Publication Search Results

Search Results

Showing 1-19 of about 19 results.
Coronal Wave Trains and Plasma Heating Triggered by Turbulence in the Wake of a CMEYe, JingCai, QiangweiShen, ChengcaiRaymond, John C.Mei, ZhixingLi, YanLin, JunDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/abdeb5v. 90945
Ye, Jing, Cai, Qiangwei, Shen, Chengcai, Raymond, John C., Mei, Zhixing, Li, Yan, and Lin, Jun. 2021. "Coronal Wave Trains and Plasma Heating Triggered by Turbulence in the Wake of a CME." The Astrophysical Journal 909:45. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/abdeb5
ID: 159341
Type: article
Authors: Ye, Jing; Cai, Qiangwei; Shen, Chengcai; Raymond, John C.; Mei, Zhixing; Li, Yan; Lin, Jun
Abstract: Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence plays an important role for the fast energy release and wave structures related to coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The CME plasma has been observed to be strongly heated during solar eruptions, but the heating mechanism is not understood. In this paper, we focus on the hot, dense region at the bottom of the CME and the generation of coronal wave trains therein using a high-resolution 2.5D MHD simulation. Our results show that the interaction between the tearing current sheet and the turbulence, including the termination shocks (TSs) at the bottom of the CME, can make a significant contribution to heating the CME, and the heating rate in this region is found to be greater than the kinetic energy transfer rate. Also, the turbulence can be somewhat amplified by the TSs. The compression ratio of the TS under the CME can exceed 4 due to thermal conduction, but such a strong TS is hardly detectable in all Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly bands. And turbulence is an indispensable source for the periodic generation of coronal wave trains around the CME.
Measurement of magnetic field and relativistic electrons along a solar flare current sheetChen, BinShen, ChengcaiGary, Dale E.Reeves, Katharine K.Fleishman, Gregory D.Yu, SijieGuo, FanKrucker, SämLin, JunNita, Gelu M.Kong, XiangliangDOI: info:10.1038/s41550-020-1147-7v. 41140–1147
Chen, Bin, Shen, Chengcai, Gary, Dale E., Reeves, Katharine K., Fleishman, Gregory D., Yu, Sijie, Guo, Fan, Krucker, Säm, Lin, Jun, Nita, Gelu M., and Kong, Xiangliang. 2020. "Measurement of magnetic field and relativistic electrons along a solar flare current sheet." Nature Astronomy 4:1140– 1147. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41550-020-1147-7
ID: 158872
Type: article
Authors: Chen, Bin; Shen, Chengcai; Gary, Dale E.; Reeves, Katharine K.; Fleishman, Gregory D.; Yu, Sijie; Guo, Fan; Krucker, Säm; Lin, Jun; Nita, Gelu M.; Kong, Xiangliang
Abstract: In the standard model of solar flares, a large-scale reconnection current sheet is postulated to be the central engine for powering the flare energy release1-3 and accelerating particles4-6. However, where and how the energy release and particle acceleration occur remain unclear owing to the lack of measurements of the magnetic properties of the current sheet. Here we report the measurement of the spatially resolved magnetic field and flare-accelerated relativistic electrons along a current-sheet feature in a solar flare. The measured magnetic field profile shows a local maximum where the reconnecting field lines of opposite polarities closely approach each other, known as the reconnection X point. The measurements also reveal a local minimum near the bottom of the current sheet above the flare loop-top, referred to as a `magnetic bottle'. This spatial structure agrees with theoretical predictions1,7 and numerical modelling results. A strong reconnection electric field of about 4,000 V m-1 is inferred near the X point. This location, however, shows a local depletion of microwave-emitting relativistic electrons. These electrons instead concentrate at or near the magnetic bottle structure, where more than 99% of them reside at each instant. Our observations suggest that the loop-top magnetic bottle is probably the primary site for accelerating and confining the relativistic electrons.
Dynamical Modulation of Solar Flare Electron Acceleration due to Plasmoid-shock Interactions in the Looptop RegionKong, XiangliangGuo, FanShen, ChengcaiChen, BinChen, YaoGiacalone, JoeDOI: info:10.3847/2041-8213/abcbf5v. 905L16
Kong, Xiangliang, Guo, Fan, Shen, Chengcai, Chen, Bin, Chen, Yao, and Giacalone, Joe. 2020. "Dynamical Modulation of Solar Flare Electron Acceleration due to Plasmoid-shock Interactions in the Looptop Region." The Astrophysical Journal 905:L16. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/abcbf5
ID: 158762
Type: article
Authors: Kong, Xiangliang; Guo, Fan; Shen, Chengcai; Chen, Bin; Chen, Yao; Giacalone, Joe
Abstract: A fast-mode shock can form in the front of reconnection outflows and has been suggested as a promising site for particle acceleration in solar flares. Recent developments in the study of magnetic reconnection have shown that numerous plasmoids can be produced in a large-scale current layer. Here we investigate the dynamical modulation of electron acceleration in the looptop region when plasmoids intermittently arrive at the shock by combining magnetohydrodynamics simulations with a particle kinetic model. As plasmoids interact with the shock, the looptop region exhibits various compressible structures that modulate the production of energetic electrons. The energetic electron population varies rapidly in both time and space. The number of 5-10 keV electrons correlates well with the compression area, while that of >50 keV electrons shows good correlation with the strong compression area but only moderate correlation with shock parameters. We further examine the impacts of the first plasmoid, which marks the transition from a quasi-steady shock front to a distorted and dynamical shock. The number of energetic electrons is reduced by ˜20% at 15-25 keV and nearly 40% for 25-50 keV, while the number of 5-10 keV electrons increases. In addition, the electron energy spectrum above 10 keV evolves softer with time. We also find that double or even multiple distinct sources can develop in the looptop region when the plasmoids move across the shock. Our simulations have strong implications to the interpretation of nonthermal looptop sources, as well as the commonly observed fast temporal variations in flare emissions, including the quasi-periodic pulsations.
The Role of Turbulence for Heating Plasmas in Eruptive Solar FlaresYe, JingCai, QiangweiShen, ChengcaiRaymond, John C.Lin, JunRoussev, Ilia I.Mei, ZhixingDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/ab93b5v. 89764
Ye, Jing, Cai, Qiangwei, Shen, Chengcai, Raymond, John C., Lin, Jun, Roussev, Ilia I., and Mei, Zhixing. 2020. "The Role of Turbulence for Heating Plasmas in Eruptive Solar Flares." The Astrophysical Journal 897:64. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab93b5
ID: 157647
Type: article
Authors: Ye, Jing; Cai, Qiangwei; Shen, Chengcai; Raymond, John C.; Lin, Jun; Roussev, Ilia I.; Mei, Zhixing
Abstract: Magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is ubiquitous in the process of solar eruptions, and it is crucial for the fast release of energy and the formation of complex thermal structures that have been found in observations. In this paper, we focus on the turbulence in two specific regions: inside the current sheet (CS) and above the flare loops, considering the standard flare model. The gravitationally stratified solar atmosphere is used in MHD simulations, which include the Lundquist number of S = 106, thermal conduction, and radiative cooling. The numerical results are generally consistent with previous simulation work, especially the thermal structures and reconnection rate in flare phases. We can observe the formation of multiple termination shocks (TSs) as well as plasmoid collisions, which make the region above the loop-top more turbulent and heat plasmas to the higher temperature. The spectrum studies show that the property of the MHD turbulence inside the CS is anisotropic, while it is quasi-isotropic above the loop-top. The magnetic spectrum becomes softer when the plasmoids interact with the multiple TSs. Meanwhile, synthetic images and light curves of the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly 94, 131, 171, 304, and 193 Å channels show intermittent radiation enhancement by turbulence above the loop-top. The spectrum study of the radiation intensity in these five wavelengths gives quite different power indices at the same time. In particular, quasiperiodic pulsations (QPPs) in the turbulent region above the loop-top are investigated, and we also confirm that the heating for plasmas via turbulence is an important contributor to the source of QPPs.
Multiband Study of a Bidirectional Jet Occurred in the Upper ChromosphereCai, QiangweiShen, ChengcaiNi, LeiReeves, Katharine K.Kang, KaifengLin, JunDOI: info:10.1029/2019JA027017v. 1249824–9846
Cai, Qiangwei, Shen, Chengcai, Ni, Lei, Reeves, Katharine K., Kang, Kaifeng, and Lin, Jun. 2019. "Multiband Study of a Bidirectional Jet Occurred in the Upper Chromosphere." Journal of Geophysical Research (Space Physics) 124:9824– 9846. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019JA027017
ID: 155110
Type: article
Authors: Cai, Qiangwei; Shen, Chengcai; Ni, Lei; Reeves, Katharine K.; Kang, Kaifeng; Lin, Jun
Abstract: We present a study of a jet observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS), which provide high spatial-temporal resolution observational data of (extreme) ultraviolet images, spectra, and magnetograms. The jet was observed in multiple bands of AIA and manifested clear bidirectional flows in IRIS observations. The emission profiles of the Si IV 1402 Å line of the jet exhibited non-Gaussian features and double-peaked spectra, with the Doppler velocity and the nonthermal velocity up to 100 and 160 km s-1, respectively. The plasma flows of the jet projected on the sky plane and in the line of sight (LOS) are the typical observational evidence of magnetic reconnection. The EM loci curves indicated that the plasma contains multi-temperature components. The result deduced from the DEM method and changes in intensity of several spectral lines imply that the temperature of the plasma in the jet is heated to at least 105.6 K. The electron density is about 1011 cm-3 according to the intensity ratios of the O IV 1399.77/1401.16 Å doublet and Si IV 1402.77/O IV 1401.16 Å lines. Via different approaches, we reached the conclusion that the jet occurred in the upper chromosphere. Investigating the magnetograms in the period when the jet appeared, we suggest that the jet results from the magnetic reconnection between the moving magnetic structure and the magnetic field nearby.
Investigations of a supra-arcade fan and termination shock above the top of the flare-loop system of the 2017 September 10 eventCai, QiangweiShen, ChengcaiRaymond, John C.Mei, ZhixingWarmuth, AlexanderRoussev, Ilia I.Lin, JunDOI: info:10.1093/mnras/stz2167v. 4893183–3199
Cai, Qiangwei, Shen, Chengcai, Raymond, John C., Mei, Zhixing, Warmuth, Alexander, Roussev, Ilia I., and Lin, Jun. 2019. "Investigations of a supra-arcade fan and termination shock above the top of the flare-loop system of the 2017 September 10 event." Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 489:3183– 3199. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stz2167
ID: 154571
Type: article
Authors: Cai, Qiangwei; Shen, Chengcai; Raymond, John C.; Mei, Zhixing; Warmuth, Alexander; Roussev, Ilia I.; Lin, Jun
Abstract: On 2017 September 10, a major eruption on the west solar limb produced a class X-8.2 flare and a superfast coronal mass ejection (CME). During the eruptive process, the geometric topology of the erupting magnetic configuration presented a clear flare-current sheet (CS)-CME structure. Analysing the images and spectral data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA), the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) and Hinode/EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS), we studied the supra-arcade fan (SAF) region between the bottom of the CS and the top of the flare loops in the south part of the erupting configuration. Our results indicated that the SAF contained hot plasma of temperature up to 107 K and mean electron density 3.5 × 10^9 {cm^{-3}} and the fast variation component (FVC) of the SAF light curve shown by the IRIS slit-jaw images (SJI) displayed a quasi-periodic oscillating feature with a period of 76.8 s. We utilized the ATHENA code to simulate the detailed evolutionary features of the magnetic structure of a typical two-ribbon flare. The numerical experiments duplicate the observational features in many respects, including the spatial distribution and evolution in the structure of the plasma and magnetic field, the turbulence and the termination shock (TS) in the SAF. Our results suggest that the SAF is a high-temperature structure that possibly contains the TS.
Radio Spectroscopic Imaging of a Solar Flare Termination Shock: Split-band Feature as Evidence for Shock CompressionChen, BinShen, ChengcaiReeves, Katharine K.Guo, FanYu, SijieDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/ab3c58v. 88463
Chen, Bin, Shen, Chengcai, Reeves, Katharine K., Guo, Fan, and Yu, Sijie. 2019. "Radio Spectroscopic Imaging of a Solar Flare Termination Shock: Split-band Feature as Evidence for Shock Compression." The Astrophysical Journal 884:63. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab3c58
ID: 154702
Type: article
Authors: Chen, Bin; Shen, Chengcai; Reeves, Katharine K.; Guo, Fan; Yu, Sijie
Abstract: Solar flare termination shocks have been suggested as one of the promising drivers for particle acceleration in solar flares, yet observational evidence remains rare. By utilizing radio dynamic spectroscopic imaging of decimetric stochastic spike bursts in an eruptive flare, Chen et al. found that the bursts form a dynamic surface-like feature located at the ending points of fast plasma downflows above the looptop, interpreted as a flare termination shock. One piece of observational evidence that strongly supports the termination shock interpretation is the occasional split of the emission band into two finer lanes in frequency, similar to the split-band feature seen in fast-coronal-shock-driven type II radio bursts. Here, we perform spatially, spectrally, and temporally resolved analysis of the split-band feature of the flare termination shock event. We find that the ensemble of the radio centroids from the two split-band lanes each outlines a nearly co-spatial surface. The high-frequency lane is located slightly below its low-frequency counterpart by ̃0.8 Mm, which strongly supports the shock-upstream-downstream interpretation. Under this scenario, the density compression ratio across the shock front can be inferred from the frequency split, which implies a shock with a Mach number of up to 2.0. Further, the spatiotemporal evolution of the density compression along the shock front agrees favorably with results from magnetohydrodynamics simulations. We conclude that the detailed variations of the shock compression ratio may be due to the impact of dynamic plasma structures in the reconnection outflows, which results in distortion of the shock front.
The Acceleration and Confinement of Energetic Electrons by a Termination Shock in a Magnetic Trap: An Explanation for Nonthermal Loop-top Sources during Solar FlaresKong, XiangliangGuo, FanShen, ChengcaiChen, BinChen, YaoMusset, SophieGlesener, LindsayPongkitiwanichakul, PeeraGiacalone, JoeDOI: info:10.3847/2041-8213/ab5f67v. 887L37
Kong, Xiangliang, Guo, Fan, Shen, Chengcai, Chen, Bin, Chen, Yao, Musset, Sophie, Glesener, Lindsay, Pongkitiwanichakul, Peera, and Giacalone, Joe. 2019. "The Acceleration and Confinement of Energetic Electrons by a Termination Shock in a Magnetic Trap: An Explanation for Nonthermal Loop-top Sources during Solar Flares." The Astrophysical Journal 887:L37. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/ab5f67
ID: 154555
Type: article
Authors: Kong, Xiangliang; Guo, Fan; Shen, Chengcai; Chen, Bin; Chen, Yao; Musset, Sophie; Glesener, Lindsay; Pongkitiwanichakul, Peera; Giacalone, Joe
Abstract: Nonthermal loop-top sources in solar flares are the most prominent observational signatures that suggest energy release and particle acceleration in the solar corona. Although several scenarios for particle acceleration have been proposed, the origin of the loop-top sources remains unclear. Here we present a model that combines a large- scale magnetohydrodynamic simulation of a two-ribbon flare with a particle acceleration and transport model for investigating electron acceleration by a fast-mode termination shock (TS) at the loop top. Our model provides spatially resolved electron distribution that evolves in response to the dynamic flare geometry. We find a concave-downward magnetic structure located below the flare TS, induced by the fast reconnection downflows. It acts as a magnetic trap to confine the electrons at the loop top for an extended period of time. The electrons are energized significantly as they cross the shock front, and eventually build up a power-law energy spectrum extending to hundreds of kiloelectron volts. We suggest that this particle acceleration and transport scenario driven by a flare TS is a viable interpretation for the observed nonthermal loop-top sources.
Nonequilibrium Ionization Effects on Solar EUV and X-Ray Imaging ObservationsLee, Jin-YiRaymond, John C.Reeves, Katharine K.Shen, ChengcaiMoon, Yong-JaeKim, Yeon-HanDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/ab24bbv. 879111
Lee, Jin-Yi, Raymond, John C., Reeves, Katharine K., Shen, Chengcai, Moon, Yong-Jae, and Kim, Yeon-Han. 2019. "Nonequilibrium Ionization Effects on Solar EUV and X-Ray Imaging Observations." The Astrophysical Journal 879:111. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab24bb
ID: 154153
Type: article
Authors: Lee, Jin-Yi; Raymond, John C.; Reeves, Katharine K.; Shen, Chengcai; Moon, Yong-Jae; Kim, Yeon-Han
Abstract: During transient events such as major solar eruptions, the plasma can be far from the equilibrium ionization state because of rapid heating or cooling. Nonequilibrium ionization (NEI) is important in rapidly evolving systems where the thermodynamical timescale is shorter than the ionization or recombination timescales. We investigate the effects of NEI on EUV and X-ray observations by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory and X-ray Telescope (XRT) on board Hinode. Our model assumes that the plasma is initially in ionization equilibrium at low temperature, and it is heated rapidly by a shock or magnetic reconnection. We tabulate the responses of the AIA and XRT passbands as functions of temperature and a characteristic timescale, n e t. We find that most of the ions reach equilibrium at n e t ≤ 1012 cm-3 s. Comparing ratios of the responses between different passbands allows us to determine whether a combination of plasmas at temperatures in ionization equilibrium can account for a given AIA and XRT observation. It also expresses how far the observed plasma is from equilibrium ionization. We apply the ratios to a supra-arcade plasma sheet on 2012 January 27. We find that the closer the plasma is to the arcade, the closer it is to a single-temperature plasma in ionization equilibrium. We also utilize the set of responses to estimate the temperature and density for shocked plasma associated with a coronal mass ejection on 2010 June 13. The temperature and density ranges we obtain are in reasonable agreement with previous works.
Ion Charge States in a Time-Dependent Wave-Turbulence-Driven Model of the Solar WindLionello, RobertoDowns, CooperLinker, Jon A.Mikić, ZoranRaymond, JohnShen, ChengcaiVelli, MarcoDOI: info:10.1007/s11207-019-1401-2v. 29413
Lionello, Roberto, Downs, Cooper, Linker, Jon A., Mikić, Zoran, Raymond, John, Shen, Chengcai, and Velli, Marco. 2019. "Ion Charge States in a Time-Dependent Wave-Turbulence-Driven Model of the Solar Wind." Solar Physics 294:13. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11207-019-1401-2
ID: 155459
Type: article
Authors: Lionello, Roberto; Downs, Cooper; Linker, Jon A.; Mikić, Zoran; Raymond, John; Shen, Chengcai; Velli, Marco
Abstract: Ion fractional charge states, measured in situ in the heliosphere, depend on the properties of the plasma in the inner corona. As the ions travel outward in the solar wind and the electron density drops, the charge states remain essentially unaltered or "frozen in". Thus they can provide a powerful constraint on heating models of the corona and acceleration of the solar wind. We have implemented non-equilibrium ionization calculations into a 1D wave-turbulence-driven (WTD) hydrodynamic solar wind model and compared modeled charge states with the Ulysses 1994 - 1995 in situ measurements. We have found that modeled charge-state ratios of C^{6+}/C^{5+} and O^{7+}/O^{6+}, among others, were too low compared with Ulysses measurements. However, a heuristic reduction of the plasma flow speed has been able to bring the modeled results in line with observations, though other ideas have been proposed to address this discrepancy. We discuss implications of our results and the prospect of including ion charge-state calculations into our 3D MHD model of the inner heliosphere.
Numerical study of the cascading energy conversion of the reconnection current sheet in solar eruptionsYe, JingShen, ChengcaiRaymond, John C.Lin, JunZiegler, UdoDOI: info:10.1093/mnras/sty2716v. 482588–605
Ye, Jing, Shen, Chengcai, Raymond, John C., Lin, Jun, and Ziegler, Udo. 2019. "Numerical study of the cascading energy conversion of the reconnection current sheet in solar eruptions." Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 482:588– 605. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/sty2716
ID: 150445
Type: article
Authors: Ye, Jing; Shen, Chengcai; Raymond, John C.; Lin, Jun; Ziegler, Udo
Abstract: Magnetic reconnection plays an important role in the energy conversion during solar eruptions. In this work, we present a resistive magnetohydrodynamical study (2.5D) of a flux rope eruption based on the Lin and Forbes model regarding cascading reconnection. We use a second-order Godunov scheme code, to better understand the physical mechanisms responsible for high reconnection rates and the internal structure, particularly in chaotic or turbulent regions, of the coronal mass ejection (CME)/flare current sheet (CS). Two sets of simulations with Lundquist numbers of 1.18 × 105 and 2.35 × 105 in the vicinity of the CS, generating a slow CME and a moderate one, show global dynamic features largely consistent with the flare model. Looking into the fine structure of the CS, magnetic reconnection employs simultaneously the Sweet-Parker mode and time-dependent small-scale Petschek patterns in the early stage. As the flux rope rises, the outflow region becomes turbulent, which further enhances the reconnection rates. Our results show that coalescence and fusion processes of plasmoids provide a large number of small, transient local diffusion regions to dissipate magnetic energy, and confirm that the dissipation starts at macro-MHD scales rather than ion inertial lengths. The two runs have the same range of the local reconnection rates (10-4-0.3) relevant to CMEs. The fast rates are closely proportional to the square of the aspect ratio of multiple small-scale CSs. The topology of the magnetic field and the turbulence spectrum of the energy cascade are statistically addressed as well.
The Dynamical Behavior of Reconnection-driven Termination Shocks in Solar Flares: Magnetohydrodynamic SimulationsShen, ChengcaiKong, XiangliangGuo, FanRaymond, John C.Chen, BinDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/aaeed3v. 869116
Shen, Chengcai, Kong, Xiangliang, Guo, Fan, Raymond, John C., and Chen, Bin. 2018. "The Dynamical Behavior of Reconnection-driven Termination Shocks in Solar Flares: Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations." The Astrophysical Journal 869:116. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aaeed3
ID: 150219
Type: article
Authors: Shen, Chengcai; Kong, Xiangliang; Guo, Fan; Raymond, John C.; Chen, Bin
Abstract: In eruptive solar flares, termination shocks (TSs), formed when high-speed reconnection outflows collide with closed dense flaring loops, are believed to be one of the possible candidates for plasma heating and particle acceleration. In this work, we perform resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations in a classic Kopp–Pneuman flare configuration to study the formation and evolution of TSs, and we analyze in detail the dynamic features of TSs and variations of the shock strength in space and time. This research focuses on the fast-reconnection phase when plasmoids form and produce small-scale structures inside the flare current sheet. It is found that the TS emerges once the downward outflow colliding with closed magnetic loops becomes supermagnetosonic and immediately becomes highly dynamical. The morphology of a TS can be flat, oblique, or curved depending on the detailed interactions between the outflows/plasmoids and the highly dynamic plasma in the loop-top region. The TS becomes weaker when a plasmoid is crossing through, or may even be destroyed by well-developed plasmoids and then reconstructed above the plasmoids. We also perform detailed statistical analysis on important physical quantities along and across the shock front. The density and temperature ratios range from 1 to 3 across the TS front, and the pressure ratio typically has larger values up to 10. We show that weak guide fields do not strongly affect the Mach number and compression ratios, and the TS length becomes slightly larger in the case with thermal conduction.
Time-dependent Ionization in a Steady Flow in an MHD Model of the Solar Corona and WindShen, ChengcaiRaymond, John C.Mikic, ZoranLinker, Jon A.Reeves, Katharine K.Murphy, Nicholas A.DOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/aa93f3v. 85026
Shen, Chengcai, Raymond, John C., Mikic, Zoran, Linker, Jon A., Reeves, Katharine K., and Murphy, Nicholas A. 2017. "Time-dependent Ionization in a Steady Flow in an MHD Model of the Solar Corona and Wind." The Astrophysical Journal 850:26. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa93f3
ID: 144807
Type: article
Authors: Shen, Chengcai; Raymond, John C.; Mikic, Zoran; Linker, Jon A.; Reeves, Katharine K.; Murphy, Nicholas A.
Abstract: Time-dependent ionization is important for diagnostics of coronal streamers and pseudostreamers. We describe time-dependent ionization calculations for a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of the solar corona and inner heliosphere. We analyze how non-equilibrium ionization (NEI) influences emission from a pseudostreamer during the Whole Sun Month interval (Carrington rotation CR1913, 1996 August 22 to September 18). We use a time-dependent code to calculate NEI states, based on the plasma temperature, density, velocity, and magnetic field in the MHD model, to obtain the synthetic emissivities and predict the intensities of the Ly?, O VI, Mg x, and Si xii emission lines observed by the SOHO/Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS). At low coronal heights, the predicted intensity profiles of both Ly? and O VI lines match UVCS observations well, but the Mg x and Si xii emission are predicted to be too bright. At larger heights, the O VI and Mg x lines are predicted to be brighter for NEI than equilibrium ionization around this pseudostreamer, and Si xii is predicted to be fainter for NEI cases. The differences of predicted UVCS intensities between NEI and equilibrium ionization are around a factor of 2, but neither matches the observed intensity distributions along the full length of the UVCS slit. Variations in elemental abundances in closed field regions due to the gravitational settling and the FIP effect may significantly contribute to the predicted uncertainty. The assumption of Maxwellian electron distributions and errors in the magnetic field on the solar surface may also have notable effects on the mismatch between observations and model predictions.
Particle acceleration by a solar flare termination shockChen, BinBastian, Timothy S.Shen, ChengcaiGary, Dale E.Krucker, SämGlesener, LindsayDOI: info:10.1126/science.aac8467v. 3501238–1242
Chen, Bin, Bastian, Timothy S., Shen, Chengcai, Gary, Dale E., Krucker, Säm, and Glesener, Lindsay. 2015. "Particle acceleration by a solar flare termination shock." Science 350:1238– 1242. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aac8467
ID: 138562
Type: article
Authors: Chen, Bin; Bastian, Timothy S.; Shen, Chengcai; Gary, Dale E.; Krucker, Säm; Glesener, Lindsay
Abstract: Solar flares—the most powerful explosions in the solar system—are also efficient particle accelerators, capable of energizing a large number of charged particles to relativistic speeds. A termination shock is often invoked in the standard model of solar flares as a possible driver for particle acceleration, yet its existence and role have remained controversial. We present observations of a solar flare termination shock and trace its morphology and dynamics using high-cadence radio imaging spectroscopy. We show that a disruption of the shock coincides with an abrupt reduction of the energetic electron population. The observed properties of the shock are well reproduced by simulations. These results strongly suggest that a termination shock is responsible, at least in part, for accelerating energetic electrons in solar flares.
Review on Current Sheets in CME Development: Theories and ObservationsLin, JunMurphy, Nicholas A.Shen, ChengcaiRaymond, John C.Reeves, Katharine K.Zhong, JiayongWu, NingLi, YanDOI: info:10.1007/s11214-015-0209-0v. 194237–302
Lin, Jun, Murphy, Nicholas A., Shen, Chengcai, Raymond, John C., Reeves, Katharine K., Zhong, Jiayong, Wu, Ning, and Li, Yan. 2015. "Review on Current Sheets in CME Development: Theories and Observations." Space Science Reviews 194:237– 302. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-015-0209-0
ID: 140506
Type: article
Authors: Lin, Jun; Murphy, Nicholas A.; Shen, Chengcai; Raymond, John C.; Reeves, Katharine K.; Zhong, Jiayong; Wu, Ning; Li, Yan
Abstract: We introduce how the catastrophe model for solar eruptions predicted the formation and development of the long current sheet (CS) and how the observations were used to recognize the CS at the place where the CS is presumably located. Then, we discuss the direct measurement of the CS region thickness by studying the brightness distribution of the CS region at different wavelengths. The thickness ranges from 104 km to about 105 km at heights between 0.27 and 1.16 R_{?} from the solar surface. But the traditional theory indicates that the CS is as thin as the proton Larmor radius, which is of order tens of meters in the corona. We look into the huge difference in the thickness between observations and theoretical expectations. The possible impacts that affect measurements and results are studied, and physical causes leading to a thick CS region in which reconnection can still occur at a reasonably fast rate are analyzed. Studies in both theories and observations suggest that the difference between the true value and the apparent value of the CS thickness is not significant as long as the CS could be recognised in observations. We review observations that show complex structures and flows inside the CS region and present recent numerical modelling results on some aspects of these structures. Both observations and numerical experiments indicate that the downward reconnection outflows are usually slower than the upward ones in the same eruptive event. Numerical simulations show that the complex structure inside CS and its temporal behavior as a result of turbulence and the Petschek-type slow-mode shock could probably account for the thick CS and fast reconnection. But whether the CS itself is that thick still remains unknown since, for the time being, we cannot measure the electric current directly in that region. We also review the most recent laboratory experiments of reconnection driven by energetic laser beams, and discuss some important topics for future works.
Non-equilibrium Ionization Modeling of the Current Sheet in a Simulated Solar EruptionShen, ChengcaiReeves, Katharine K.Raymond, John C.Murphy, Nicholas A.Ko, Yuan-KuenLin, JunMikic, ZoranLinker, Jon A.DOI: info:10.1088/0004-637X/773/2/110v. 773110
Shen, Chengcai, Reeves, Katharine K., Raymond, John C., Murphy, Nicholas A., Ko, Yuan-Kuen, Lin, Jun, Mikic, Zoran, and Linker, Jon A. 2013. "Non-equilibrium Ionization Modeling of the Current Sheet in a Simulated Solar Eruption." The Astrophysical Journal 773:110. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/773/2/110
ID: 116798
Type: article
Authors: Shen, Chengcai; Reeves, Katharine K.; Raymond, John C.; Murphy, Nicholas A.; Ko, Yuan-Kuen; Lin, Jun; Mikic, Zoran; Linker, Jon A.
Abstract: The current sheet that extends from the top of flare loops and connects to an associated flux rope is a common structure in models of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). To understand the observational properties of CME current sheets, we generated predictions from a flare/CME model to be compared with observations. We use a simulation of a large-scale CME current sheet previously reported by Reeves et al. This simulation includes ohmic and coronal heating, thermal conduction, and radiative cooling in the energy equation. Using the results of this simulation, we perform time-dependent ionization calculations of the flow in a CME current sheet and construct two-dimensional spatial distributions of ionic charge states for multiple chemical elements. We use the filter responses from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory and the predicted intensities of emission lines to compute the count rates for each of the AIA bands. The results show differences in the emission line intensities between equilibrium and non-equilibrium ionization. The current sheet plasma is underionized at low heights and overionized at large heights. At low heights in the current sheet, the intensities of the AIA 94 Å and 131 Å channels are lower for non-equilibrium ionization than for equilibrium ionization. At large heights, these intensities are higher for non-equilibrium ionization than for equilibrium ionization inside the current sheet. The assumption of ionization equilibrium would lead to a significant underestimate of the temperature low in the current sheet and overestimate at larger heights. We also calculate the intensities of ultraviolet lines and predict emission features to be compared with events from the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, including a low-intensity region around the current sheet corresponding to this model.
Numerical Experiments on Fine Structure within Reconnecting Current Sheets in Solar FlaresShen, ChengcaiLin, JunMurphy, Nicholas A.DOI: info:10.1088/0004-637X/737/1/14v. 737No. 114
Shen, Chengcai, Lin, Jun, and Murphy, Nicholas A. 2011. "Numerical Experiments on Fine Structure within Reconnecting Current Sheets in Solar Flares." The Astrophysical Journal 737 (1):14. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/737/1/14
ID: 102299
Type: article
Authors: Shen, Chengcai; Lin, Jun; Murphy, Nicholas A.
Abstract: We perform resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations to study the internal structure of current sheets that form during solar eruptions. The simulations start with a vertical current sheet in mechanical and thermal equilibrium that separates two regions of the magnetic field with opposite polarity which are line-tied at the lower boundary representing the photosphere. Reconnection commences gradually due to an initially imposed perturbation, but becomes faster when plasmoids form and produce small-scale structures inside the current sheet. These structures include magnetic islands or plasma blobs flowing in both directions along the sheet, and X-points between pairs of adjacent islands. Among these X-points, a principal one exists at which the reconnection rate reaches maximum. A fluid stagnation point (S-point) in the sheet appeared where the reconnection outflow bifurcates. The S-point and the principal X-point (PX-point) are not co-located in space though they are very close to one another. Their relative positions alternate as reconnection progresses and determine the direction of motion of individual magnetic islands. Newly formed islands move upward
The SHASTA Code Modified by Self-adaptive Mesh and Numerical Experiment of Magnetic ReconnectionsShen, Cheng-CaiLin, Junv. 34288–304
Shen, Cheng-Cai and Lin, Jun. 2010. "The SHASTA Code Modified by Self-adaptive Mesh and Numerical Experiment of Magnetic Reconnections." Chinese Astronomy and Astrophysics 34:288– 304.
ID: 92227
Type: article
Authors: Shen, Cheng-Cai; Lin, Jun
Abstract: SHASTA (Sharp and Smooth Transport Algorithm) is a code with single mesh to solve the 2-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. When SHASTA is used to the numerical simulation of magnetic reconnection problem, it is modified to be the code which adopts the method of the selfadaptive mesh. The modified code can carry out refined calculations in diffusion regions. In the process of the self-adaptive calculations with SHASTA, a "plugand-play" strategy is adopted and the original algorithm to solve 2-dimensional MHD partial differential equations is treated as an independent cell. In addition, the hierarchical data structure is used in this modification and parameters in each refined level are described by a 2-dimensional variable array. The regions where the distributions of magnetic field and pressure exhibit steep variations are marked as the refined regions. Then, the distributions of physical quantities and the boundary conditions in the grid points of refined levels are deduced via interpolation method. Finally, the refined calculated results of refined regions are assigned to the previous level of mesh and the existing results are updated. The numerical experiment of magnetic reconnections which adopts refined calculations indicates that compared with the code with single mesh, the resolution of details is improved and the corresponding increment of computing time is related to the selection of parameters in the simulation. The calculation accuracy and effect on instability, which are caused by a part of the self-adaptive code, depend on the boundary settings, push strategy over each single step as well as the interpolation algorithm.
Numerical Experiments of Wave-like Phenomena Caused by the Disruption of an Unstable Magnetic ConfigurationWang, HongjuanShen, ChengcaiLin, JunDOI: info:10.1088/0004-637X/700/2/1716v. 7001716–1731
Wang, Hongjuan, Shen, Chengcai, and Lin, Jun. 2009. "Numerical Experiments of Wave-like Phenomena Caused by the Disruption of an Unstable Magnetic Configuration." The Astrophysical Journal 700:1716– 1731. https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/700/2/1716
ID: 80095
Type: article
Authors: Wang, Hongjuan; Shen, Chengcai; Lin, Jun