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Showing 1-11 of about 11 results.
Validating scattering-induced (sub)millimetre disc polarization through the spectral index, wavelength-dependent polarization pattern, and polarization spectrum: the case of HD 163296Lin, Zhe-Yu DanielLi, Zhi-YunYang, HaifengLooney, LeslieStephens, IanHull, Charles L. H.DOI: info:10.1093/mnras/staa1499v. 496169–181
Lin, Zhe-Yu Daniel, Li, Zhi-Yun, Yang, Haifeng, Looney, Leslie, Stephens, Ian, and Hull, Charles L. H. 2020. "Validating scattering-induced (sub)millimetre disc polarization through the spectral index, wavelength-dependent polarization pattern, and polarization spectrum: the case of HD 163296." Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 496:169– 181. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/staa1499
ID: 157606
Type: article
Authors: Lin, Zhe-Yu Daniel; Li, Zhi-Yun; Yang, Haifeng; Looney, Leslie; Stephens, Ian; Hull, Charles L. H.
Abstract: A number of young circumstellar discs show strikingly ordered (sub)millimetre polarization orientations along the minor axis, which is strong evidence for polarization due to scattering by ∼0.1 mm-sized grains. To test this mechanism further, we model the ALMA dust continuum and polarization data of HD 163296 using radmc-3d. We find that scattering by grains with a maximum size of 90 μm simultaneously reproduces the polarization observed at Band 7 and the unusually low spectral index (α ∼ 1.5) between Bands 7 and 6 in the optically thick inner disc as a result of more efficient scattering at the shorter wavelength. The low spectral index of ∼2.5 inferred for the optically thin gaps is reproduced by the same grains, as a result of telescope beam averaging of the gaps (with an intrinsic α ∼ 4) and their adjacent optically thick rings (where α ≲ 2). The tension between the grain sizes inferred from polarization and spectral index disappears because the low α values do not require large mm-sized grains. In addition, the polarization fraction has a unique azimuthal variation: higher along the major axis than the minor axis in the gaps, but vice versa in the rings. We find a rapidly declining polarization spectrum (with p ∝ λ-3 approximately) in the gaps, which becomes flattened or even inverted towards short wavelengths in the optically thick rings. These contrasting behaviours in the rings and gaps provide further tests for scattering-induced polarization via resolved multiwavelength observations.
Characterizing Magnetic Field Morphologies in Three Serpens Protostellar Cores with ALMALe Gouellec, Valentin J. M.Hull, Charles L. H.Maury, Anaëlle J.Girart, Josep M.Tychoniec, ŁukaszKristensen, Lars E.Li, Zhi-YunLouvet, FabienCortes, Paulo C.Rao, RamprasadDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/ab43c2v. 885106
Le Gouellec, Valentin J. M., Hull, Charles L. H., Maury, Anaëlle J., Girart, Josep M., Tychoniec, Łukasz, Kristensen, Lars E., Li, Zhi-Yun, Louvet, Fabien, Cortes, Paulo C., and Rao, Ramprasad. 2019. "Characterizing Magnetic Field Morphologies in Three Serpens Protostellar Cores with ALMA." The Astrophysical Journal 885:106. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab43c2
ID: 154603
Type: article
Authors: Le Gouellec, Valentin J. M.; Hull, Charles L. H.; Maury, Anaëlle J.; Girart, Josep M.; Tychoniec, Łukasz; Kristensen, Lars E.; Li, Zhi-Yun; Louvet, Fabien; Cortes, Paulo C.; Rao, Ramprasad
Abstract: With the aim of characterizing the dynamical processes involved in the formation of young protostars, we present high-angular-resolution ALMA dust polarization observations of the Class 0 protostellar cores Serpens SMM1, Emb 8(N), and Emb 8. With spatial resolutions ranging from 150 to 40 au at 870 μm, we find unexpectedly high values of the polarization fraction along the outflow cavity walls in Serpens Emb 8(N). We use 3 mm and 1 mm molecular tracers to investigate outflow and dense-gas properties and their correlation with the polarization. These observations allow us to investigate the physical processes involved in the radiative alignment torques (RATs) acting on dust grains along the outflow cavity walls, which experience irradiation from accretion processes and outflow shocks. The inner core of SMM1-a presents a polarization pattern with a poloidal magnetic field at the bases of the two lobes of the bipolar outflow. To the south of SMM1-a we see two polarized filaments, one of which seems to trace the redshifted outflow cavity wall. The other may be an accretion streamer of material infalling onto the central protostar. We propose that the polarized emission we see at millimeter wavelengths along the irradiated cavity walls can be reconciled with the expectations of RAT theory if the aligned grains present at <500 au scales in Class 0 envelopes have grown larger than the 0.1 μm size of dust grains in the interstellar medium. Our observations allow us to constrain the magnetic field morphologies of star-forming sources within the central cores, along the outflow cavity walls, and in possible accretion streamers.
ALMA Observations of Dust Polarization and Molecular Line Emission from the Class 0 Protostellar Source Serpens SMM1Hull, Charles L. H.Girart, Josep M.Tychoniec, LukaszRao, RamprasadCortés, Paulo C.Pokhrel, RiwajZhang, QizhouHoude, MartinDunham, Michael M.Kristensen, Lars E.Lai, Shih-PingLi, Zhi-YunPlambeck, Richard L.DOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/aa7fe9v. 84792
Hull, Charles L. H., Girart, Josep M., Tychoniec, Lukasz, Rao, Ramprasad, Cortés, Paulo C., Pokhrel, Riwaj, Zhang, Qizhou, Houde, Martin, Dunham, Michael M., Kristensen, Lars E., Lai, Shih-Ping, Li, Zhi-Yun, and Plambeck, Richard L. 2017. "ALMA Observations of Dust Polarization and Molecular Line Emission from the Class 0 Protostellar Source Serpens SMM1." The Astrophysical Journal 847:92. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa7fe9
ID: 144776
Type: article
Authors: Hull, Charles L. H.; Girart, Josep M.; Tychoniec, Lukasz; Rao, Ramprasad; Cortés, Paulo C.; Pokhrel, Riwaj; Zhang, Qizhou; Houde, Martin; Dunham, Michael M.; Kristensen, Lars E.; Lai, Shih-Ping; Li, Zhi-Yun; Plambeck, Richard L.
Abstract: We present high angular resolution dust polarization and molecular line observations carried out with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) toward the Class 0 protostar Serpens SMM1. By complementing these observations with new polarization observations from the Submillimeter Array (SMA) and archival data from the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) and the James Clerk Maxwell Telescopes (JCMT), we can compare the magnetic field orientations at different spatial scales. We find major changes in the magnetic field orientation between large (~0.1 pc) scales-where the magnetic field is oriented E-W, perpendicular to the major axis of the dusty filament where SMM1 is embedded-and the intermediate and small scales probed by CARMA (~1000 au resolution), the SMA (~350 au resolution), and ALMA (~140 au resolution). The ALMA maps reveal that the redshifted lobe of the bipolar outflow is shaping the magnetic field in SMM1 on the southeast side of the source; however, on the northwestern side and elsewhere in the source, low-velocity shocks may be causing the observed chaotic magnetic field pattern. High-spatial-resolution continuum and spectral-line observations also reveal a tight (~130 au) protobinary system in SMM1-b, the eastern component of which is launching an extremely high-velocity, one-sided jet visible in both {CO}(J=2\to 1) and {SiO}(J=5\to 4); however, that jet does not appear to be shaping the magnetic field. These observations show that with the sensitivity and resolution of ALMA, we can now begin to understand the role that feedback (e.g., from protostellar outflows) plays in shaping the magnetic field in very young, star-forming sources like SMM1.
Unveiling the Role of the Magnetic Field at the Smallest Scales of Star FormationHull, Charles L. H.Mocz, PhilipBurkhart, BlakesleyGoodman, Alyssa A.Girart, Josep M.Cortés, Paulo C.Hernquist, LarsSpringel, VolkerLi, Zhi-YunLai, Shih-PingDOI: info:10.3847/2041-8213/aa71b7v. 842L9
Hull, Charles L. H., Mocz, Philip, Burkhart, Blakesley, Goodman, Alyssa A., Girart, Josep M., Cortés, Paulo C., Hernquist, Lars, Springel, Volker, Li, Zhi-Yun, and Lai, Shih-Ping. 2017. "Unveiling the Role of the Magnetic Field at the Smallest Scales of Star Formation." Astrophysical Journal Letters 842:L9. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/aa71b7
ID: 143359
Type: article
Authors: Hull, Charles L. H.; Mocz, Philip; Burkhart, Blakesley; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Girart, Josep M.; Cortés, Paulo C.; Hernquist, Lars; Springel, Volker; Li, Zhi-Yun; Lai, Shih-Ping
Abstract: We report Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of polarized dust emission from the protostellar source Ser-emb 8 at a linear resolution of 140 au. Assuming models of dust-grain alignment hold, the observed polarization pattern gives a projected view of the magnetic field structure in this source. Contrary to expectations based on models of strongly magnetized star formation, the magnetic field in Ser-emb 8 does not exhibit an hourglass morphology. Combining the new ALMA data with previous observational studies, we can connect magnetic field structure from protostellar core (∼80,000 au) to disk (∼100 au) scales. We compare our observations with four magnetohydrodynamic gravo-turbulence simulations made with the AREPO code that have initial conditions ranging from super-Alfvénic (weakly magnetized) to sub-Alfvénic (strongly magnetized). These simulations achieve the spatial dynamic range necessary to resolve the collapse of protostars from the parsec scale of star-forming clouds down to the ∼100 au scale probed by ALMA. Only in the very strongly magnetized simulation do we see both the preservation of the field direction from cloud to disk scales and an hourglass-shaped field at <1000 au scales. We conduct an analysis of the relative orientation of the magnetic field and the density structure in both the Ser-emb 8 ALMA observations and the synthetic observations of the four AREPO simulations. We conclude that the Ser-emb 8 data are most similar to the weakly magnetized simulations, which exhibit random alignment, in contrast to the strongly magnetized simulation, where the magnetic field plays a role in shaping the density structure in the source. In the weak-field case, it is turbulence—not the magnetic field—that shapes the material that forms the protostar, highlighting the dominant role that turbulence can play across many orders of magnitude in spatial scale.
Synthetic Observations of Magnetic Fields in Protostellar CoresLee, Joyce W. Y.Hull, Charles L. H.Offner, Stella S. R.DOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/834/2/201v. 834201
Lee, Joyce W. Y., Hull, Charles L. H., and Offner, Stella S. R. 2017. "Synthetic Observations of Magnetic Fields in Protostellar Cores." The Astrophysical Journal 834:201. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/834/2/201
ID: 142323
Type: article
Authors: Lee, Joyce W. Y.; Hull, Charles L. H.; Offner, Stella S. R.
Abstract: The role of magnetic fields in the early stages of star formation is not well constrained. In order to discriminate between different star formation models, we analyze 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations of low-mass cores and explore the correlation between magnetic field orientation and outflow orientation over time. We produce synthetic observations of dust polarization at resolutions comparable to millimeter-wave dust polarization maps observed by the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy and compare these with 2D visualizations of projected magnetic field and column density. Cumulative distribution functions of the projected angle between the magnetic field and outflow show different degrees of alignment in simulations with differing mass-to-flux ratios. The distribution function for the less magnetized core agrees with observations finding random alignment between outflow and field orientations, while the more magnetized core exhibits stronger alignment. We find that fractional polarization increases when the system is viewed such that the magnetic field is close to the plane of the sky, and the values of fractional polarization are consistent with observational measurements. The simulation outflow, which reflects the underlying angular momentum of the accreted gas, changes direction significantly over over the first ~0.1 Myr of evolution. This movement could lead to the observed random alignment between outflows and the magnetic fields in protostellar cores.
ALMA Reveals Transition of Polarization Pattern with Wavelength in HL Tau's DiskStephens, Ian W.Yang, HaifengLi, Zhi-YunLooney, Leslie W.Kataoka, AkimasaKwon, WoojinFernández-López, ManuelHull, Charles L. H.Hughes, MeredithSegura-Cox, DominiqueMundy, LeeCrutcher, RichardRao, RamprasadDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/aa998bv. 85155
Stephens, Ian W., Yang, Haifeng, Li, Zhi-Yun, Looney, Leslie W., Kataoka, Akimasa, Kwon, Woojin, Fernández-López, Manuel, Hull, Charles L. H., Hughes, Meredith, Segura-Cox, Dominique, Mundy, Lee, Crutcher, Richard, and Rao, Ramprasad. 2017. "ALMA Reveals Transition of Polarization Pattern with Wavelength in HL Tau's Disk." The Astrophysical Journal 851:55. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa998b
ID: 145651
Type: article
Authors: Stephens, Ian W.; Yang, Haifeng; Li, Zhi-Yun; Looney, Leslie W.; Kataoka, Akimasa; Kwon, Woojin; Fernández-López, Manuel; Hull, Charles L. H.; Hughes, Meredith; Segura-Cox, Dominique; Mundy, Lee; Crutcher, Richard; Rao, Ramprasad
Abstract: The mechanism for producing polarized emission from protostellar disks at (sub)millimeter wavelengths is currently uncertain. Classically, polarization is expected from non-spherical grains aligned with the magnetic field. Recently, two alternatives have been suggested. One polarization mechanism is caused by self-scattering from dust grains of sizes comparable with the wavelength, while the other mechanism is due to grains aligned with their short axes along the direction of radiation anisotropy. The latter has recently been shown as a likely mechanism for causing the dust polarization detected in HL Tau at 3.1 mm. In this paper, we present ALMA polarization observations of HL Tau for two more wavelengths: 870 μm and 1.3 mm. The morphology at 870 μm matches the expectation for self-scattering, while that at 1.3 mm shows a mix between self-scattering and grains aligned with the radiation anisotropy. The observations cast doubt on the ability of (sub)millimeter continuum polarization to probe disk magnetic fields for at least HL Tau. By showing two distinct polarization morphologies at 870 μm and 3.1 mm and a transition between the two at 1.3 mm, this paper provides definitive evidence that the dominant (sub)millimeter polarization mechanism transitions with wavelength. In addition, if the polarization at 870 μm is due to scattering, the lack of polarization asymmetry along the minor axis of the inclined disk implies that the large grains responsible for the scattering have already settled into a geometrically thin layer, and the presence of asymmetry along the major axis indicates that the HL Tau disk is not completely axisymmetric.
Interferometric Mapping of Magnetic Fields: The ALMA View of the Massive Star-forming Clump W43-MM1Cortes, Paulo C.Girart, Josep M.Hull, Charles L. H.Sridharan, Tirupati K.Louvet, FabienPlambeck, RichardLi, Zhi-YunCrutcher, Richard M.Lai, Shih-PingDOI: info:10.3847/2041-8205/825/1/L15v. 825L15
Cortes, Paulo C., Girart, Josep M., Hull, Charles L. H., Sridharan, Tirupati K., Louvet, Fabien, Plambeck, Richard, Li, Zhi-Yun, Crutcher, Richard M., and Lai, Shih-Ping. 2016. "Interferometric Mapping of Magnetic Fields: The ALMA View of the Massive Star-forming Clump W43-MM1." Astrophysical Journal Letters 825:L15. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8205/825/1/L15
ID: 139990
Type: article
Authors: Cortes, Paulo C.; Girart, Josep M.; Hull, Charles L. H.; Sridharan, Tirupati K.; Louvet, Fabien; Plambeck, Richard; Li, Zhi-Yun; Crutcher, Richard M.; Lai, Shih-Ping
Abstract: Here, we present the first results from ALMA observations of 1 mm polarized dust emission toward the W43-MM1 high-mass star-forming clump. We have detected a highly fragmented filament with source masses ranging from 14 M {}? to 312 M {}? , where the largest fragment, source A, is believed to be one of the most massive in our Galaxy. We found a smooth, ordered, and detailed polarization pattern throughout the filament, which we used to derived magnetic field morphologies and strengths for 12 out of the 15 fragments detected ranging from 0.2 to 9 mG. The dynamical equilibrium of each fragment was evaluated finding that all the fragments are in a super-critical state that is consistent with previously detected infalling motions toward W43-MM1. Moreover, there are indications suggesting that the field is being dragged by gravity as the whole filament is collapsing.
Dispersion of Magnetic Fields in Molecular Clouds. IV. Analysis of Interferometry DataHoude, MartinHull, Charles L. H.Plambeck, Richard L.Vaillancourt, John E.Hildebrand, Roger H.DOI: info:10.3847/0004-637X/820/1/38v. 82038
Houde, Martin, Hull, Charles L. H., Plambeck, Richard L., Vaillancourt, John E., and Hildebrand, Roger H. 2016. "Dispersion of Magnetic Fields in Molecular Clouds. IV. Analysis of Interferometry Data." The Astrophysical Journal 820:38. https://doi.org/10.3847/0004-637X/820/1/38
ID: 139323
Type: article
Authors: Houde, Martin; Hull, Charles L. H.; Plambeck, Richard L.; Vaillancourt, John E.; Hildebrand, Roger H.
Abstract: We expand on the dispersion analysis of polarimetry maps toward applications to interferometry data. We show how the filtering of low spatial frequencies can be accounted for within the idealized Gaussian turbulence model, initially introduced for single-dish data analysis, to recover reliable estimates for correlation lengths of magnetized turbulence, as well as magnetic field strengths (plane-of-the-sky component) using the Davis-Chandrasekhar-Fermi method. We apply our updated technique to TADPOL/CARMA data obtained on W3(OH), W3 Main, and DR21(OH). For W3(OH), our analysis yields a turbulence correlation length d ? 19 mpc, a ratio of turbulent-to-total magnetic energy {{t}}2> /> /2> ? 0.58, and a magnetic field strength {B}0˜ 1.1 {mG}; for W3 Main d ? 22 mpc, ˜ 1.1 {mG}; for W3 Main d ? 22 mpc, {{t}}2> /> /2> ? 0.74, and {B}0˜ 0.7 {mG}; while for DR21(OH) d ? 12 mpc, ˜ 0.7 {mG}; while for DR21(OH) d ? 12 mpc, {{t}}2> /> /2> ? 0.70, and {B}0˜ 1.2 {mG}.
880 µm SMA Polarization Observations of the Quasar 3C 286Hull, Charles L. H.Girart, Josep M.Zhang, QizhouDOI: info:10.3847/0004-637X/830/2/124v. 830124
Hull, Charles L. H., Girart, Josep M., and Zhang, Qizhou. 2016. "880 µm SMA Polarization Observations of the Quasar 3C 286." The Astrophysical Journal 830:124. https://doi.org/10.3847/0004-637X/830/2/124
ID: 142002
Type: article
Authors: Hull, Charles L. H.; Girart, Josep M.; Zhang, Qizhou
Abstract: For decades, the bright radio quasar 3C 286 has been widely recognized as one of the most reliable polarization calibrators at centimeter wavelengths because of its unchanging polarization position angle and high polarization percentage. However, it has become clear in recent years that the polarization position angle of 3C 286 changes with increasing frequency, increasing from ˜33° at ? ? 3 cm to ˜38° at ? ˜ 1 mm. With the advent of high-sensitivity polarization observations by current and future (sub)millimeter telescopes, knowledge of the position angle of 3C 286 at higher frequencies is critical for calibration. We report the first polarization observations of 3C 286 at submillimeter wavelengths, taken at 880 µm (340 GHz) with the Submillimeter Array. We find a polarization position angle and percentage of 37\buildrel{\circ}\over{.} 4+/- 1\buildrel{\circ}\over{.} 5 and 15.7% ± 0.8%, respectively, which is consistent with previous measurements at 1 mm.
NGC 7538 IRS. 1. Interaction of a Polarized Dust Spiral and a Molecular OutflowWright, M. C. H.Hull, Charles L. H.Pillai, ThusharaZhao, Jun-HuiSandell, GöranDOI: info:10.1088/0004-637X/796/2/112v. 796112
Wright, M. C. H., Hull, Charles L. H., Pillai, Thushara, Zhao, Jun-Hui, and Sandell, Göran. 2014. "NGC 7538 IRS. 1. Interaction of a Polarized Dust Spiral and a Molecular Outflow." The Astrophysical Journal 796:112. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/796/2/112
ID: 133436
Type: article
Authors: Wright, M. C. H.; Hull, Charles L. H.; Pillai, Thushara; Zhao, Jun-Hui; Sandell, Göran
Abstract: We present dust polarization and CO molecular line images of NGC 7538 IRS 1. We combined data from the Submillimeter Array, the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy, and the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope to make images with ~2.''5 resolution at 230 and 345 GHz. The images show a remarkable spiral pattern in both the dust polarization and molecular outflow. These data dramatically illustrate the interplay between a high infall rate onto IRS 1 and a powerful outflow disrupting the dense, clumpy medium surrounding the star. The images of the dust polarization and the CO outflow presented here provide observational evidence for the exchange of energy and angular momentum between the infall and the outflow. The spiral dust pattern, which rotates through over 180° from IRS 1, may be a clumpy filament wound up by conservation of angular momentum in the infalling material. The redshifted CO emission ridge traces the dust spiral closely through the
Interferometric Upper Limits on Millimeter Polarization of the Disks around DG Tau, GM Aur, and MWC 480Hughes, A. MeredithHull, Charles L. H.Wilner, David J.Plambeck, Richard L.DOI: info:10.1088/0004-6256/145/4/115v. 145115
Hughes, A. Meredith, Hull, Charles L. H., Wilner, David J., and Plambeck, Richard L. 2013. "Interferometric Upper Limits on Millimeter Polarization of the Disks around DG Tau, GM Aur, and MWC 480." The Astronomical Journal 145:115. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-6256/145/4/115
ID: 115646
Type: article
Authors: Hughes, A. Meredith; Hull, Charles L. H.; Wilner, David J.; Plambeck, Richard L.
Abstract: Millimeter-wavelength polarization measurements offer a promising method for probing the geometry of magnetic fields in circumstellar disks. Single dish observations and theoretical work have hinted that magnetic field geometries might be predominantly toroidal, and that disks should exhibit millimeter polarization fractions of 2%-3%. While subsequent work has not confirmed these high polarization fractions, either the wavelength of observation or the target sources differed from the original observations. Here we present new polarimetric observations of three nearby circumstellar disks at 2'' resolution with the Submillimeter Array and the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter Astronomy. We reobserve GM Aur and DG Tau, the systems in which millimeter polarization detections have been claimed. Despite higher resolution and sensitivity at wavelengths similar to the previous observations, the new observations do not show significant polarization. We also add observations of a new HAeBe system, MWC 480. These observations demonstrate that a very low (lsim0.5%) polarization fraction is probably common at large (gsim100 AU) scales in bright circumstellar disks. We suggest that high-resolution observations may be worthwhile to probe magnetic field structure on linear distances smaller than the disk scale height, as well as in regions closer to the star that may have larger MRI-induced magnetic field strengths.