectra of V3890 Sgr." The Astrophysical Journal 895:80. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab8c4d
ID: 156818
Type: article
Authors: Orio, M.; Drake, Jeremy J.; Ness, J. -U; Behar, E.; Luna, G. J. M.; Darnley, M. J.; Gallagher, J.; Gehrz, R. D.; Kuin, N. P. M.; Mikolajewska, J.; Ospina, N.; Page, K. L.; Poggiani, R.; Starrfield, S.; Williams, R.; Woodward, C. E.
Abstract: The recurrent nova (RN) V3890 Sgr was observed during the seventh day after the onset of its most recent outburst, with the Chandra ACIS-S camera and High Energy Transmission Gratings. A rich emission line spectrum was detected, due to transitions of Fe-L and K-shell ions ranging from neon to iron. The measured absorbed flux is ≍10-10 erg cm-2 s-1 in the 1.4-15 Šrange (0.77-8.86 keV). The line profiles are asymmetric, blueshifted, and skewed toward the blue side, as if the ejecta moving toward us are less absorbed than the receding ejecta. The full width at half-maximum of most emission lines is 1000-1200 km s-1, with some extended blue wings. The spectrum is thermal and consistent with a plasma in collisional ionization equilibrium with column density 1.3 × 1022 cm-2 and at least two components at temperatures of about 1 and 4 keV, possibly a forward and a reverse shock, or regions with differently mixed ejecta and a red giant wind. The spectrum is remarkably similar to the symbiotic RNe V745 Sco and RS Oph, but we cannot distinguish whether the shocks occurred at a distance of a few au from the red giant, or near the giant's photosphere, in a high-density medium containing only a low mass. The ratios of the flux in lines of aluminum, magnesium, and neon relative to the flux in lines of silicon and iron probably indicate a carbon-oxygen white dwarf.
Coronal Response to Magnetically Suppressed CME Events in M-dwarf StarsAlvarado-Gómez, Julián D.Drake, Jeremy J.Moschou, Sofia P.Garraffo, CeciliaCohen, OferNASA LWS Focus Science Team: Solar-Stellar ConnectionYadav, Rakesh K.Fraschetti, FedericoDOI: info:10.3847/2041-8213/ab44d0v. 884L13
Alvarado-Gómez, Julián D., Drake, Jeremy J., Moschou, Sofia P., Garraffo, Cecilia, Cohen, Ofer, NASA LWS Focus Science Team: Solar-Stellar Connection, Yadav, Rakesh K., and Fraschetti, Federico. 2019. "Coronal Response to Magnetically Suppressed CME Events in M-dwarf Stars." The Astrophysical Journal 884:L13. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/ab44d0
ID: 154628
Type: article
Authors: Alvarado-Gómez, Julián D.; Drake, Jeremy J.; Moschou, Sofia P.; Garraffo, Cecilia; Cohen, Ofer; NASA LWS Focus Science Team: Solar-Stellar Connection; Yadav, Rakesh K.; Fraschetti, Federico
Abstract: We report the results of the first state-of-the-art numerical simulations of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) taking place in realistic magnetic field configurations of moderately active M-dwarf stars. Our analysis indicates that a clear, novel, and observable, coronal response is generated due to the collapse of the eruption and its eventual release into the stellar wind. Escaping CME events, weakly suppressed by the large-scale field, induce a flare-like signature in the emission from coronal material at different temperatures due to compression and associated heating. Such flare-like profiles display a distinctive temporal evolution in their Doppler shift signal (from red to blue), as the eruption first collapses toward the star and then perturbs the ambient magnetized plasma on its way outwards. For stellar fields providing partial confinement, CME fragmentation takes place, leading to rise and fall flow patterns which resemble the solar coronal rain cycle. In strongly suppressed events, the response is better described as a gradual brightening, in which the failed CME is deposited in the form of a coronal rain cloud leading to a much slower rise in the ambient high-energy flux by relatively small factors (̃2-3). In all the considered cases (escaping/confined) a fractional decrease in the emission from midrange coronal temperature plasma occurs, similar to the coronal dimming events observed on the Sun. Detection of the observational signatures of these CME-induced features requires a sensitive next generation X-ray space telescope.
Breezing through the Space Environment of Barnard's Star bAlvarado-Gómez, Julián D.Garraffo, CeciliaDrake, Jeremy J.Brown, Benjamin P.Oishi, Jeffrey S.Moschou, Sofia P.Cohen, OferDOI: info:10.3847/2041-8213/ab1489v. 875L12
Alvarado-Gómez, Julián D., Garraffo, Cecilia, Drake, Jeremy J., Brown, Benjamin P., Oishi, Jeffrey S., Moschou, Sofia P., and Cohen, Ofer. 2019. "Breezing through the Space Environment of Barnard's Star b." The Astrophysical Journal 875:L12. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/ab1489
ID: 155312
Type: article
Authors: Alvarado-Gómez, Julián D.; Garraffo, Cecilia; Drake, Jeremy J.; Brown, Benjamin P.; Oishi, Jeffrey S.; Moschou, Sofia P.; Cohen, Ofer
Abstract: A physically realistic stellar wind model based on Alfvén wave dissipation has been used to simulate the wind from Barnard's Star and to estimate the conditions at the location of its recently discovered planetary companion. Such models require knowledge of the stellar surface magnetic field that is currently unknown for Barnard's Star. We circumvent this by considering the observed field distributions of three different stars that constitute admissible magnetic proxies of this object. Under these considerations, Barnard's Star b experiences less intense wind pressure than the much more close-in planet Proxima b and the planets of the TRAPPIST-1 system. The milder wind conditions are more a result of its much greater orbital distance rather than in differences in the surface magnetic field strengths of the host stars. The dynamic pressure experienced by the planet is comparable to present- day Earth values, but it can undergo variations by factors of several during current sheet crossings in each orbit. The magnetospause standoff distance would be ∼20%-40% smaller than that of the Earth for an equivalent planetary magnetic field strength.
Deep Chandra Survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud. III. Formation Efficiency of High-mass X-Ray BinariesAntoniou, ValliaZezas, AndreasDrake, Jeremy J.Badenes, CarlesHaberl, FrankWright, Nicholas J.Hong, JaesubDi Stefano, RosanneGaetz, Terrance J.Long, Knox S.Plucinsky, Paul P.Sasaki, ManamiWilliams, Benjamin F.Winkler, P. FrankSMC XVP collaborationDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/ab4a7av. 88720
Antoniou, Vallia, Zezas, Andreas, Drake, Jeremy J., Badenes, Carles, Haberl, Frank, Wright, Nicholas J., Hong, Jaesub, Di Stefano, Rosanne, Gaetz, Terrance J., Long, Knox S., Plucinsky, Paul P., Sasaki, Manami, Williams, Benjamin F., Winkler, P. Frank, and SMC XVP collaboration. 2019. "Deep Chandra Survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud. III. Formation Efficiency of High-mass X-Ray Binaries." The Astrophysical Journal 887:20. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab4a7a
ID: 154539
Type: article
Authors: Antoniou, Vallia; Zezas, Andreas; Drake, Jeremy J.; Badenes, Carles; Haberl, Frank; Wright, Nicholas J.; Hong, Jaesub; Di Stefano, Rosanne; Gaetz, Terrance J.; Long, Knox S.; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Sasaki, Manami; Williams, Benjamin F.; Winkler, P. Frank; SMC XVP collaboration
Abstract: We have compiled the most complete census of high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) in the Small Magellanic Cloud with the aim to investigate the formation efficiency of young accreting binaries in its low-metallicity environment. In total, we use 123 X-ray sources with detections in our Chandra X-ray Visionary Program (XVP), supplemented by 14 additional (likely and confirmed) HMXBs identified by Haberl & Sturm that fall within the XVP area, but are neither detected in our survey (nine sources) nor matched with any of the 127 sources identified in the XVP data (five sources). Specifically, we examine the number ratio of the HMXBs [N(HMXBs)] to (a) the number of OB stars, (b) the local star formation rate (SFR), and (c) the stellar mass produced during the specific star formation burst, all as a function of the age of their parent stellar populations. Each of these indicators serves a different role, but in all cases we find that the HMXB formation efficiency increases as a function of time (following a burst of star formation) up to ∼40─60 Myr, and then gradually decreases. The formation efficiency peaks at ∼30─40 Myr with average rates of {\text{}}{{N}}({HMXB})/{SFR}={339}-83+78 {({M}ȯ /{yr})}-1, and N(HMXB)/M \star =({8.74}-0.92+1.0)× {10}-6 {M}ȯ -1, in good agreement with previous estimates of the average formation efficiency in the broad ∼20─60 Myr age range.
Stellar Energetic Particles in the Magnetically Turbulent Habitable Zones of TRAPPIST-1-like Planetary SystemsFraschetti, FedericoDrake, Jeremy J.Alvarado-Gómez, Julian D.Moschou, Sofia-ParaskeviGarraffo, CeciliaCohen, O.DOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/ab05e4v. 87421
Fraschetti, Federico, Drake, Jeremy J., Alvarado-Gómez, Julian D., Moschou, Sofia-Paraskevi, Garraffo, Cecilia, and Cohen, O. 2019. "Stellar Energetic Particles in the Magnetically Turbulent Habitable Zones of TRAPPIST-1-like Planetary Systems." The Astrophysical Journal 874:21. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab05e4
ID: 155410
Type: article
Authors: Fraschetti, Federico; Drake, Jeremy J.; Alvarado-Gómez, Julian D.; Moschou, Sofia-Paraskevi; Garraffo, Cecilia; Cohen, O.
Abstract: Planets in close proximity to their parent star, such as those in the habitable zones around M dwarfs, could be subject to particularly high doses of particle radiation. We have carried out test-particle simulations of ∼GeV protons to investigate the propagation of energetic particles accelerated by flares or traveling shock waves within the stellar wind and magnetic field of a TRAPPIST-1-like system. Turbulence was simulated with small-scale magnetostatic perturbations with an isotropic power spectrum. We find that only a few percent of particles injected within half a stellar radius from the stellar surface escape, and that the escaping fraction increases strongly with increasing injection radius. Escaping particles are increasingly deflected and focused by the ambient spiraling magnetic field as the superimposed turbulence amplitude is increased. In our TRAPPIST-1-like simulations, regardless of the angular region of injection, particles are strongly focused onto two caps within the fast wind regions and centered on the equatorial planetary orbital plane. Based on a scaling relation between far-UV emission and energetic protons for solar flares applied to M dwarfs, the innermost putative habitable planet, TRAPPIST-1e, is bombarded by a proton flux up to 6 orders of magnitude larger than experienced by the present-day Earth. We note two mechanisms that could strongly limit EP fluxes from active stars: EPs from flares are contained by the stellar magnetic field; and potential CMEs that might generate EPs at larger distances also fail to escape.
A Chandra Study: Are Dwarf Carbon Stars Spun Up and Rejuvenated by Mass Transfer?Green, Paul J.Montez, RodolfoMazzoni, FernandoFilippazzo, JosephAnderson, Scott F.De Marco, OrsolaDrake, Jeremy J.Farihi, JayFrank, AdamKastner, Joel H.Miszalski, BrentRoulston, Benjamin R.DOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/ab2bf4v. 88149
Green, Paul J., Montez, Rodolfo, Mazzoni, Fernando, Filippazzo, Joseph, Anderson, Scott F., De Marco, Orsola, Drake, Jeremy J., Farihi, Jay, Frank, Adam, Kastner, Joel H., Miszalski, Brent, and Roulston, Benjamin R. 2019. "A Chandra Study: Are Dwarf Carbon Stars Spun Up and Rejuvenated by Mass Transfer?." The Astrophysical Journal 881:49. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab2bf4
ID: 154244
Type: article
Authors: Green, Paul J.; Montez, Rodolfo; Mazzoni, Fernando; Filippazzo, Joseph; Anderson, Scott F.; De Marco, Orsola; Drake, Jeremy J.; Farihi, Jay; Frank, Adam; Kastner, Joel H.; Miszalski, Brent; Roulston, Benjamin R.
Abstract: Carbon stars (with C/O > 1) were long assumed to all be giants, because only asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars dredge up significant carbon into their atmospheres. The case is nearly ironclad now that the formerly mysterious dwarf carbon (dC) stars are actually far more common than C giants and have accreted carbon-rich material from a former AGB companion, yielding a white dwarf (WD) and a dC star that has gained both significant mass and angular momentum. Some such dC systems have undergone a planetary nebula phase, and some may evolve to become CH, CEMP, or Ba giants. Recent studies indicate that most dCs are likely from older, metal-poor kinematic populations. Given the well-known anticorrelation of age and activity, dCs would not be expected to show significant X-ray emission related to coronal activity. However, accretion spin-up might be expected to rejuvenate magnetic dynamos in these post-mass-transfer binary systems. We describe our Chandra pilot study of six dCs selected from the SDSS for Hα emission and/or a hot WD companion, to test whether their X-ray emission strength and spectral properties are consistent with a rejuvenated dynamo. We detect all six dCs in the sample, which have X-ray luminosities ranging from log {L}{{x}}̃ 28.5-29.7, preliminary evidence that dCs may be active at a level consistent with stars that have short rotation periods of several days or less. More definitive results require a sample of typical dCs with deeper X-ray observations to better constrain their plasma temperatures.
Simultaneous Kepler/K2 and XMM-Newton observations of superflares in the PleiadesGuarcello, M. G.Argiroffi, C.Drake, Jeremy J.Flaccomio, E.López-Santiago, J.Micela, G.Reale, F.Rebull, L.Sciortino, S.Stauffer, J.Antoniou, V.Alvarado-Gomez, J. D.DOI: info:10.1002/asna.201913614v. 340302–307
Guarcello, M. G., Argiroffi, C., Drake, Jeremy J., Flaccomio, E., López-Santiago, J., Micela, G., Reale, F., Rebull, L., Sciortino, S., Stauffer, J., Antoniou, V., and Alvarado-Gomez, J. D. 2019. "Simultaneous Kepler/K2 and XMM-Newton observations of superflares in the Pleiades." Astronomische Nachrichten 340:302– 307. https://doi.org/10.1002/asna.201913614
ID: 151822
Type: article
Authors: Guarcello, M. G.; Argiroffi, C.; Drake, Jeremy J.; Flaccomio, E.; López-Santiago, J.; Micela, G.; Reale, F.; Rebull, L.; Sciortino, S.; Stauffer, J.; Antoniou, V.; Alvarado-Gomez, J. D.
Abstract: Together with coronal mass ejection, flares are the most energetic stellar magnetic events, ignited by a sudden release of magnetic energy, which triggers a cascade of interconnected phenomena, each resulting in emission in different bands. For this reason, flares are intrinsic multiwavelength phenomena. In particular, optical and soft X-ray emission probes two different events occurring during flares: the heating of plasma in the upper photosphere at the footpoints of the magnetic loops and the heating and cooling of the plasma confined in the loops in the corona, respectively. To characterize powerful flares observed in optical and X-rays, constrain the energy released in both bands, the geometry of the loops, and to study flares time evolution, we studied the brightest flares occurred in the 125-Myr-old stars in the Pleiades observed simultaneously with x-ray multi-mirror mission/Newton and Kepler/K2.
Simultaneous Kepler/K2 and XMM-Newton observations of superflares in the PleiadesGuarcello, M. G.Micela, G.Sciortino, S.López-Santiago, J.Argiroffi, C.Reale, F.Flaccomio, E.Alvarado-Gómez, Julian D.Antoniou, ValliaDrake, Jeremy J.Pillitteri, IgnazioRebull, L. M.Stauffer, J.DOI: info:10.1051/0004-6361/201834370v. 622A210
Guarcello, M. G., Micela, G., Sciortino, S., López-Santiago, J., Argiroffi, C., Reale, F., Flaccomio, E., Alvarado-Gómez, Julian D., Antoniou, Vallia, Drake, Jeremy J., Pillitteri, Ignazio, Rebull, L. M., and Stauffer, J. 2019. "Simultaneous Kepler/K2 and XMM-Newton observations of superflares in the Pleiades." Astronomy and Astrophysics 622:A210. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201834370
ID: 150497
Type: article
Authors: Guarcello, M. G.; Micela, G.; Sciortino, S.; López-Santiago, J.; Argiroffi, C.; Reale, F.; Flaccomio, E.; Alvarado-Gómez, Julian D.; Antoniou, Vallia; Drake, Jeremy J.; Pillitteri, Ignazio; Rebull, L. M.; Stauffer, J.
Abstract: Context. Flares are powerful events ignited by a sudden release of magnetic energy which triggers a cascade of interconnected phenomena, each resulting in emission in different electromagnetic bands. In fact, in the Sun flares are observed across the whole electromagnetic spectrum. Multi-band observations of stellar flares are instead rare. This limits our ability to extend what we learn from solar flares to the case of flares occurring in stars with different properties. Aims: With the aim of studying flares in the 125-Myr-old stars in the Pleiades observed simultaneously in optical and X-ray light, we obtained new XMM-Newton observations of this cluster during the observations of Kepler K2 Campaign 4. The objective of this paper is to characterize the most powerful flares observed in both bands and to constrain the energy released in the optical and X-ray, the geometry of the loops, and their time evolution. We also aim to compare our results to existing studies of flares occurring in the Sun and stars at different ages. Methods: We selected bright X-ray/optical flares that occurred in 12 known members of the Pleiades from their K2 and XMM-Newton light curves. The sample includes ten K-M stars, one F9 star, and one G8 star. Flare average properties were obtained from integrated analysis of the light curves during the flares. The time evolution of the plasma in the magnetic loops is constrained with time-resolved X-ray spectral analysis. Results: Most of the flares studied in this work emitted more energy in optical than in X-rays, as in most solar flares, even if the Pleiades flares output a larger fraction of their total energy in X-rays than typical solar flares do. Additionally, the energy budget in the two bands is weakly correlated. We also found comparable flare duration in optical and X-rays and observed that rapidly rotating stars (e.g., with rotation period shorter than 0.5 days) preferentially host short flares. We estimated the slope of the cooling path of the flares in the log(EM)-vs.-log(T) plane. The values we obtained are affected by large uncertainties, but their nominal values suggest that the flares analyzed in this paper are mainly due to single loops with no sustained heating occurring during the cooling phase. We also observed and analyzed oscillations with a period of 500 s during one of the flares. Conclusions: The flares observed in the Pleiades can be classified as "superflares" based on their energy budget in the optical, and share some of the properties of the flares observed in the Sun, despite being more energetic. For instance, as in most solar flares, more energy is typically released in the optical than in X-rays and the duration of the flares in the two bands is correlated. We have attempted a comparison between the X-ray flares observed in the Pleiades and those observed in clusters with different ages, but to firmly address any evolutionary pattern of flare characteristics, similar and uniform multi-wavelength analyses on more complete samples are necessary.
The Stellar CME–Flare Relation: What Do Historic Observations Reveal?Moschou, Sofia-ParaskeviDrake, Jeremy J.Cohen, OferAlvarado-Gómez, Julián D.Garraffo, CeciliaFraschetti, FedericoDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/ab1b37v. 877105
Moschou, Sofia-Paraskevi, Drake, Jeremy J., Cohen, Ofer, Alvarado-Gómez, Julián D., Garraffo, Cecilia, and Fraschetti, Federico. 2019. "The Stellar CME–Flare Relation: What Do Historic Observations Reveal?." The Astrophysical Journal 877:105. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab1b37
ID: 152917
Type: article
Authors: Moschou, Sofia-Paraskevi; Drake, Jeremy J.; Cohen, Ofer; Alvarado-Gómez, Julián D.; Garraffo, Cecilia; Fraschetti, Federico
Abstract: Solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and flares have a statistically well-defined relationship, with more energetic X-ray flares corresponding to faster and more massive CMEs. How this relationship extends to more magnetically active stars is a subject of open research. Here we study the most probable stellar CME candidates associated with flares captured in the literature to date, all of which were observed on magnetically active stars. We use a simple CME model to derive masses and kinetic energies from observed quantities and transform associated flare data to the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite 1–8 Å band. Derived CME masses range from ∼1015 to 1022 g. Associated flare X-ray energies range from 1031 to 1037 erg. Stellar CME masses as a function of associated flare energy generally lie along or below the extrapolated mean for solar events. In contrast, CME kinetic energies lie below the analogous solar extrapolation by roughly 2 orders of magnitude, indicating approximate parity between flare X-ray and CME kinetic energies. These results suggest that the CMEs associated with very energetic flares on active stars are more limited in terms of the ejecta velocity than the ejecta mass, possibly because of the restraining influence of strong overlying magnetic fields and stellar wind drag. Lower CME kinetic energies and velocities present a more optimistic scenario for the effects of CME impacts on exoplanets in close proximity to active stellar hosts.
Suppression of Coronal Mass Ejections in Active Stars by an Overlying Large-scale Magnetic Field: A Numerical StudyAlvarado-Gómez, Julián D.Drake, Jeremy J.Cohen, OferMoschou, Sofia P.Garraffo, CeciliaDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/aacb7fv. 86293
Alvarado-Gómez, Julián D., Drake, Jeremy J., Cohen, Ofer, Moschou, Sofia P., and Garraffo, Cecilia. 2018. "Suppression of Coronal Mass Ejections in Active Stars by an Overlying Large-scale Magnetic Field: A Numerical Study." The Astrophysical Journal 862:93. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aacb7f
ID: 149000
Type: article
Authors: Alvarado-Gómez, Julián D.; Drake, Jeremy J.; Cohen, Ofer; Moschou, Sofia P.; Garraffo, Cecilia
Abstract: We present results from a set of numerical simulations aimed at exploring the mechanism of coronal mass ejection (CME) suppression in active stars by an overlying large-scale magnetic field. We use a state-of-the-art 3D magnetohydrodynamic code that considers a self-consistent coupling between an Alfvén wave-driven stellar wind solution, and a first-principles CME model based on the eruption of a flux rope anchored to a mixed-polarity region. By replicating the driving conditions used in simulations of strong solar CMEs, we show that a large-scale dipolar magnetic field of 75 G is able to fully confine eruptions within the stellar corona. Our simulations also consider CMEs exceeding the magnetic energy used in solar studies, which are able to escape the large-scale magnetic field confinement. The analysis includes a qualitative and quantitative description of the simulated CMEs and their dynamics, which reveals a drastic reduction of the radial speed caused by the overlying magnetic field. With the aid of recent observational studies, we place our numerical results in the context of solar and stellar flaring events. In this way, we find that this particular large-scale magnetic field configuration establishes a suppression threshold around ~3 × 1032 erg in the CME kinetic energy. Extending the solar flare-CME relations to other stars, such CME kinetic energies could be typically achieved during erupting flaring events with total energies larger than 6 × 1032 erg (GOES class ~X70).