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Showing 1-20 of about 181 results.
Long-Term Impacts of Invasive Insects and Pathogens on Composition, Biomass, and Diversity of Forests in Virginia's Blue Ridge MountainsAnderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.Herrmann, ValentineCass, Wendy B.Williams, Alan B.Paull, Stephen J.Gonzalez-Akre, Erika B.Helcoski, RyanTepley, Alan J.Bourg, Norman A.Cosma, Christopher T.Ferson, Abigail E.Kittle, CarolineMeakem, VictoriaMcGregor, Ian R.Prestipino, Maya N.Scott, Michael K.Terrell, Alyssa R.Alonso, AlfonsoDallmeier, FranciscoMcShea, William J.2020DOI: info:10.1007/s10021-020-00503-wEcosystems1432-9840
Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J., Herrmann, Valentine, Cass, Wendy B., Williams, Alan B., Paull, Stephen J., Gonzalez-Akre, Erika B., Helcoski, Ryan, Tepley, Alan J., Bourg, Norman A., Cosma, Christopher T., Ferson, Abigail E., Kittle, Caroline, Meakem, Victoria, McGregor, Ian R., Prestipino, Maya N., Scott, Michael K., Terrell, Alyssa R., Alonso, Alfonso, Dallmeier, Francisco, and McShea, William J. 2020. "Long-Term Impacts of Invasive Insects and Pathogens on Composition, Biomass, and Diversity of Forests in Virginia's Blue Ridge Mountains." Ecosystems
ID: 155476
Type: article
Authors: Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.; Herrmann, Valentine; Cass, Wendy B.; Williams, Alan B.; Paull, Stephen J.; Gonzalez-Akre, Erika B.; Helcoski, Ryan; Tepley, Alan J.; Bourg, Norman A.; Cosma, Christopher T.; Ferson, Abigail E.; Kittle, Caroline; Meakem, Victoria; McGregor, Ian R.; Prestipino, Maya N.; Scott, Michael K.; Terrell, Alyssa R.; Alonso, Alfonso; Dallmeier, Francisco; McShea, William J.
Keywords: NZP; STRI
Abstract: Exotic forest insects and pathogens (EFIP) have become regular features of temperate forest ecosystems, yet we lack a long-term perspective on their net impacts on tree mortality, carbon sequestration, and tree species diversity. Here, we analyze 3 decades (1987-2019) of forest monitoring data from the Blue Ridge Mountains ecoregion in eastern North America, including 67 plots totaling 29.4 ha, along with a historical survey from 1939. Over the past century, EFIP substantially affected at least eight tree genera. Tree host taxa had anomalously high mortality rates (>= 6% year(-1) from 2008 to 2019 vs 1.4% year(-1) for less-impacted taxa). Following the arrival of EFIP, affected taxa declined in abundance (- 25 to - 100%) and live aboveground biomass (AGB; - 13 to - 100%) within our monitoring plots. We estimate that EFIP were responsible for 21-29% of ecosystem AGB loss through mortality (- 87 g m(-2) year(-1)) from 1991 to 2013 across 66 sites. Over a century, net AGB loss among affected species totaled roughly 6.6-10 kg m(-2). The affected host taxa accounted for 23-29% of genera losses at the plot scale, with mixed net effects on alpha-diversity. Several taxa were lost from our monitoring plots but not completely extirpated from the region. Despite these losses, both total AGB and alpha-diversity were largely recovered through increases in sympatric genera. These results indicate that EFIP have been an important force shaping forest composition, carbon cycling, and diversity. At the same time, less-affected taxa in these relatively diverse temperate forests have conferred substantial resilience with regard to biomass and alpha-diversity.
The value of local habitat heterogeneity and productivity when estimating avian species richness and species of concernCooper, W. JustinMcShea, William J.Forrester, TavisLuther, David A.2020DOI: info:10.1002/ecs2.3107Ecospherev. 11No. 5Article e03107Article e031072150-8925
Cooper, W. Justin, McShea, William J., Forrester, Tavis, and Luther, David A. 2020. "The value of local habitat heterogeneity and productivity when estimating avian species richness and species of concern." Ecosphere 11 (5):Article e03107.
ID: 155758
Type: article
Authors: Cooper, W. Justin; McShea, William J.; Forrester, Tavis; Luther, David A.
Keywords: NZP
Abstract: As the quality and quantity of natural habitats decrease, pressure increases to better understand species–habitat interactions and how animal communities respond to habitat changes. We assessed the relative importance of local habitat heterogeneity and productivity measures as predictors of avian species richness and compared these results to models for species of conservation concern (SCC). We derived three-dimensional habitat heterogeneity and productivity measures from light detection and ranging data and hyperspectral imagery, and then used a Bayesian multi-species hierarchical framework to model avian species richness and occupancy. We found both habitat heterogeneity and productivity were important factors for determining avian community richness. Three-dimensional habitat heterogeneity and productivity metrics accurately predicted species richness at a local scale and were especially important to use within habitat guilds (i.e., alpha diversity). When scaling up to community richness across multiple habitat types (i.e., gamma diversity), two-dimensional (surface level) productivity and heterogeneity metrics became important additions to the three-dimensional metrics when estimating total avian richness. We also tested the utility of these metrics for predicting occupancy of SCC and compared community-level relationships to species-specific relationships. Species of conservation concern differed from the broader avian community with regard to local habitat heterogeneity and productivity measures. Species of conservation concern had different relationship habitat metrics than the greater avian community. Three-dimensional measures of habitat heterogeneity and productivity predicted avian richness across the landscape, yet also highlighted the different habitat structure needs of SCC compared with the greater avian community.
Incorporating local habitat heterogeneity and productivity measures when modelling vertebrate richnessCooper, W. JustinMcShea, William J.Luther, David A.Forrester, Tavis2020DOI: info:10.1017/S0376892919000328Environmental Conservationv. 477147–140376-8929
Cooper, W. Justin, McShea, William J., Luther, David A., and Forrester, Tavis. 2020. "Incorporating local habitat heterogeneity and productivity measures when modelling vertebrate richness." Environmental Conservation 47:7–14.
ID: 153688
Type: article
Authors: Cooper, W. Justin; McShea, William J.; Luther, David A.; Forrester, Tavis
Keywords: NZP
Abstract: Declining species richness is a global concern; however, the coarse-scale metrics used at regional or landscape levels might not accurately represent the important habitat characteristics needed to estimate species richness. Currently, there exists a lack of knowledge with regard to the spatial extent necessary to correlate remotely sensed habitat metrics to species richness and animal surveys. We provide a protocol for determining the best scale to use when merging remotely sensed habitat and animal survey data as a step towards improving estimates of vertebrate species richness on broad scales. We test the relative importance of fine-resolution habitat heterogeneity and productivity metrics at multiple spatial scales as predictors of species richness for birds, frogs and mammals using a Bayesian approach and a combination of passive monitoring technologies. Model performance was different for each taxonomic group and dependent on the scale at which habitat heterogeneity and productivity were measured. Optimal scales included a 20-m radius for bats and frogs, an 80-m radius for birds and a 180-m radius for terrestrial mammals. Our results indicate that optimal scales do exist when merging remotely sensed habitat measures with ground-based surveys, but they differ between vertebrate groups. Additionally, the selection of a measurement scale is highly influential to our understanding of the relationships between species richness and habitat characteristics.
Seasonal habitat use and activity patterns of blood pheasant Ithaginis cruentusbe in the presence of free-ranging livestockFan, FanBu, HongliangMcShea, William J.Shen, Xiaoli Li, Binbin V.Li, Sheng2020DOI: info:10.1016/j.gecco.2020.e01155Global Ecology and Conservationv. 23e01155e01155e01155–e011552351-9894
Fan, Fan, Bu, Hongliang, McShea, William J., Shen, Xiaoli, Li, Binbin V., and Li, Sheng. 2020. "Seasonal habitat use and activity patterns of blood pheasant Ithaginis cruentusbe in the presence of free-ranging livestock." Global Ecology and Conservation 23:e01155–e01155.
ID: 157094
Type: article
Authors: Fan, Fan; Bu, Hongliang; McShea, William J.; Shen, Xiaoli ; Li, Binbin V.; Li, Sheng
Keywords: NZP
Abstract: Livestock grazing has become the most prevalent human disturbance in protected areas across the range of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Previous studies have documented the impacts of livestock grazing on habitat and food resources of giant panda, however, little is known about how free-ranging livestock influences other sympatric species. In this study, we investigated the presence of livestock on the habitat use and activity patterns of blood pheasant (Ithaginis cruentusbe), a representative species of phasianids in China, of which more than 50% are under threats due to habitat loss and fragmentation, illegal harvest and human disturbance. We combined camera-trap and sign survey data collected within Wanglang National Nature Reserve, where the livestock population has increased by nine-fold in the past decade, and used both an occupancy modeling framework and kernel density estimation to understand blood pheasant's recent distribution, changes in occurrences, and diel activity patterns in the presence of free ranging livestock in different seasons (i.e., breeding [April to July], non-breeding [August to October] and winter [November to March]). For diel activity, blood pheasant overlapped highly with livestock regardless of the season, as both are primarily diurnal species. With regards to distribution, we detected a significant positive correlation between the presence of blood pheasants and livestock (P = 0.02) in breeding season which was against our expectation; no significant relationship in non-breeding season; and a significant negative correlation in winter. Besides, livestock had a significant negative correlation with blood pheasant extinction probability, and no significant impact on colonization probability. Aided by results from two-season occupancy modeling, we argued that the spatial co occurrence in breeding season wasn't due to causality, but similar habitat preferences between them. Our study confirms that free-ranging livestock do have the potential to impact blood pheasant due to temporal and spatial overlap, but the consequences of this overlap were unclear. (c) 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (
An empirical evaluation of camera trap study design: how many, how long, and when?Kays, RolandArbogast, Brian S.Baker‐Whatton, MeganBeirne, ChrisBoone, Hailey M.Bowler, MarkBurneo, Santiago F.Cove, Michael V.Ding, PingEspinosa, SantiagoGonçalves, André,Luis SousaHansen, Christopher P.Jansen, Patrick A.Kolowski, Joseph M.Knowles, Travis W.Lima, Marcela Guimarães MoreiraMillspaugh, JoshuaMcShea, William J.Pacifici, KrishnaParsons, Arielle W.Pease, Brent S.Rovero, FrancescoSantos, FernandaSchuttler, Stephanie G.Sheil, DouglasSi, XingfengSnider, MattSpironello, Wilson R.2020DOI: info:10.1111/2041-210X.13370Methods in Ecology and Evolution1401–402041-210X
Kays, Roland, Arbogast, Brian S., Baker‐Whatton, Megan, Beirne, Chris, Boone, Hailey M., Bowler, Mark, Burneo, Santiago F., Cove, Michael V., Ding, Ping, Espinosa, Santiago, Gonçalves, André,Luis Sousa, Hansen, Christopher P., Jansen, Patrick A., Kolowski, Joseph M., Knowles, Travis W., Lima, Marcela Guimarães Moreira, Millspaugh, Joshua, McShea, William J., Pacifici, Krishna, Parsons, Arielle W., Pease, Brent S., Rovero, Francesco, Santos, Fernanda, Schuttler, Stephanie G., Sheil, Douglas et al. 2020. "An empirical evaluation of camera trap study design: how many, how long, and when?." Methods in Ecology and Evolution 1–40.
ID: 154368
Type: article
Authors: Kays, Roland; Arbogast, Brian S.; Baker‐Whatton, Megan; Beirne, Chris; Boone, Hailey M.; Bowler, Mark; Burneo, Santiago F.; Cove, Michael V.; Ding, Ping; Espinosa, Santiago; Gonçalves, André,Luis Sousa; Hansen, Christopher P.; Jansen, Patrick A.; Kolowski, Joseph M.; Knowles, Travis W.; Lima, Marcela Guimarães Moreira; Millspaugh, Joshua; McShea, William J.; Pacifici, Krishna; Parsons, Arielle W.; Pease, Brent S.; Rovero, Francesco; Santos, Fernanda; Schuttler, Stephanie G.; Sheil, Douglas; Si, Xingfeng; Snider, Matt; Spironello, Wilson R.
Keywords: STRI; NZP
Abstract: Camera traps deployed in grids or stratified random designs are a well-established survey tool for wildlife but there has been little evaluation of study design parameters. We used an empirical subsampling approach involving 2225 camera deployments run at 41 study areas around the world to evaluate three aspects of camera trap study design (number of sites, duration and season of sampling) and their influence on the estimation of three ecological metrics (species richness, occupancy, detection rate) for mammals. We found that 25-35 camera sites were needed for precise estimates of species richness, depending on scale of the study. The precision of species-level estimates of occupancy (ψ) was highly sensitive to occupancy level, with 0.75) species, but more than 150 camera sites likely needed for rare (ψ<0.25) species. Species detection rates were more difficult to estimate precisely at the grid level due to spatial heterogeneity, presumably driven by unaccounted habitat variability factors within the study area. Running a camera at a site for 2 weeks was most efficient for detecting new species, but 3-4 weeks were needed for precise estimates of local detection rate, with no gains in precision observed after 1 month. Metrics for all mammal communities were sensitive to seasonality, with 37-50% of the species at the sites we examined fluctuating significantly in their occupancy or detection rates over the year. This effect was more pronounced in temperate sites, where seasonally sensitive species varied in relative abundance by an average factor of 4-5, and some species were completely absent in one season due to hibernation or migration. We recommend the following guidelines to efficiently obtain precise estimates of species richness, occupancy and detection rates with camera trap arrays: run each camera for 3-5 weeks across 40-60 sites per array. We recommend comparisons of detection rates be model-based and include local covariates to help account for small-scale variation. Furthermore, comparisons across study areas or times must account for seasonality, which could have strong impacts on mammal communities in both tropical and temperate sites.
Management Regime and Field Age Affect Species Richness and Cover of Native Forbs and Exotic Species in Virginia GrasslandsLedvina, JosephMcShea, William J.Bourg, Norman A.Herrmann, ValentineAkre, ThomasJohnson, Amy E. M.2020DOI: info:10.3368/er.38.2.83Ecological Restorationv. 38No. 2839383–931543-4060
Ledvina, Joseph, McShea, William J., Bourg, Norman A., Herrmann, Valentine, Akre, Thomas, and Johnson, Amy E. M. 2020. "Management Regime and Field Age Affect Species Richness and Cover of Native Forbs and Exotic Species in Virginia Grasslands." Ecological Restoration 38 (2):83–93.
ID: 155892
Type: article
Authors: Ledvina, Joseph; McShea, William J.; Bourg, Norman A.; Herrmann, Valentine; Akre, Thomas; Johnson, Amy E. M.
Keywords: NZP
Abstract: The majority of grasslands in the eastern United States are maintained through agricultural use (livestock grazing and hay production), intermittent management as fallow fields, or active management for ecological or recreational purposes. Management following agricultural use can follow a variety of practices from benign neglect to active planting of native grasses and forbs. We surveyed 64 grasslands in a 15-county region of northwestern Virginia to assess their plant species composition, with emphasis on the response of exotic species and native forb species richness to time since agricultural use. With regard to agricultural use, we found that livestock grazing resulted in low levels of native species richness and increased exotic species prevalence, while hay production increased native forb richness. In these fields, eutrophication (as measured by phosphorus levels) was a strong positive predictor of exotic species. Post-agricultural fields, maintained through mowing (fallow), retained native species but also experienced sharp increases in exotic species. When post-agricultural management included the establishment of native grasses and forbs, a higher initial richness of native species resulted. However, fields disked during establishment lost native species and gained exotic species with increasing field age; an outcome not observed when field establishment did not involve disking. The management practices applied to post-agricultural fields significantly impact their ability to support biodiversity, their propensity to harbor exotic species, and their ability to maintain native diversity and resist invasions of exotic species with increasing age since abandonment.
Retreat of large carnivores across the giant panda distribution rangeLi, ShengMcShea, William J.Wang, DajunGu, XiaodongZhang, XiaofengZhang, LiShen, Xiaoli 2020DOI: info:10.1038/s41559-020-1260-0Nature Ecology & Evolution2397-334X
Li, Sheng, McShea, William J., Wang, Dajun, Gu, Xiaodong, Zhang, Xiaofeng, Zhang, Li, and Shen, Xiaoli . 2020. "Retreat of large carnivores across the giant panda distribution range." Nature Ecology & Evolution
ID: 156651
Type: article
Authors: Li, Sheng; McShea, William J.; Wang, Dajun; Gu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Li; Shen, Xiaoli
Keywords: NZP
Tree height and leaf drought tolerance traits shape growth responses across droughts in a temperate broadleaf forestMcGregor, Ian R.Helcoski, RyanKunert, NorbertTepley, Alan J.Gonzalez‐Akre, Erika B.Herrmann, ValentineZailaa, JosephStovall, Atticus E. L.Bourg, Norman A.McShea, William J.Pederson, NeilSack, LawrenAnderson‐Teixeira, Kristina J.2020DOI: info:10.1111/nph.16996New Phytologist0028-646X
McGregor, Ian R., Helcoski, Ryan, Kunert, Norbert, Tepley, Alan J., Gonzalez‐Akre, Erika B., Herrmann, Valentine, Zailaa, Joseph, Stovall, Atticus E. L., Bourg, Norman A., McShea, William J., Pederson, Neil, Sack, Lawren, and Anderson‐Teixeira, Kristina J. 2020. "Tree height and leaf drought tolerance traits shape growth responses across droughts in a temperate broadleaf forest." New Phytologist
ID: 157275
Type: article
Authors: McGregor, Ian R.; Helcoski, Ryan; Kunert, Norbert; Tepley, Alan J.; Gonzalez‐Akre, Erika B.; Herrmann, Valentine; Zailaa, Joseph; Stovall, Atticus E. L.; Bourg, Norman A.; McShea, William J.; Pederson, Neil; Sack, Lawren; Anderson‐Teixeira, Kristina J.
Keywords: NZP; STRI
Integration of ecosystem science into radioecology: A consensus perspectiveRhodes, Olin E.Bréchignac, FrancoisBradshaw, ClareHinton, Thomas G.Mothersill, CarmelArnone, John A.Aubrey, Doug P.Barnthouse, Lawrence W.Beasley, James C.Bonisoli-Alquati, AndreaBoring, Lindsay R.Bryan, Albert L.Capps, Krista A.Clément, BernardColeman, AustinCondon, CaitlinCoutelot, FannyDeVol, TimothyDharmarajan, GuhaFletcher, DeanFlynn, WesGladfelder, GarthGlenn, Travis C.Hendricks, SusanIshida, KenJannik, TimKapustka, LarryKautsky, UlrikKennamer, RobertKuhne, WendyLance, StaceyLaptyev, GennadiyLove, CaraManglass, LisaMartinez, NicoleMathews, TeresaMcKee, ArthurMcShea, WilliamMihok, SteveMills, GaryParrott, BenPowell, BrianPryakhin, EvgenyRypstra, AnnScott, DavidSeaman, JohnSeymour, ColinShkvyria, MarynaWard, AmeliaWhite, DavidWood, Michael D.Zimmerman, Jess K.2020DOI: info:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140031Science of The Total Environmentv. 740Article 140031Article 1400310048-9697
Rhodes, Olin E., Bréchignac, Francois, Bradshaw, Clare, Hinton, Thomas G., Mothersill, Carmel, Arnone, John A., Aubrey, Doug P., Barnthouse, Lawrence W., Beasley, James C., Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea, Boring, Lindsay R., Bryan, Albert L., Capps, Krista A., Clément, Bernard, Coleman, Austin, Condon, Caitlin, Coutelot, Fanny, DeVol, Timothy, Dharmarajan, Guha, Fletcher, Dean, Flynn, Wes, Gladfelder, Garth, Glenn, Travis C., Hendricks, Susan, Ishida, Ken et al. 2020. "Integration of ecosystem science into radioecology: A consensus perspective." Science of The Total Environment 740:Article 140031.
ID: 156661
Type: article
Authors: Rhodes, Olin E.; Bréchignac, Francois; Bradshaw, Clare; Hinton, Thomas G.; Mothersill, Carmel; Arnone, John A.; Aubrey, Doug P.; Barnthouse, Lawrence W.; Beasley, James C.; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Boring, Lindsay R.; Bryan, Albert L.; Capps, Krista A.; Clément, Bernard; Coleman, Austin; Condon, Caitlin; Coutelot, Fanny; DeVol, Timothy; Dharmarajan, Guha; Fletcher, Dean; Flynn, Wes; Gladfelder, Garth; Glenn, Travis C.; Hendricks, Susan; Ishida, Ken; Jannik, Tim; Kapustka, Larry; Kautsky, Ulrik; Kennamer, Robert; Kuhne, Wendy; Lance, Stacey; Laptyev, Gennadiy; Love, Cara; Manglass, Lisa; Martinez, Nicole; Mathews, Teresa; McKee, Arthur; McShea, William; Mihok, Steve; Mills, Gary; Parrott, Ben; Powell, Brian; Pryakhin, Evgeny; Rypstra, Ann; Scott, David; Seaman, John; Seymour, Colin; Shkvyria, Maryna; Ward, Amelia; White, David; Wood, Michael D.; Zimmerman, Jess K.
Keywords: NZP
Effectiveness of management zoning designed for flagship species in protecting sympatric speciesShen, Xiaoli Li, ShengMcShea, William J.Wang, DajunYu, JianpingShi, XiaogangDong, WeiMi, XiangchengMa, Keping2020DOI: info:10.1111/cobi.13345Conservation Biology: The Journal of the Society for Conservation Biologyv. 34No. 1158167158–1670888-8892
Shen, Xiaoli, Li, Sheng, McShea, William J., Wang, Dajun, Yu, Jianping, Shi, Xiaogang, Dong, Wei, Mi, Xiangcheng, and Ma, Keping. 2020. "Effectiveness of management zoning designed for flagship species in protecting sympatric species." Conservation Biology: The Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology 34 (1):158–167.
ID: 151340
Type: article
Authors: Shen, Xiaoli ; Li, Sheng; McShea, William J.; Wang, Dajun; Yu, Jianping; Shi, Xiaogang; Dong, Wei; Mi, Xiangcheng; Ma, Keping
Keywords: NZP
Abstract: Flagship species have been widely used as umbrella species in the management plans of China's nature reserves. This conflation of concepts, "flagship umbrellas", is best represented by the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and other large endangered mammals which are often selected as conservation targets for the site selection and planning of reserves. Few empirical studies have tested the effectiveness of flagship species as planning surrogates for a broader range of species. Using extensive camera-trap data, we tested the efficacy of this conservation approach by examining the effectiveness of zone designations for the conservation of target species, as well as their sympatric species in four wildlife reserves (Gutianshan, Changqing, Laohegou and Wolong). The distribution patterns of both the target and sympatric species across the three management zones (i.e. experimental, buffer and core zones) in each reserve indicated a disparity between management zones and the species' habitat requirements. The target species all had an association with zone designations with five cases more often detected in the core zone, two in the buffer zone and one in the experimental zone. For sympatric and common species that showed an association with zone designations, six out of seven cases of the threatened species were more often detected in the core zone, and four cases of the common species were more often detected in the experimental zone. The remaining examples (14 for threatened species and 7 for common species) were not well served by the current reserve structure. Our findings indicate the limitations of using flagship umbrella species as surrogates for reserve planning, as their, often specialized, habitat requirements did not always lend themselves to adequately sheltering sympatric species. We recommend re-examining the effectiveness of zone designations and urge a multiple-species and reserve-wide monitoring plan, in order to achieve the effective protection of China's wildlife. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Tick Burdens in a Small-Mammal Community in VirginiaCard, Leah R.McShea, William J.Fleischer, Robert C.Maldonado, Jesús E.Stewardson, KristinCampana, Michael G.Jansen, Patrick A.Calabrese, Justin M.2019DOI: info:10.1656/045.026.0317Northeastern Naturalistv. 26No. 3641655641–6551092-6194
Card, Leah R., McShea, William J., Fleischer, Robert C., Maldonado, Jesús E., Stewardson, Kristin, Campana, Michael G., Jansen, Patrick A., and Calabrese, Justin M. 2019. "Tick Burdens in a Small-Mammal Community in Virginia." Northeastern Naturalist 26 (3):641–655.
ID: 152260
Type: article
Authors: Card, Leah R.; McShea, William J.; Fleischer, Robert C.; Maldonado, Jesús E.; Stewardson, Kristin; Campana, Michael G.; Jansen, Patrick A.; Calabrese, Justin M.
Keywords: STRI; NZP
Abstract: Virginia has seen dramatic increases in reported cases of Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever, but basic knowledge on the community ecology of these tick-borne diseases is poor. We examined the tick burdens of 5 small-mammal species in northwest Virginia from October 2011 to December 2012. We live-trapped individuals, quantified the tick burdens, assessed the burden structure, and tested a subset of the ticks for tick-borne pathogens. We found the tick burdens to be composed predominantly of Ixodes scapularis (Black-Legged Tick), and Ixodes sp. ticks, with Amblyomma americanum (Lone Star Tick) and Dermacentor variabilis (American Dog Tick) also present at lower densities. We detected Borrelia burgdorferi (prevalence 15%), Rickettsia spp. (4%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (4%), and Hepatozoon spp. (1%). Black-Legged Ticks, a species which has shown range expansion in recent decades, tested positive for B. burgdorferi (17%) and for multiple pathogens in individual ticks. For better predictions of tick-borne disease risk across the Mid-Atlantic region, we recommend tracking changes in tick communities by continuous monitoring of tick burdens, densities of questing ticks, and prevalence of tick-borne pathogens.
Direct and indirect effects of climate on richness drive the latitudinal diversity gradient in forest treesChu, ChengjinLutz, James A.Kral, KamilVrska, TomasYin, XueMyers, Jonathan A.Abiem, IverenAlonso, AlfonsoBourg, NormBurslem, David F. R. P.Cao, MinChapman, HazelCondit, Richard S.Fang, SuqinFischer, Gunter A.Gao, LianmingHao, ZhanqinHau, Billy C. H.He, QingHector, AndrewHubbell, Stephen P.Jiang, MingxiJin, GuangzeKenfack, DavidLai, JiangshanLi, BuhangLi, XiankunLi, YideLian, JuyuLin, LuxiangLiu, YankunLiu, YuLuo, YahuangMa, KepingMcShea, WilliamMemiaghe, HerveMi, XiangchengNi, MingO'Brien, Michael Oliveira, Alexandre A.Orwig, David A.Parker, Geoffrey G.Qiao, XiujuanRen, HaibaoReynolds, GlenSang, WeiguoShen, GuochunSu, ZhiyaoSui, XinghuaSun, I-FangTian, SongyanWang, BinWang, XihuaWang, XugaoWang, YoushiWeiblen, George D.Wen, ShujunXi, NianxunXiang, WushengXu, HanXu, KunYe, WanhuiZhang, BingweiZhang, JiaxinZhang, XiaotongZhang, YingmingZhu, KaiZimmerman, JessStorch, DavidBaltzer, Jennifer L.Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.Mittelbach, Gary G.He, Fangliang2019DOI: info:10.1111/ele.13175Ecology Lettersv. 22No. 2245255245–2551461-023X
Chu, Chengjin, Lutz, James A., Kral, Kamil, Vrska, Tomas, Yin, Xue, Myers, Jonathan A., Abiem, Iveren, Alonso, Alfonso, Bourg, Norm, Burslem, David F. R. P., Cao, Min, Chapman, Hazel, Condit, Richard S., Fang, Suqin, Fischer, Gunter A., Gao, Lianming, Hao, Zhanqin, Hau, Billy C. H., He, Qing, Hector, Andrew, Hubbell, Stephen P., Jiang, Mingxi, Jin, Guangze, Kenfack, David, Lai, Jiangshan et al. 2019. "Direct and indirect effects of climate on richness drive the latitudinal diversity gradient in forest trees." Ecology Letters 22 (2):245–255.
ID: 149947
Type: article
Authors: Chu, Chengjin; Lutz, James A.; Kral, Kamil; Vrska, Tomas; Yin, Xue; Myers, Jonathan A.; Abiem, Iveren; Alonso, Alfonso; Bourg, Norm; Burslem, David F. R. P.; Cao, Min; Chapman, Hazel; Condit, Richard S.; Fang, Suqin; Fischer, Gunter A.; Gao, Lianming; Hao, Zhanqin; Hau, Billy C. H.; He, Qing; Hector, Andrew; Hubbell, Stephen P.; Jiang, Mingxi; Jin, Guangze; Kenfack, David; Lai, Jiangshan; Li, Buhang; Li, Xiankun; Li, Yide; Lian, Juyu; Lin, Luxiang; Liu, Yankun; Liu, Yu; Luo, Yahuang; Ma, Keping; McShea, William; Memiaghe, Herve; Mi, Xiangcheng; Ni, Ming; O'Brien, Michael J.; de Oliveira, Alexandre A.; Orwig, David A.; Parker, Geoffrey G.; Qiao, Xiujuan; Ren, Haibao; Reynolds, Glen; Sang, Weiguo; Shen, Guochun; Su, Zhiyao; Sui, Xinghua; Sun, I-Fang; Tian, Songyan; Wang, Bin; Wang, Xihua; Wang, Xugao; Wang, Youshi; Weiblen, George D.; Wen, Shujun; Xi, Nianxun; Xiang, Wusheng; Xu, Han; Xu, Kun; Ye, Wanhui; Zhang, Bingwei; Zhang, Jiaxin; Zhang, Xiaotong; Zhang, Yingming; Zhu, Kai; Zimmerman, Jess; Storch, David; Baltzer, Jennifer L.; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.; Mittelbach, Gary G.; He, Fangliang
Keywords: NZP; STRI; SERC; NMNH; NH-Botany
Abstract: Climate is widely recognised as an important determinant of the latitudinal diversity gradient. However, most existing studies make no distinction between direct and indirect effects of climate, which substantially hinders our understanding of how climate constrains biodiversity globally. Using data from 35 large forest plots, we test hypothesised relationships amongst climate, topography, forest structural attributes (stem abundance, tree size variation and stand basal area) and tree species richness to better understand drivers of latitudinal tree diversity patterns. Climate influences tree richness both directly, with more species in warm, moist, aseasonal climates and indirectly, with more species at higher stem abundance. These results imply direct limitation of species diversity by climatic stress and more rapid (co-)evolution and narrower niche partitioning in warm climates. They also support the idea that increased numbers of individuals associated with high primary productivity are partitioned to support a greater number of species.
Projecting Mammal Distributions in Response to Future Alternative Landscapes in a Rapidly Transitioning RegionCove, Michael V.Fergus, CraigLacher, IaraAkre, ThomasMcShea, William J.2019DOI: info:10.3390/rs11212482Remote Sensingv. 11No. 21248224822482–24822072-4292
Cove, Michael V., Fergus, Craig, Lacher, Iara, Akre, Thomas, and McShea, William J. 2019. "Projecting Mammal Distributions in Response to Future Alternative Landscapes in a Rapidly Transitioning Region." Remote Sensing 11 (21):2482–2482.
ID: 153757
Type: article
Authors: Cove, Michael V.; Fergus, Craig; Lacher, Iara; Akre, Thomas; McShea, William J.
Keywords: NZP
Abstract: Finding balance between the needs of people and wildlife is an essential component of planning sustainable landscapes. Because mammals make up a diverse and ecologically important taxon with varying responses to human disturbance, we used representative mammal species to examine how alternative land-use policies might affect their habitats and distributions in the near future. We used wildlife detections from camera traps at 1591 locations along a large-scale urban to wild gradient in northern Virginia, to create occupancy models which determined land cover relationships and the drivers of contemporary mammal distributions. From the 15 species detected, we classified five representative species into two groups based on their responses to human development; sensitive species (American black bears and bobcats) and synanthropic species (red foxes, domestic cats, and white-tailed deer). We then used the habitat models for the representative species to predict their distributions under four future planning scenarios based on strategic versus reactive planning and high or low human population growth. The distributions of sensitive species did not shrink drastically under any scenario, whereas the distributions of synanthropic species increased in response to anthropogenic development, but the magnitude of the response varied based on the projected rate of human population growth. This is likely because most sensitive species are dependent on large, protected public lands in the region, and the majority of projected habitat losses should occur in non-protected private lands. These findings illustrate the importance of public protected lands in mitigating range loss due to land use changes, and the potential positive impact of strategic planning in further mitigating mammalian diversity loss in private lands.
Temporal population variability in local forest communities has mixed effects on tree species richness across a latitudinal gradientFung, TakChisholm, Ryan A.Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.Bourg, NormBrockelman, Warren Y.Bunyavejchewin, SarayudhChang‐Yang, Chia-HaoChitra‐Tarak, RutujaChuyong, GeorgeCondit, RichardDattaraja, Handanakere S.Davies, Stuart J.Ewango, Corneille E. N.Fewless, GaryFletcher, ChristineGunatilleke, C. V. S.Gunatilleke, I. A. U. N.Hao, ZhanqingHogan, J. A.Howe, RobertHsieh, Chang-FuKenfack, DavidLin, YichingMa, KepingMakana, Jean-RemyMcMahon, SeanMcShea, William J.Mi, XiangchengNathalang, AnuttaraOng, Perry S.Parker, GeoffreyRau, E. -PShue, JessicaSu, Sheng-HsinSukumar, RamanSun, I. -FSuresh, Hebbalalu S.Tan, SylvesterThomas, DuncanThompson, JillValencia, RenatoVallejo, Martha I.Wang, XugaoWang, YunquanWijekoon, PushpaWolf, AmyYap, SandraZimmerman, Jess2019DOI: info:10.1111/ele.13412Ecology Letters1121–121461-023X
Fung, Tak, Chisholm, Ryan A., Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J., Bourg, Norm, Brockelman, Warren Y., Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh, Chang‐Yang, Chia-Hao, Chitra‐Tarak, Rutuja, Chuyong, George, Condit, Richard, Dattaraja, Handanakere S., Davies, Stuart J., Ewango, Corneille E. N., Fewless, Gary, Fletcher, Christine, Gunatilleke, C. V. S., Gunatilleke, I. A. U. N., Hao, Zhanqing, Hogan, J. A., Howe, Robert, Hsieh, Chang-Fu, Kenfack, David, Lin, Yiching, Ma, Keping, Makana, Jean-Remy et al. 2019. "Temporal population variability in local forest communities has mixed effects on tree species richness across a latitudinal gradient." Ecology Letters 1–12.
ID: 153274
Type: article
Authors: Fung, Tak; Chisholm, Ryan A.; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.; Bourg, Norm; Brockelman, Warren Y.; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Chang‐Yang, Chia-Hao; Chitra‐Tarak, Rutuja; Chuyong, George; Condit, Richard; Dattaraja, Handanakere S.; Davies, Stuart J.; Ewango, Corneille E. N.; Fewless, Gary; Fletcher, Christine; Gunatilleke, C. V. S.; Gunatilleke, I. A. U. N.; Hao, Zhanqing; Hogan, J. A.; Howe, Robert; Hsieh, Chang-Fu; Kenfack, David; Lin, Yiching; Ma, Keping; Makana, Jean-Remy; McMahon, Sean; McShea, William J.; Mi, Xiangcheng; Nathalang, Anuttara; Ong, Perry S.; Parker, Geoffrey; Rau, E. -P; Shue, Jessica; Su, Sheng-Hsin; Sukumar, Raman; Sun, I. -F; Suresh, Hebbalalu S.; Tan, Sylvester; Thomas, Duncan; Thompson, Jill; Valencia, Renato; Vallejo, Martha I.; Wang, Xugao; Wang, Yunquan; Wijekoon, Pushpa; Wolf, Amy; Yap, Sandra; Zimmerman, Jess
Keywords: STRI; SERC; NZP
Abstract: Among the local processes that determine species diversity in ecological communities, fluctuation-dependent mechanisms that are mediated by temporal variability in the abundances of species populations have received significant attention. Higher temporal variability in the abundances of species populations can increase the strength of temporal niche partitioning but can also increase the risk of species extinctions, such that the net effect on species coexistence is not clear. We quantified this temporal population variability for tree species in 21 large forest plots and found much greater variability for higher latitude plots with fewer tree species. A fitted mechanistic model showed that among the forest plots, the net effect of temporal population variability on tree species coexistence was usually negative, but sometimes positive or negligible. Therefore, our results suggest that temporal variability in the abundances of species populations has no clear negative or positive contribution to the latitudinal gradient in tree species richness.
Effects of grassland management on overwintering bird communitiesJohnson, Amy E. M.Sillett, T. ScottLuther, DavidHerrmann, ValentineAkre, Thomas A.McShea, William J.2019DOI: info:10.1002/jwmg.21730Journal of Wildlife Managementv. 83No. 7151515261515–15260022-541X
Johnson, Amy E. M., Sillett, T. Scott, Luther, David, Herrmann, Valentine, Akre, Thomas A., and McShea, William J. 2019. "Effects of grassland management on overwintering bird communities." Journal of Wildlife Management 83 (7):1515–1526.
ID: 151948
Type: article
Authors: Johnson, Amy E. M.; Sillett, T. Scott; Luther, David; Herrmann, Valentine; Akre, Thomas A.; McShea, William J.
Keywords: NZP
Abstract: Birds that depend on grassland and successional‐scrub vegetation communities are experiencing a greater decline than any other avian assemblage in North America. Habitat loss and degradation on breeding and wintering grounds are among the leading causes of these declines. We used public and private lands in northern Virginia, USA, to explore benefits of grassland management and associated field structure on supporting overwintering bird species from 2013 to 2016. Specifically, we used non‐metric multidimensional scaling and multispecies occupancy models to compare species richness and habitat associations of grassland‐obligate and successional‐scrub species during winter in fields comprised of native warm‐season grasses (WSG) or non‐native cool‐season grasses (CSG) that were managed at different times of the year. Results demonstrated positive correlations of grassland‐obligate species with decreased vegetation structure and a higher percentage of grass cover, whereas successional‐scrub species positively correlated with increased vegetation structure and height and increased percentages of woody stems, forb cover, and bare ground. Fields of WSG supported higher estimated total and target species richness compared to fields of CSG. Estimated species richness was also influenced by management timing, with fields managed during the previous winter or left unmanaged exhibiting higher estimated richness than fields managed in summer or fall. Warm‐season grass fields managed in the previous winter or left unmanaged had higher estimated species richness than any other treatment group. This study identifies important winter habitat associations (e.g., vegetation height and field openness) with species abundance and richness and can be used to make inferences about optimal management practices for overwintering avian species in eastern grasslands of North America. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of Wildlife Management Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Wildlife Society.
Born-digital biodiversity data: Millions and billionsKays, RolandMcShea, William J.Wikelski, Martin2019DOI: info:10.1111/ddi.12993Diversity and Distributions151–51472-4642
Kays, Roland, McShea, William J., and Wikelski, Martin. 2019. "Born-digital biodiversity data: Millions and billions." Diversity and Distributions 1–5.
ID: 154369
Type: article
Authors: Kays, Roland; McShea, William J.; Wikelski, Martin
Keywords: STRI
Abstract: Given the dramatic pace of change of our planet, we need rapid collection of environmental data to document how species are coping and to evaluate the impact of our conservation interventions. To address this need, new classes of "born digital" biodiversity records are now being collected and curated many orders of magnitude faster than traditional data. In addition to the millions of citizen science observations of species that have been accumulating over the last decade, the last few years have seen a surge of sensor data, with eMammal's camera trap archive passing 1 million photo-vouchered specimens and Movebank's animal tracking database recently passing 1.5 billion animal locations. Data from digital sensors have other advantages over visual citizen science observation in that the level of survey effort is intrinsically documented and they can preserve digital vouchers that can be used to verify species identity. These novel digital specimens are leading spatial ecology into the era of Big Data and will require a big tent of collaborating organizations to make these databases sustainable and durable. We urge institutions to recognize the future of born-digital records and invest in proper curation and standards so we can make the most of these records to inform management, inspire conservation action and tell natural history stories about life on the planet.
Spatial and temporal patterns of public and private land protection within the Blue Ridge and Piedmont ecoregions of the eastern USLacher, IaraAkre, ThomasMcShea, William J.Fergus, Craig2019DOI: info:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2019.02.008Landscape and Urban Planningv. 1869110291–1020169-2046
Lacher, Iara, Akre, Thomas, McShea, William J., and Fergus, Craig. 2019. "Spatial and temporal patterns of public and private land protection within the Blue Ridge and Piedmont ecoregions of the eastern US." Landscape and Urban Planning 186:91–102.
ID: 151036
Type: article
Authors: Lacher, Iara; Akre, Thomas; McShea, William J.; Fergus, Craig
Keywords: NZP
Abstract: Protected lands are an established method for conserving biodiversity and ecosystem services. Moreover, agencies and organizations are increasingly looking to private lands as places for new protected lands establishment. However, the effectiveness of protected lands in guarding against the loss of species or services can vary based on their coverage of habitat and species, management strategy, and their size and configuration across the landscape. We compare protected lands patches between two adjacent ecoregions, the public lands centric Blue Ridge and the private land dominated Piedmont, using estimates of land cover, management practices, and landscape configuration as a proxy for their relative contribution towards the long-term conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services. We conducted a hotspot analysis to evaluate geographic changes in spatial clustering of protected lands establishment between the years 1985 and 2015. In addition, we evaluated climate resiliency of protected lands patches using metrics developed by Anderson et al. (2016). We found that, compared to public lands, private protected lands contain larger amounts of agriculture than forest, allow for more utilitarian use than public lands, and are less resilient to climatic change. Furthermore, although total area of private protected lands increased since 1985, they are smaller and more disconnected, contributing less to overall connectivity of the protected lands network. To improve upon past efforts, we must improve management accounting and practice and prioritize land for protection that improves coverage, network connectivity, and climate resilience.
Engaging regional stakeholders in scenario planning for the long-term preservation of ecosystem services in Northwestern VirginiaLacher, IaraAkre, ThomasMcShea, William J.McBride, MarissaThompson, Jonathan R.Fergus, Craig2019DOI: info:10.1525/cse.2018.001180Case Studies in the Environmentv. 3No. 11131–132473-9510
Lacher, Iara, Akre, Thomas, McShea, William J., McBride, Marissa, Thompson, Jonathan R., and Fergus, Craig. 2019. "Engaging regional stakeholders in scenario planning for the long-term preservation of ecosystem services in Northwestern Virginia." Case Studies in the Environment 3 (1):1–13.
ID: 149796
Type: article
Authors: Lacher, Iara; Akre, Thomas; McShea, William J.; McBride, Marissa; Thompson, Jonathan R.; Fergus, Craig
Keywords: NZP
Tracking trends in the extinction risk of wild relatives of domesticated species to assess progress against global biodiversity targetsMcGowan, Philip J. K.Mair, LouiseSymes, AndrewWestrip, James R. S.Wheatley, HannahBrook, SarahBurton, JamesKing, SarahMcShea, William J.Moehlman, Patricia D.Smith, Andrew T.Wheeler, Jane C.Butchart, Stuart H. M.2019DOI: info:10.1111/conl.12588Conservation Lettersv. 12No. 1e12588e125881755-263X
McGowan, Philip J. K., Mair, Louise, Symes, Andrew, Westrip, James R. S., Wheatley, Hannah, Brook, Sarah, Burton, James, King, Sarah, McShea, William J., Moehlman, Patricia D., Smith, Andrew T., Wheeler, Jane C., and Butchart, Stuart H. M. 2019. "Tracking trends in the extinction risk of wild relatives of domesticated species to assess progress against global biodiversity targets." Conservation Letters 12 (1):e12588.
ID: 148497
Type: article
Authors: McGowan, Philip J. K.; Mair, Louise; Symes, Andrew; Westrip, James R. S.; Wheatley, Hannah; Brook, Sarah; Burton, James; King, Sarah; McShea, William J.; Moehlman, Patricia D.; Smith, Andrew T.; Wheeler, Jane C.; Butchart, Stuart H. M.
Keywords: NZP
Metabarcoding reveals diet diversity in an ungulate community in ThailandMcShea, William J.Sukmasuang, RonglarpErickson, David L.Herrmann, ValentineNgoprasert, DusitBhumpakphan, NarisDavies, Stuart J.2019DOI: info:10.1111/btp.12720Biotropicav. 51No. 6923937923–9370006-3606
McShea, William J., Sukmasuang, Ronglarp, Erickson, David L., Herrmann, Valentine, Ngoprasert, Dusit, Bhumpakphan, Naris, and Davies, Stuart J. 2019. "Metabarcoding reveals diet diversity in an ungulate community in Thailand." Biotropica 51 (6):923–937.
ID: 153361
Type: article
Authors: McShea, William J.; Sukmasuang, Ronglarp; Erickson, David L.; Herrmann, Valentine; Ngoprasert, Dusit; Bhumpakphan, Naris; Davies, Stuart J.
Keywords: NZP; STRI
Abstract: The diverse large mammal communities found in Asian dry forests and savannas should segregate based on their diet selection. We examined the diet composition of sympatric ungulate species using metabarcoding to determine whether their diet was segregated and whether obvious attributes (i.e., body size, phylogeny, ecology) explained the structure. We collected fecal samples from eight ungulate species in Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary in the western forest complex of Thailand. The fecal collections occurred around a plot where all woody species were codified within a genetic barcode library, and this library was supplemented with samples from plant species known to be consumed by these species. Of 273 plant species tested, at least 93 were found within the fecal samples. Over half of the identified species were not previously known by experts as forage species. All ungulate species showed a strong consumption of grasses and forbs. For the three species with sufficient sample size (sambar, banteng, and guar), there were seasonal differences in their diet, with each showing increased occurrence of woody plants during the dry season. The pattern of forage consumption did not follow obvious paradigms of body size or taxonomy, with significant diet differences found in two similar-sized bovids (gaur, banteng), while the diet of sambar was more similar to bovids than to the other deer species. Asian ungulates differ in their forage consumption and metabarcoding should allow for testing of diet shifts in response to seasonal rains and fires which dominate the phenology of Asian dry forests and savannas.