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Carbon cycling in mature and regrowth forests globallyAnderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.Herrmann, ValentineBanbury Morgan, RebeccaBond-Lamberty, BenCook-Patton, Susan C.Ferson, Abigail E.Muller-Landau, Helene C.Wang, Maria M. H.DOI: info:10.1088/1748-9326/abed01v. 16No. 5
Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J., Herrmann, Valentine, Banbury Morgan, Rebecca, Bond-Lamberty, Ben, Cook-Patton, Susan C., Ferson, Abigail E., Muller-Landau, Helene C., and Wang, Maria M. H. 2021. "Carbon cycling in mature and regrowth forests globally." Environmental Research Letters 16 (5):https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/abed01
ID: 159526
Type: article
Authors: Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.; Herrmann, Valentine; Banbury Morgan, Rebecca; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Cook-Patton, Susan C.; Ferson, Abigail E.; Muller-Landau, Helene C.; Wang, Maria M. H.
Abstract: Forests are major components of the global carbon (C) cycle and thereby strongly influence atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and climate. However, efforts to incorporate forests into climate models and CO2 accounting frameworks have been constrained by a lack of accessible, global-scale synthesis on how C cycling varies across forest types and stand ages. Here, we draw from the Global Forest Carbon Database, ForC, to provide a macroscopic overview of C cycling in the world's forests, giving special attention to stand age-related variation. Specifically, we use 11 923 ForC records for 34 C cycle variables from 865 geographic locations to characterize ensemble C budgets for four broad forest types-tropical broadleaf evergreen, temperate broadleaf, temperate conifer, and boreal. We calculate means and standard deviations for both mature and regrowth (age < 100 years) forests and quantify trends with stand age in regrowth forests for all variables with sufficient data. C cycling rates generally decreased from tropical to temperate to boreal in both mature and regrowth forests, whereas C stocks showed less directional variation. Mature forest net ecosystem production did not differ significantly among biomes. The majority of flux variables, together with most live biomass pools, increased significantly with the logarithm of stand age. As climate change accelerates, understanding and managing the carbon dynamics of forests is critical to forecasting, mitigation, and adaptation. This comprehensive and synthetic global overview of C stocks and fluxes across biomes and stand ages contributes to these efforts.
Long-Term Impacts of Invasive Insects and Pathogens on Composition, Biomass, and Diversity of Forests in Virginia's Blue Ridge MountainsAnderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.Herrmann, ValentineCass, Wendy B.Williams, Alan B.Paull, Stephen J.Gonzalez-Akre, Erika B.Helcoski, RyanTepley, Alan J.Bourg, Norman A.Cosma, Christopher T.Ferson, Abigail E.Kittle, CarolineMeakem, VictoriaMcGregor, Ian R.Prestipino, Maya N.Scott, Michael K.Terrell, Alyssa R.Alonso, AlfonsoDallmeier, FranciscoMcShea, William J.DOI: info:10.1007/s10021-020-00503-wv. 2489–105
Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J., Herrmann, Valentine, Cass, Wendy B., Williams, Alan B., Paull, Stephen J., Gonzalez-Akre, Erika B., Helcoski, Ryan, Tepley, Alan J., Bourg, Norman A., Cosma, Christopher T., Ferson, Abigail E., Kittle, Caroline, Meakem, Victoria, McGregor, Ian R., Prestipino, Maya N., Scott, Michael K., Terrell, Alyssa R., Alonso, Alfonso, Dallmeier, Francisco, and McShea, William J. 2021. "Long-Term Impacts of Invasive Insects and Pathogens on Composition, Biomass, and Diversity of Forests in Virginia's Blue Ridge Mountains." Ecosystems 24:89– 105. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-020-00503-w
ID: 155476
Type: article
Authors: Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.; Herrmann, Valentine; Cass, Wendy B.; Williams, Alan B.; Paull, Stephen J.; Gonzalez-Akre, Erika B.; Helcoski, Ryan; Tepley, Alan J.; Bourg, Norman A.; Cosma, Christopher T.; Ferson, Abigail E.; Kittle, Caroline; Meakem, Victoria; McGregor, Ian R.; Prestipino, Maya N.; Scott, Michael K.; Terrell, Alyssa R.; Alonso, Alfonso; Dallmeier, Francisco; McShea, William J.
Abstract: Exotic forest insects and pathogens (EFIP) have become regular features of temperate forest ecosystems, yet we lack a long-term perspective on their net impacts on tree mortality, carbon sequestration, and tree species diversity. Here, we analyze 3 decades (1987-2019) of forest monitoring data from the Blue Ridge Mountains ecoregion in eastern North America, including 67 plots totaling 29.4 ha, along with a historical survey from 1939. Over the past century, EFIP substantially affected at least eight tree genera. Tree host taxa had anomalously high mortality rates (>= 6% year(-1) from 2008 to 2019 vs 1.4% year(-1) for less-impacted taxa). Following the arrival of EFIP, affected taxa declined in abundance (- 25 to - 100%) and live aboveground biomass (AGB; - 13 to - 100%) within our monitoring plots. We estimate that EFIP were responsible for 21-29% of ecosystem AGB loss through mortality (- 87 g m(-2) year(-1)) from 1991 to 2013 across 66 sites. Over a century, net AGB loss among affected species totaled roughly 6.6-10 kg m(-2). The affected host taxa accounted for 23-29% of genera losses at the plot scale, with mixed net effects on alpha-diversity. Several taxa were lost from our monitoring plots but not completely extirpated from the region. Despite these losses, both total AGB and alpha-diversity were largely recovered through increases in sympatric genera. These results indicate that EFIP have been an important force shaping forest composition, carbon cycling, and diversity. At the same time, less-affected taxa in these relatively diverse temperate forests have conferred substantial resilience with regard to biomass and alpha-diversity.
Global patterns of forest autotrophic carbon fluxesBanbury Morgan, RebeccaHerrmann, ValentineKunert, NorbertBond-Lamberty, BenMuller-Landau, Helene C.Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.DOI: info:10.1111/gcb.15574
Banbury Morgan, Rebecca, Herrmann, Valentine, Kunert, Norbert, Bond-Lamberty, Ben, Muller-Landau, Helene C., and Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J. 2021. "Global patterns of forest autotrophic carbon fluxes." Global Change Biology https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15574
ID: 158908
Type: article
Authors: Banbury Morgan, Rebecca; Herrmann, Valentine; Kunert, Norbert; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Muller-Landau, Helene C.; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.
Abstract: Carbon (C) fixation, allocation, and metabolism by trees set the basis for energy and material flows in forest ecosystems and define their interactions with Earth's changing climate. However, while many studies have considered variation in productivity with latitude and climate, we lack a cohesive synthesis on how forest carbon fluxes vary globally with respect to climate and one another. Here, we draw upon 1,319 records from the Global Forest Carbon Database, representing all major forest types and the nine most significant autotrophic carbon fluxes, to comprehensively review how annual C cycling in mature, undisturbed forests varies with latitude and climate on a global scale. Across all flux variables analyzed, rates of C cycling decreased continuously with absolute latitude-a finding that confirms multiple previous studies and contradicts the idea that net primary productivity of temperate forests rivals that of tropical forests. C flux variables generally displayed similar trends across latitude and multiple climate variables, with no differences in allocation detected at this global scale. Temperature variables in general, and mean annual temperature or temperature seasonality in particular, were the best single predictors of C flux, explaining 19%-71% of variation in the C fluxes analyzed. The effects of temperature were modified by moisture availability, with C flux reduced under hot and dry conditions and sometimes under very high precipitation. Annual C fluxes increased with growing season length and were also influenced by growing season climate. These findings clarify how forest C flux varies with latitude and climate on a global scale. In an era when forests will play a critical yet uncertain role in shaping Earth's rapidly changing climate, our synthesis provides a foundation for understanding global patterns in forest C cycling.
A restructured and updated global soil respiration database (SRDB-V5)Jian, JinshiVargas, RodrigoAnderson-Teixeira, KristinaStell, EmmaHerrmann, ValentineHorn, MercedesKholod, NazarManzon, JasonMarchesi, RebeccaParedes, DarlinBond-Lamberty, BenDOI: info:10.5194/essd-13-255-2021
Jian, Jinshi, Vargas, Rodrigo, Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina, Stell, Emma, Herrmann, Valentine, Horn, Mercedes, Kholod, Nazar, Manzon, Jason, Marchesi, Rebecca, Paredes, Darlin, and Bond-Lamberty, Ben. 2021. "A restructured and updated global soil respiration database (SRDB-V5)." Earth System Science Data https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-13-255-2021
ID: 158691
Type: article
Authors: Jian, Jinshi; Vargas, Rodrigo; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina; Stell, Emma; Herrmann, Valentine; Horn, Mercedes; Kholod, Nazar; Manzon, Jason; Marchesi, Rebecca; Paredes, Darlin; Bond-Lamberty, Ben
Abstract: Field-measured soil respiration (R-S, the soil-to-atmosphere CO2 flux) observations were compiled into a global soil respiration database (SRDB) a decade ago, a resource that has been widely used by the biogeochemistry community to advance our understanding of R-S dynamics. Novel carbon cycle science questions require updated and augmented global information with better interoperability among datasets. Here, we restructured and updated the global R-S database to version SRDB-V5. The updated version has all previous fields revised for consistency and simplicity, and it has several new fields to include ancillary information (e.g., R-S measurement time, collar insertion depth, collar area). The new SRDB-V5 includes published papers through 2017 (800 independent studies), where total observations increased from 6633 in SRDB-V4 to 10 366 in SRDB-V5. The SRDB-V5 features more R-S data published in the Russian and Chinese scientific literature and has an improved global spatio-temporal coverage and improved global climate space representation. We also restructured the database so that it has stronger interoperability with other datasets related to carbon cycle science. For instance, linking SRDB-V5 with an hourly timescale global soil respiration database (HGRsD) and a community database for continuous soil respiration (COSORE) enables researchers to explore new questions. The updated SRDB-V5 aims to be a data framework for the scientific community to share seasonal to annual field R-S measurements, and it provides opportunities for the biogeochemistry community to better understand the spatial and temporal variability in R-S, its components, and the overall carbon cycle. The database can be downloaded at https://github.com/bpbond/srdb and will be made available in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL DAAC). All data and code to reproduce the results in this study can be found at https://doi.org /10.5281/zenodo.3876443 (Jian and Bond-Lamberty, 2020).
Leaf turgor loss point shapes local and regional distributions of evergreen but not deciduous tropical treesKunert, NorbertZailaa, JosephHerrmann, ValentineMuller-Landau, Helene C.Wright, S. JosephPerez, RolandoMcMahon, Sean M.Condit, Richard C.Hubbell, Steven P.Sack, LawrenDavies, Stuart J.Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.DOI: info:10.1111/nph.17187
Kunert, Norbert, Zailaa, Joseph, Herrmann, Valentine, Muller-Landau, Helene C., Wright, S. Joseph, Perez, Rolando, McMahon, Sean M., Condit, Richard C., Hubbell, Steven P., Sack, Lawren, Davies, Stuart J., and Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J. 2021. "Leaf turgor loss point shapes local and regional distributions of evergreen but not deciduous tropical trees." New Phytologist https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.17187
ID: 158537
Type: article
Authors: Kunert, Norbert; Zailaa, Joseph; Herrmann, Valentine; Muller-Landau, Helene C.; Wright, S. Joseph; Perez, Rolando; McMahon, Sean M.; Condit, Richard C.; Hubbell, Steven P.; Sack, Lawren; Davies, Stuart J.; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.
Abstract: The effects of climate change on tropical forests will depend on how diverse tropical tree species respond to drought. Current distributions of evergreen and deciduous tree species across local and regional moisture gradients reflect their ability to tolerate drought stress, and might be explained by functional traits. We measured leaf water potential at turgor loss (i.e. 'wilting point'; pi(tlp)), wood density (WD) and leaf mass per area (LMA) on 50 of the most abundant tree species in central Panama. We then tested their ability to explain distributions of evergreen and deciduous species within a 50 ha plot on Barro Colorado Island and across a 70 km rainfall gradient spanning the Isthmus of Panama. Among evergreen trees, species with lower pi(tlp) were associated with drier habitats, with pi(tlp) explaining 28% and 32% of habitat association on local and regional scales, respectively, greatly exceeding the predictive power of WD and LMA. In contrast, pi(tlp) did not predict habitat associations among deciduous species. Across spatial scales, pi(tlp) is a useful indicator of habitat preference for tropical tree species that retain their leaves during periods of water stress, and holds the potential to predict vegetation responses to climate change.
Barrier Behaviour Analysis (BaBA) reveals extensive effects of fencing on wide-ranging ungulatesXu, WenjingDejid, NandintsetsegHerrmann, ValentineSawyer, HallMiddleton, Arthur D.DOI: info:10.1111/1365-2664.13806v. 58No. 4690–698
Xu, Wenjing, Dejid, Nandintsetseg, Herrmann, Valentine, Sawyer, Hall, and Middleton, Arthur D. 2021. "Barrier Behaviour Analysis (BaBA) reveals extensive effects of fencing on wide-ranging ungulates." Journal of Applied Ecology 58 (4):690– 698. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.13806
ID: 158174
Type: article
Authors: Xu, Wenjing; Dejid, Nandintsetseg; Herrmann, Valentine; Sawyer, Hall; Middleton, Arthur D.
Abstract: As human activities expand globally, there is a growing need to identify and mitigate barriers to animal movements. Fencing is a pervasive human modification of the landscape that can impede the movements of wide-ranging animals. Previous research has largely focused on whether fences block movements altogether, but a more nuanced understanding of animals' behavioural responses to fences may be critical for examining the ecological consequences and prioritizing conservation interventions. We developed a spatial- and temporal-explicit approach, Barrier Behaviour Analysis (BaBA, available as an r package), to examine individual-level behaviours in response to linear barriers. BaBA classifies animal-barrier encounters into six behaviour categories: quick cross, average movement, bounce, back-and-forth, trace and trapped. We applied BaBA to wide-ranging female pronghorn Antilocapra americana and mule deer Odocoileus hemionus in an area of western Wyoming, USA, with >6,000 km of fencing. We found both species were extensively affected by fences, with nearly 40% of fence encounters altering their normal movements, though pronghorn were more strongly affected than mule deer. On average, an individual pronghorn encountered fences 250 times a year-twice the encounter rate of mule deer. Pronghorn were more likely to bounce away from fences, whereas deer engaged in more back-and-forth, trace and average movement near fences. We aggregated these behavioural responses to demonstrate how BaBA can be used to examine species-specific fencing permeability and to identify problematic fence segments in order to guide fence modification or removal. Synthesis and applications. Our work provides empirical evidence on how fences affect wildlife movement. Importantly, Barrier Behaviour Analysis (BaBA) can be applied to evaluate other linear features (such as roads, railways and pipelines) and habitat edges, enhancing our ability to understand and mitigate widespread barrier effects to animal movement.
Mapping carbon accumulation potential from global natural forest regrowthCook-Patton, SusanLeavitt, Sara M.Gibbs, DavidHarris, Nancy L.Lister, KristineAnderson-Teixeira, KristinaBriggs, Russell D.Chazdon, Robin L.Crowther, Thomas W.Ellis, Peter W.Griscom, Heather P.Herrmann, ValentineHoll, Karen D.Houghton, Richard A.Larrosa, CeciliaLomax, GuyLucas, RichardMadsen, PalleMalhi, YadvinderPaquette, AlainParker, John D.Paul, KerynRouth, DevinRoxburgh, StephenSaatchi, Sassanvan den Hoogen, JohanWalker, Wayne S.Wheeler, Charlotte E.Wood, Stephen A.Xu, LiangGriscom, Bronson W.DOI: info:10.1038/s41586-020-2686-xv. 585No. 7826545–550
Cook-Patton, Susan, Leavitt, Sara M., Gibbs, David, Harris, Nancy L., Lister, Kristine, Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina, Briggs, Russell D., Chazdon, Robin L., Crowther, Thomas W., Ellis, Peter W., Griscom, Heather P., Herrmann, Valentine, Holl, Karen D., Houghton, Richard A., Larrosa, Cecilia, Lomax, Guy, Lucas, Richard, Madsen, Palle, Malhi, Yadvinder, Paquette, Alain, Parker, John D., Paul, Keryn, Routh, Devin, Roxburgh, Stephen, Saatchi, Sassan et al. 2020. "Mapping carbon accumulation potential from global natural forest regrowth." Nature 585 (7826):545– 550. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2686-x
ID: 157060
Type: article
Authors: Cook-Patton, Susan; Leavitt, Sara M.; Gibbs, David; Harris, Nancy L.; Lister, Kristine; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina; Briggs, Russell D.; Chazdon, Robin L.; Crowther, Thomas W.; Ellis, Peter W.; Griscom, Heather P.; Herrmann, Valentine; Holl, Karen D.; Houghton, Richard A.; Larrosa, Cecilia; Lomax, Guy; Lucas, Richard; Madsen, Palle; Malhi, Yadvinder; Paquette, Alain; Parker, John D.; Paul, Keryn; Routh, Devin; Roxburgh, Stephen; Saatchi, Sassan; van den Hoogen, Johan; Walker, Wayne S.; Wheeler, Charlotte E.; Wood, Stephen A.; Xu, Liang; Griscom, Bronson W.
Management Regime and Field Age Affect Species Richness and Cover of Native Forbs and Exotic Species in Virginia GrasslandsLedvina, JosephMcShea, William J.Bourg, Norman A.Herrmann, ValentineAkre, ThomasJohnson, Amy E. M.DOI: info:10.3368/er.38.2.83v. 38No. 283–93
Ledvina, Joseph, McShea, William J., Bourg, Norman A., Herrmann, Valentine, Akre, Thomas, and Johnson, Amy E. M. 2020. "Management Regime and Field Age Affect Species Richness and Cover of Native Forbs and Exotic Species in Virginia Grasslands." Ecological Restoration 38 (2):83– 93. https://doi.org/10.3368/er.38.2.83
ID: 155892
Type: article
Authors: Ledvina, Joseph; McShea, William J.; Bourg, Norman A.; Herrmann, Valentine; Akre, Thomas; Johnson, Amy E. M.
Abstract: The majority of grasslands in the eastern United States are maintained through agricultural use (livestock grazing and hay production), intermittent management as fallow fields, or active management for ecological or recreational purposes. Management following agricultural use can follow a variety of practices from benign neglect to active planting of native grasses and forbs. We surveyed 64 grasslands in a 15-county region of northwestern Virginia to assess their plant species composition, with emphasis on the response of exotic species and native forb species richness to time since agricultural use. With regard to agricultural use, we found that livestock grazing resulted in low levels of native species richness and increased exotic species prevalence, while hay production increased native forb richness. In these fields, eutrophication (as measured by phosphorus levels) was a strong positive predictor of exotic species. Post-agricultural fields, maintained through mowing (fallow), retained native species but also experienced sharp increases in exotic species. When post-agricultural management included the establishment of native grasses and forbs, a higher initial richness of native species resulted. However, fields disked during establishment lost native species and gained exotic species with increasing field age; an outcome not observed when field establishment did not involve disking. The management practices applied to post-agricultural fields significantly impact their ability to support biodiversity, their propensity to harbor exotic species, and their ability to maintain native diversity and resist invasions of exotic species with increasing age since abandonment.
Tree height and leaf drought tolerance traits shape growth responses across droughts in a temperate broadleaf forestMcGregor, Ian R.Helcoski, RyanKunert, NorbertTepley, Alan J.Gonzalez‐Akre, Erika B.Herrmann, ValentineZailaa, JosephStovall, Atticus E. L.Bourg, Norman A.McShea, William J.Pederson, NeilSack, LawrenAnderson‐Teixeira, Kristina J.DOI: info:10.1111/nph.16996
McGregor, Ian R., Helcoski, Ryan, Kunert, Norbert, Tepley, Alan J., Gonzalez‐Akre, Erika B., Herrmann, Valentine, Zailaa, Joseph, Stovall, Atticus E. L., Bourg, Norman A., McShea, William J., Pederson, Neil, Sack, Lawren, and Anderson‐Teixeira, Kristina J. 2020. "Tree height and leaf drought tolerance traits shape growth responses across droughts in a temperate broadleaf forest." New Phytologist https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.16996
ID: 157275
Type: article
Authors: McGregor, Ian R.; Helcoski, Ryan; Kunert, Norbert; Tepley, Alan J.; Gonzalez‐Akre, Erika B.; Herrmann, Valentine; Zailaa, Joseph; Stovall, Atticus E. L.; Bourg, Norman A.; McShea, William J.; Pederson, Neil; Sack, Lawren; Anderson‐Teixeira, Kristina J.
Growing season moisture drives interannual variation in woody productivity of a temperate deciduous forestHelcoski, RyanTepley, Alan J.Pederson, NeilMcGarvey, Jennifer C.Meakem, VictoriaHerrmann, ValentineThompson, Jonathan R.Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.DOI: info:10.1111/nph.15906v. 223No. 31204–1216
Helcoski, Ryan, Tepley, Alan J., Pederson, Neil, McGarvey, Jennifer C., Meakem, Victoria, Herrmann, Valentine, Thompson, Jonathan R., and Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J. 2019. "Growing season moisture drives interannual variation in woody productivity of a temperate deciduous forest." New Phytologist 223 (3):1204– 1216. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.15906
ID: 151333
Type: article
Authors: Helcoski, Ryan; Tepley, Alan J.; Pederson, Neil; McGarvey, Jennifer C.; Meakem, Victoria; Herrmann, Valentine; Thompson, Jonathan R.; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.
Abstract: 1.The climate sensitivity of forest ecosystem woody productivity (ANPPstem ) influences carbon cycle responses to climate change. For the first time, we combine long-term annual growth and forest census data of a diverse temperate broadleaf deciduous forest, seeking to resolve whether ANPPstem is primarily moisture- or energy-limited and whether climate sensitivity has changed in recent decades characterized by more mesic conditions and elevated CO2 . 2.We analyzed tree-ring chronologies across 109 years of monthly climatic variation (1901-2009) for 14 species representing 97% of ANPPstem in a 25.6-ha plot in northern Virginia, USA. 3.Radial growth of most species and ecosystem-level ANPPstem responded positively to cool, moist growing season conditions, but the same conditions in the previous May-July were associated with reduced growth. In recent decades (1980-2009), responses were more variable and on average, weaker. 4.Our results indicate that woody productivity is primarily limited by current growing season moisture, as opposed to temperature or sunlight, but additional complexity in climate sensitivity may reflect the use of stored carbohydrate reserves. Overall, while such forests currently display limited moisture sensitivity, their woody productivity is likely to decline under projected hotter and potentially drier growing season conditions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Effects of grassland management on overwintering bird communitiesJohnson, Amy E. M.Sillett, T. ScottLuther, DavidHerrmann, ValentineAkre, Thomas A.McShea, William J.DOI: info:10.1002/jwmg.21730v. 83No. 71515–1526
Johnson, Amy E. M., Sillett, T. Scott, Luther, David, Herrmann, Valentine, Akre, Thomas A., and McShea, William J. 2019. "Effects of grassland management on overwintering bird communities." Journal of Wildlife Management 83 (7):1515– 1526. https://doi.org/10.1002/jwmg.21730
ID: 151948
Type: article
Authors: Johnson, Amy E. M.; Sillett, T. Scott; Luther, David; Herrmann, Valentine; Akre, Thomas A.; McShea, William J.
Abstract: Birds that depend on grassland and successional‐scrub vegetation communities are experiencing a greater decline than any other avian assemblage in North America. Habitat loss and degradation on breeding and wintering grounds are among the leading causes of these declines. We used public and private lands in northern Virginia, USA, to explore benefits of grassland management and associated field structure on supporting overwintering bird species from 2013 to 2016. Specifically, we used non‐metric multidimensional scaling and multispecies occupancy models to compare species richness and habitat associations of grassland‐obligate and successional‐scrub species during winter in fields comprised of native warm‐season grasses (WSG) or non‐native cool‐season grasses (CSG) that were managed at different times of the year. Results demonstrated positive correlations of grassland‐obligate species with decreased vegetation structure and a higher percentage of grass cover, whereas successional‐scrub species positively correlated with increased vegetation structure and height and increased percentages of woody stems, forb cover, and bare ground. Fields of WSG supported higher estimated total and target species richness compared to fields of CSG. Estimated species richness was also influenced by management timing, with fields managed during the previous winter or left unmanaged exhibiting higher estimated richness than fields managed in summer or fall. Warm‐season grass fields managed in the previous winter or left unmanaged had higher estimated species richness than any other treatment group. This study identifies important winter habitat associations (e.g., vegetation height and field openness) with species abundance and richness and can be used to make inferences about optimal management practices for overwintering avian species in eastern grasslands of North America. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of Wildlife Management Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Wildlife Society.
Metabarcoding reveals diet diversity in an ungulate community in ThailandMcShea, William J.Sukmasuang, RonglarpErickson, David L.Herrmann, ValentineNgoprasert, DusitBhumpakphan, NarisDavies, Stuart J.DOI: info:10.1111/btp.12720v. 51No. 6923–937
McShea, William J., Sukmasuang, Ronglarp, Erickson, David L., Herrmann, Valentine, Ngoprasert, Dusit, Bhumpakphan, Naris, and Davies, Stuart J. 2019. "Metabarcoding reveals diet diversity in an ungulate community in Thailand." Biotropica 51 (6):923– 937. https://doi.org/10.1111/btp.12720
ID: 153361
Type: article
Authors: McShea, William J.; Sukmasuang, Ronglarp; Erickson, David L.; Herrmann, Valentine; Ngoprasert, Dusit; Bhumpakphan, Naris; Davies, Stuart J.
Abstract: The diverse large mammal communities found in Asian dry forests and savannas should segregate based on their diet selection. We examined the diet composition of sympatric ungulate species using metabarcoding to determine whether their diet was segregated and whether obvious attributes (i.e., body size, phylogeny, ecology) explained the structure. We collected fecal samples from eight ungulate species in Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary in the western forest complex of Thailand. The fecal collections occurred around a plot where all woody species were codified within a genetic barcode library, and this library was supplemented with samples from plant species known to be consumed by these species. Of 273 plant species tested, at least 93 were found within the fecal samples. Over half of the identified species were not previously known by experts as forage species. All ungulate species showed a strong consumption of grasses and forbs. For the three species with sufficient sample size (sambar, banteng, and guar), there were seasonal differences in their diet, with each showing increased occurrence of woody plants during the dry season. The pattern of forage consumption did not follow obvious paradigms of body size or taxonomy, with significant diet differences found in two similar-sized bovids (gaur, banteng), while the diet of sambar was more similar to bovids than to the other deer species. Asian ungulates differ in their forage consumption and metabarcoding should allow for testing of diet shifts in response to seasonal rains and fires which dominate the phenology of Asian dry forests and savannas.
ForC: A global database of forest carbon stocks and fluxesAnderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.Wang, Maria M. H.McGarvey, Jennifer C.Herrmann, ValentineTepley, Alan J.Bond-Lamberty, BenLeBauer, David S.DOI: info:10.1002/ecy.2229v. 99No. 61507
Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J., Wang, Maria M. H., McGarvey, Jennifer C., Herrmann, Valentine, Tepley, Alan J., Bond-Lamberty, Ben, and LeBauer, David S. 2018. "ForC: A global database of forest carbon stocks and fluxes." Ecology 99 (6):1507. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2229
ID: 146200
Type: article
Authors: Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.; Wang, Maria M. H.; McGarvey, Jennifer C.; Herrmann, Valentine; Tepley, Alan J.; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; LeBauer, David S.
Abstract: Forests play an influential role in the global carbon (C) cycle, storing roughly half of terrestrial C and annually exchanging with the atmosphere more than ten times the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by anthropogenic activities. Yet, scaling up from field-based measurements of forest C stocks and fluxes to understand global scale C cycling and its climate sensitivity remains an important challenge. Tens of thousands of forest C measurements have been made, but these data have yet to be integrated into a single database that makes them accessible for integrated analyses. Here we present an open-access global Forest Carbon database (ForC) containing previously published records of field-based measurements of ecosystem-level C stocks and annual fluxes, along with disturbance history and methodological information. ForC expands upon the previously published tropical portion of this database, TropForC (DOI: 10.5061/dryad.t516f), now including 17,367 records (previously 3,568) representing 2,731 plots (previously 845) in 826 geographically distinct areas. The database covers all forested biogeographic and climate zones, represents forest stands of all ages, and currently includes data collected between 1934 and 2015. We expect that ForC will prove useful for macroecological analyses of forest C cycling, for evaluation of model predictions or remote sensing products, for quantifying the contribution of forests to the global C cycle, and for supporting international efforts to inventory forest carbon and greenhouse gas exchange. A dynamic version of ForC is maintained at on GitHub (https://GitHub.com/forc-db), and we encourage the research community to collaborate in updating, correcting, expanding, and utilizing this database. ForC is an open access database, and we encourage use of the data for scientific research and education purposes. Data may not be used for commercial purposes without written permission of the database PI. Any publications using ForC data should cite this publication and Anderson-Teixeira et al. 2016(a) (see Metadata S1). No other copyright or cost restrictions are associated with the use of this dataset. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Role of tree size in moist tropical forest carbon cycling and water deficit responsesMeakem, VictoriaTepley, Alan J.Gonzalez-Akre, ErikaHerrmann, ValentineMuller-Landau, Helene C.Wright, S. JosephHubbell, Stephen P.Condit, Richard S.Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.DOI: info:10.1111/nph.14633v. 219No. 3947–958
Meakem, Victoria, Tepley, Alan J., Gonzalez-Akre, Erika, Herrmann, Valentine, Muller-Landau, Helene C., Wright, S. Joseph, Hubbell, Stephen P., Condit, Richard S., and Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J. 2018. "Role of tree size in moist tropical forest carbon cycling and water deficit responses." New Phytologist 219 (3):947– 958. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.14633
Interactive effects of deer exclusion and exotic plant removal on deciduous forest understory communitiesBourg, Norman A.McShea, William J.Herrmann, ValentineStewart, Chad M.DOI: info:10.1093/aobpla/plx046v. 9No. 5
Bourg, Norman A., McShea, William J., Herrmann, Valentine, and Stewart, Chad M. 2017. "Interactive effects of deer exclusion and exotic plant removal on deciduous forest understory communities." AoB PLANTS 9 (5):https://doi.org/10.1093/aobpla/plx046
ID: 148228
Type: article
Authors: Bourg, Norman A.; McShea, William J.; Herrmann, Valentine; Stewart, Chad M.
Data from: Tree circumference dynamics in four forests characterized using automated dendrometer bandsHerrmann, ValentineMcMahon, Sean M.Detto, MatteoLutz, James A.Davies, Stuart J.Chang-Yang, Chia-HaoAnderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.DOI: info:10.5061/DRYAD.B327CDryad
Herrmann, Valentine, McMahon, Sean M., Detto, Matteo, Lutz, James A., Davies, Stuart J., Chang-Yang, Chia-Hao, and Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J. 2017. [Dataset] "Data from: Tree circumference dynamics in four forests characterized using automated dendrometer bands." Distributed by Dryad. https://doi.org/10.5061/DRYAD.B327C
ID: 157453
Type: dataset
Authors: Herrmann, Valentine; McMahon, Sean M.; Detto, Matteo; Lutz, James A.; Davies, Stuart J.; Chang-Yang, Chia-Hao; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.
Keywords: Dataset; SERC; STRI; NZP
Abstract: Stem diameter is one of the most commonly measured attributes of trees, forming the foundation of forest censuses and monitoring. Changes in tree stem circumference include both irreversible woody stem growth and reversible circumference changes related to water status, yet these fine-scale dynamics are rarely leveraged to understand forest ecophysiology and typically ignored in plot- or stand-scale estimates of tree growth and forest productivity. Here, we deployed automated dendrometer bands on 12–40 trees at four different forested sites-two temperate broadleaf deciduous, one temperate conifer, and one tropical broadleaf semi-deciduous-to understand how tree circumference varies on time scales of hours to months, how these dynamics relate to environmental conditions, and whether the structure of these variations might introduce substantive error into estimates of woody growth. Diurnal stem circumference dynamics measured over the bark commonly-but not consistently-exhibited daytime shrinkage attributable to transpiration-driven changes in stem water storage. The amplitude of this shrinkage was significantly correlated with climatic variables (daily temperature range, vapor pressure deficit, and radiation), sap flow and evapotranspiration. Diurnal variations were typically <0.5 mm circumference in amplitude and unlikely to be of concern to most studies of tree growth. Over time scales of multiple days, the bands captured circumference increases in response to rain events, likely driven by combinations of increased stem water storage and bark hydration. Particularly at the tropical site, these rain responses could be quite substantial, ranging up to 1.5 mm circumference expansion within 48 hours following a rain event. We conclude that over-bark measurements of stem circumference change sometimes correlate with but have limited potential for directly estimating daily transpiration, but that they can be valuable on time scales of days to weeks for characterizing changes in stem growth and hydration.
Data from: Size-related scaling of tree form and function in a mixed-age forestAnderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.McGarvey, Jennifer C.Muller-Landau, Helene C.Park, Janice Y.Gonzalez-Akre, ErikaHerrmann, ValentineBennett, Amy C.So, Christopher V.Bourg, Norman A.Thompson, Jonathan R.McMahon, Sean M.McShea, William J.DOI: info:10.5061/DRYAD.6NC8CDryad Digital Repository
Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J., McGarvey, Jennifer C., Muller-Landau, Helene C., Park, Janice Y., Gonzalez-Akre, Erika, Herrmann, Valentine, Bennett, Amy C., So, Christopher V., Bourg, Norman A., Thompson, Jonathan R., McMahon, Sean M., and McShea, William J. 2016. [Dataset] "Data from: Size-related scaling of tree form and function in a mixed-age forest." Distributed by Dryad Digital Repository. https://doi.org/10.5061/DRYAD.6NC8C
ID: 153078
Type: dataset
Authors: Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.; McGarvey, Jennifer C.; Muller-Landau, Helene C.; Park, Janice Y.; Gonzalez-Akre, Erika; Herrmann, Valentine; Bennett, Amy C.; So, Christopher V.; Bourg, Norman A.; Thompson, Jonathan R.; McMahon, Sean M.; McShea, William J.
Keywords: Dataset; NZP; SERC; STRI
Abstract: Many morphological, physiological and ecological traits of trees scale with diameter, shaping the structure and function of forest ecosystems. Understanding the mechanistic basis for such scaling relationships is key to understanding forests globally and their role in Earth's changing climate system. Here, we evaluate theoretical predictions for the scaling of nine variables in a mixed-age temperate deciduous forest (CTFS-ForestGEO forest dynamics plot at the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, Virginia, USA) and compare observed scaling parameters to those from other forests world-wide. We examine fifteen species and various environmental conditions. Structural, physiological and ecological traits of trees scaled with stem diameter in a manner that was sometimes consistent with existing theoretical predictions – more commonly with those predicting a range of scaling values than a single universal scaling value. Scaling relationships were variable among species, reflecting substantive ecological differences. Scaling relationships varied considerably with environmental conditions. For instance, the scaling of sap flux density varied with atmospheric moisture demand, and herbivore browsing dramatically influenced stem abundance scaling. Thus, stand-level, time-averaged scaling relationships (e.g., the scaling of diameter growth) are underlain by a diversity of species-level scaling relationships that can vary substantially with fluctuating environmental conditions. In order to use scaling theory to accurately characterize forest ecosystems and predict their responses to global change, it will be critical to develop a more nuanced understanding of both the forces that constrain stand-level scaling and the complexity of scaling variation across species and environmental conditions.
Tree circumference dynamics over short time scales using automated dendrometer bands in four forestsHerrmann, ValentineMcMahon, Sean M.Detto, MatteoLutz, James A.Davies, Stuart J.Chang-Yang, Chia-HaoAnderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.DOI: info:10.5479/data_serc/10088/30918​Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
Herrmann, Valentine, McMahon, Sean M., Detto, Matteo, Lutz, James A., Davies, Stuart J., Chang-Yang, Chia-Hao, and Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J. 2016. [Dataset] "Tree circumference dynamics over short time scales using automated dendrometer bands in four forests." Distributed by ​Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. https://doi.org/10.5479/data_serc/10088/30918
Tree Circumference Dynamics in Four Forests Characterized Using Automated Dendrometer BandsHerrmann, ValentineMcMahon, Sean M.Detto, MatteoLutz, James A.Davies, Stuart JamesChang-Yang, ChiaAnderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.DOI: info:10.1371/journal.pone.0169020v. 11No. 121–20
Herrmann, Valentine, McMahon, Sean M., Detto, Matteo, Lutz, James A., Davies, Stuart James, Chang-Yang, Chia, and Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J. 2016. "Tree Circumference Dynamics in Four Forests Characterized Using Automated Dendrometer Bands." Plos One 11 (12):1– 20. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169020
Size-related scaling of tree form and function in a mixed-age forestAnderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.McGarvey, Jennifer C.Muller-Landau, Helene C.Park, Janice Y.Gonzalez-Akre, ErikaHerrmann, ValentineBennett, Amy C.So, Christopher V.Bourg, Norman A.Thompson, Jonathan R.McMahon, Sean M.McShea, William J.DOI: info:10.1111/1365-2435.12470v. 29No. 121587–1602
Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J., McGarvey, Jennifer C., Muller-Landau, Helene C., Park, Janice Y., Gonzalez-Akre, Erika, Herrmann, Valentine, Bennett, Amy C., So, Christopher V., Bourg, Norman A., Thompson, Jonathan R., McMahon, Sean M., and McShea, William J. 2015. "Size-related scaling of tree form and function in a mixed-age forest." Functional Ecology 29 (12):1587– 1602. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.12470