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EUV imaging and spectroscopy for improved space weather forecastingGolub, LeonCheimets, PeterDeLuca, Edward E.Madsen, Chad A.Reeves, Katharine K.Samra, JennaSavage, SabrinaWinebarger, AmyBruccoleri, Alexander R.DOI: info:10.1051/swsc/2020040v. 10Article 37
Golub, Leon, Cheimets, Peter, DeLuca, Edward E., Madsen, Chad A., Reeves, Katharine K., Samra, Jenna, Savage, Sabrina, Winebarger, Amy, and Bruccoleri, Alexander R. 2020. "EUV imaging and spectroscopy for improved space weather forecasting." Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate 10:Article 37.
ID: 157469
Type: article
Authors: Golub, Leon; Cheimets, Peter; DeLuca, Edward E.; Madsen, Chad A.; Reeves, Katharine K.; Samra, Jenna; Savage, Sabrina; Winebarger, Amy; Bruccoleri, Alexander R.
Abstract: Accurate predictions of harmful space weather effects are mandatory for the protection of astronauts and other assets in space, whether in Earth or lunar orbit, in transit between solar system objects, or on the surface of other planetary bodies. Because the corona is multithermal (i.e., structured not only in space but also in temperature), wavelength-separated data provide crucial information that is not available to imaging methods that integrate over temperature. The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths enable us to focus directly on high temperature coronal plasma associated with solar flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and shocked material without being overwhelmed by intensity from the solar disk. Both wide-field imaging and spectroscopic observations of the solar corona taken from a variety of orbits (e.g., Earth, L1, or L5) using suitably-chosen EUV instrumentation offer the possibility of addressing two major goals to enhance our space weather prediction capability, namely: (1) Improve our understanding of the coronal conditions that control the opening and closing of the corona to the heliosphere and consequent solar wind streams, and (2) Improve our understanding of the physical processes that control the early evolution of CMEs and the formation of shocks, from the solar surface out into the extended corona.
Solar Eclipse Observations from the Ground and Air from 0.31 to 5.5 MicronsJudge, PhilipBerkey, BenBoll, AlyssaBryans, PaulBurkepile, JoanCheimets, PeterDeLuca, Edwardde Toma, GiulianaGibson, KeonGolub, LeonHannigan, JamesMadsen, ChadMarquez, VanessaRichards, AustinSamra, JennaSewell, ScottTomczyk, StevenVera, AlyshaDOI: info:10.1007/s11207-019-1550-3v. 294166
Judge, Philip, Berkey, Ben, Boll, Alyssa, Bryans, Paul, Burkepile, Joan, Cheimets, Peter, DeLuca, Edward, de Toma, Giuliana, Gibson, Keon, Golub, Leon, Hannigan, James, Madsen, Chad, Marquez, Vanessa, Richards, Austin, Samra, Jenna, Sewell, Scott, Tomczyk, Steven, and Vera, Alysha. 2019. "Solar Eclipse Observations from the Ground and Air from 0.31 to 5.5 Microns." Solar Physics 294:166.
ID: 154582
Type: article
Authors: Judge, Philip; Berkey, Ben; Boll, Alyssa; Bryans, Paul; Burkepile, Joan; Cheimets, Peter; DeLuca, Edward; de Toma, Giuliana; Gibson, Keon; Golub, Leon; Hannigan, James; Madsen, Chad; Marquez, Vanessa; Richards, Austin; Samra, Jenna; Sewell, Scott; Tomczyk, Steven; Vera, Alysha
Abstract: We present spectra and broad-band polarized light data from a novel suite of instruments deployed during the 21st August 2017 total solar eclipse. Our goals were to survey solar spectra at thermal infrared wavelengths during eclipse, and to test new technology for measuring polarized coronal light. An infrared coronal imaging spectrometer, flown at 14.3 km altitude above Kentucky, was supported on the ground by observations from Madras, Oregon (elevation 683 m) and Camp Wyoba on Casper Mountain, Wyoming (2402 m). In Wyoming we deployed a new infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS), three low-dispersion spectrometers loaned to us by Avantes, a novel visible-light camera PolarCam, sensitive to linear polarization, and one of two infrared cameras from FLIR Systems, the other operated at Madras. Circumstances of eclipse demanded that the observations spanned 17:19 to 18:26 UT. We analyze spectra of the limb photosphere, the chromosphere, prominences, and coronal lines from 310 nm to 5.5 μm. We calibrated data photometrically using the solar disk as a source. Between different spectrometers, the calibrations were consistent to better than 13%. But the sensitivities achieved were insufficient to detect coronal lines from the ground. The PolarCam data are in remarkable agreement with polarization data from the K-Cor synoptic instrument on Mauna Loa, and with FLIR intensity data acquired in Madras. We discuss new results, including a detection of the He uc(i) 1083 nm multiplet in emission during the whole of totality. The combination of the FTS and AIR-Spec spectra reveals for the first time the effects of the telluric extinction on the infrared coronal emission lines, to be observed with upcoming Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope.
Coronal Plasma Characterization via Coordinated Infrared and Extreme Ultraviolet Observations of a Total Solar EclipseMadsen, Chad A.Samra, Jenna E.Del Zanna, GiulioDeLuca, Edward E.DOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/ab2b3cv. 880No. 2102
Madsen, Chad A., Samra, Jenna E., Del Zanna, Giulio, and DeLuca, Edward E. 2019. "Coronal Plasma Characterization via Coordinated Infrared and Extreme Ultraviolet Observations of a Total Solar Eclipse." The Astrophysical Journal 880 (2):102.
The High-Resolution Coronal Imager, Flight 2.1Rachmeler, Laurel A.Winebarger, Amy R.Savage, Sabrina L.Golub, LeonKobayashi, KenVigil, Genevieve D.Brooks, David H.Cirtain, Jonathan W.De Pontieu, BartMcKenzie, David E.Morton, Richard J.Peter, HardiTesta, PaolaTiwari, Sanjiv K.Walsh, Robert W.Warren, Harry P.Alexander, CarolineAnsell, DarrenBeabout, Brent L.Beabout, Dyana L.Bethge, Christian W.Champey, Patrick R.Cheimets, Peter N.Cooper, Mark A.Creel, Helen K.Gates, RichardGomez, CarlosGuillory, AnthonyHaight, HarlanHogue, William D.Holloway, ToddHyde, David W.Kenyon, RichardMarshall, Joseph N.McCracken, Jeff E.McCracken, KennethMitchell, Karen O.Ordway, MarkOwen, TimRanganathan, JaganRobertson, Bryan A.Payne, M. JaniePodgorski, WilliamPryor, JonathanSamra, JennaSloan, Mark D.Soohoo, Howard A.Steele, D. BrandonThompson, Furman V.Thornton, Gary S.Watkinson, BenjaminWindt, DavidDOI: info:10.1007/s11207-019-1551-2v. 294174
Rachmeler, Laurel A., Winebarger, Amy R., Savage, Sabrina L., Golub, Leon, Kobayashi, Ken, Vigil, Genevieve D., Brooks, David H., Cirtain, Jonathan W., De Pontieu, Bart, McKenzie, David E., Morton, Richard J., Peter, Hardi, Testa, Paola, Tiwari, Sanjiv K., Walsh, Robert W., Warren, Harry P., Alexander, Caroline, Ansell, Darren, Beabout, Brent L., Beabout, Dyana L., Bethge, Christian W., Champey, Patrick R., Cheimets, Peter N., Cooper, Mark A., Creel, Helen K. et al. 2019. "The High-Resolution Coronal Imager, Flight 2.1." Solar Physics 294:174.
ID: 154524
Type: article
Authors: Rachmeler, Laurel A.; Winebarger, Amy R.; Savage, Sabrina L.; Golub, Leon; Kobayashi, Ken; Vigil, Genevieve D.; Brooks, David H.; Cirtain, Jonathan W.; De Pontieu, Bart; McKenzie, David E.; Morton, Richard J.; Peter, Hardi; Testa, Paola; Tiwari, Sanjiv K.; Walsh, Robert W.; Warren, Harry P.; Alexander, Caroline; Ansell, Darren; Beabout, Brent L.; Beabout, Dyana L.; Bethge, Christian W.; Champey, Patrick R.; Cheimets, Peter N.; Cooper, Mark A.; Creel, Helen K.; Gates, Richard; Gomez, Carlos; Guillory, Anthony; Haight, Harlan; Hogue, William D.; Holloway, Todd; Hyde, David W.; Kenyon, Richard; Marshall, Joseph N.; McCracken, Jeff E.; McCracken, Kenneth; Mitchell, Karen O.; Ordway, Mark; Owen, Tim; Ranganathan, Jagan; Robertson, Bryan A.; Payne, M. Janie; Podgorski, William; Pryor, Jonathan; Samra, Jenna; Sloan, Mark D.; Soohoo, Howard A.; Steele, D. Brandon; Thompson, Furman V.; Thornton, Gary S.; Watkinson, Benjamin; Windt, David
Abstract: The third flight of the High-Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C 2.1) occurred on May 29, 2018; the Sounding Rocket was launched from White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. The instrument has been modified from its original configuration (Hi-C 1) to observe the solar corona in a passband that peaks near 172 Å, and uses a new, custom-built low-noise camera. The instrument targeted Active Region 12712, and captured 78 images at a cadence of 4.4 s (18:56:22 - 19:01:57 UT; 5 min and 35 s observing time). The image spatial resolution varies due to quasi- periodic motion blur from the rocket; sharp images contain resolved features of at least 0.47 arcsec. There are coordinated observations from multiple ground- and space-based telescopes providing an unprecedented opportunity to observe the mass and energy coupling between the chromosphere and the corona. Details of the instrument and the data set are presented in this paper.
Erratum: Discovery of New Coronal Lines at 2.843 and 2.853 μm (2018, ApJL, 856, L29)Samra, Jenna E.Judge, Philip G.DeLuca, Edward E.Hannigan, James W.DOI: info:10.3847/2041-8213/ab0ae0v. 873L25
Samra, Jenna E., Judge, Philip G., DeLuca, Edward E., and Hannigan, James W. 2019. "Erratum: "Discovery of New Coronal Lines at 2.843 and 2.853 μm" (2018, ApJL, 856, L29)." The Astrophysical Journal 873:L25.
ID: 155405
Type: article
Authors: Samra, Jenna E.; Judge, Philip G.; DeLuca, Edward E.; Hannigan, James W.
Unfolding Overlapped Slitless Imaging Spectrometer Data for Extended SourcesWinebarger, Amy R.Weber, MarkBethge, ChristianDowns, CooperGolub, LeonDeLuca, EdwardSavage, SabrinaZanna, Giulio delSamra, JennaMadsen, ChadAshraf, AfraCarter, CourtneyDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/ab21dbv. 882No. 112
Winebarger, Amy R., Weber, Mark, Bethge, Christian, Downs, Cooper, Golub, Leon, DeLuca, Edward, Savage, Sabrina, Zanna, Giulio del, Samra, Jenna, Madsen, Chad, Ashraf, Afra, and Carter, Courtney. 2019. "Unfolding Overlapped Slitless Imaging Spectrometer Data for Extended Sources." The Astrophysical Journal 882 (1):12.
ID: 152609
Type: article
Authors: Winebarger, Amy R.; Weber, Mark; Bethge, Christian; Downs, Cooper; Golub, Leon; DeLuca, Edward; Savage, Sabrina; Zanna, Giulio del; Samra, Jenna; Madsen, Chad; Ashraf, Afra; Carter, Courtney
Abstract: Slitless spectrometers can provide simultaneous imaging and spectral data over an extended field of view, thereby allowing rapid data acquisition for extended sources. In some instances, when the object is greatly extended or the spectral dispersion is too small, there may be locations in the focal plane where emission lines at different wavelengths contribute. It is then desirable to unfold the overlapped regions in order to isolate the contributions from the individual wavelengths. In this paper, we describe a method for such an unfolding, using an inversion technique developed for an extreme ultraviolet imaging spectrometer and coronagraph named the COronal Spectroscopic Imager in the EUV (COSIE). The COSIE spectrometer wavelength range (18.6-20.5 nm) contains a number of strong coronal emission lines and several density sensitive lines. We focus on optimizing the unfolding process to retrieve emission measure maps at constant temperature, maps of spectrally pure intensity in the Fe XII and Fe XIII lines, and density maps based on both Fe XII and Fe XIII diagnostics.
Discovery of New Coronal Lines at 2.843 and 2.853 mumSamra, Jenna E.Judge, Philip G.DeLuca, Edward E.Hannigan, James W.DOI: info:10.3847/2041-8213/aab434v. 856L29
Samra, Jenna E., Judge, Philip G., DeLuca, Edward E., and Hannigan, James W. 2018. "Discovery of New Coronal Lines at 2.843 and 2.853 mum." Astrophysical Journal Letters 856:L29.
ID: 147073
Type: article
Authors: Samra, Jenna E.; Judge, Philip G.; DeLuca, Edward E.; Hannigan, James W.
Abstract: Two new emission features were observed during the 2017 August 21 total solar eclipse by a novel spectrometer, the Airborne Infrared Spectrometer (AIR-Spec), flown at 14.3 km altitude aboard the NCAR Gulfstream-V aircraft. We derive wavelengths in air of 2.8427 ± 0.00009 mum and 2.8529 ± 0.00008 mum. One of these lines belongs to the 3{{{p}}}53{{d}}{}3{{{F}}}3^\circ \to 3{{{p}}}53{{d}}{}3{{{F}}}4^\circ transition in Ar-like Fe IX. This appears to be the first detection of this transition from any source. Minimization of residual wavelength differences using both measured wavelengths, together with National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) extreme ultraviolet wavelengths, does not clearly favor assignment to Fe IX. However, the shorter wavelength line appears more consistent with other observed features formed at similar temperatures to Fe IX. The transition occurs between two levels within the excited 3{{{p}}}53{{d}} configuration, 429,000 cm-1 above the ground level. The line is therefore absent in photo-ionized coronal-line astrophysical sources such as the Circinus Galaxy. Data from a Fourier transform interferometer (FTIR) deployed from Wyoming show that both lines are significantly attenuated by telluric H2O, even at dry sites. We have been unable to identify the longer wavelength transition.