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PSR J1709-4429's Proper Motion and Its Relationship to SNR G343.1-2.3de Vries, MartijnRomani, Roger W.Kargaltsev, OlegPavlov, GeorgePosselt, BettinaSlane, PatrickBucciantini, Niccolo'Ng, C. -YKlingler, NoelDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/abcebev. 90850
de Vries, Martijn, Romani, Roger W., Kargaltsev, Oleg, Pavlov, George, Posselt, Bettina, Slane, Patrick, Bucciantini, Niccolo', Ng, C. -Y, and Klingler, Noel. 2021. "PSR J1709-4429's Proper Motion and Its Relationship to SNR G343.1-2.3." The Astrophysical Journal 908:50. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/abcebe
ID: 159620
Type: article
Authors: de Vries, Martijn; Romani, Roger W.; Kargaltsev, Oleg; Pavlov, George; Posselt, Bettina; Slane, Patrick; Bucciantini, Niccolo'; Ng, C. -Y; Klingler, Noel
Abstract: We have obtained a deep (670 ks) CXO ACIS image of the remarkable pulsar wind nebula (PWN) of PSR J1709-4429, in four epochs during 2018-2019. Comparison with an archival 2004 data set provides a pulsar proper motion μ = 13 ± 3 mas yr-1 at a PA of 86° ± 9° (1σ combined statistical and systematic uncertainties), precluding birth near the center of SNR G343.1-2.3. At the pulsar's characteristic age of 17 kyr, the association can be preserved through a combination of progenitor wind, birth kick, and PWN outflow. Associated TeV emission may, however, indicate an explosion in an earlier supernova. Inter-epoch comparison of the X-ray images shows that the PWN is dynamic, but we are unable to conclusively measure flow speeds from blob motion. The pulsar has generated a radio/X-ray wind bubble, and we argue that the PWN's long narrow jets are swept back by shocked pulsar wind venting from this cavity. These jets may trace the polar magnetic field lines of the PWN flow, an interesting challenge for numerical modeling.
Uncovering Magnetic Turbulence in Young Supernova Remnants with Polarized X-Ray ImagingBykov, Andrei M.Uvarov, Yury A.Slane, PatrickEllison, Donald C.DOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/aba960v. 899142
Bykov, Andrei M., Uvarov, Yury A., Slane, Patrick, and Ellison, Donald C. 2020. "Uncovering Magnetic Turbulence in Young Supernova Remnants with Polarized X-Ray Imaging." The Astrophysical Journal 899:142. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aba960
ID: 157709
Type: article
Authors: Bykov, Andrei M.; Uvarov, Yury A.; Slane, Patrick; Ellison, Donald C.
Abstract: Observations of young supernova remnants (SNRs) in X-rays and γ-rays have provided conclusive evidence for particle acceleration to at least TeV energies. Analysis of high-spatial-resolution X-ray maps of young SNRs has indicated that the particle acceleration process is accompanied by strong nonadiabatic amplification of magnetic fields. If Fermi acceleration is the mechanism producing the energetic cosmic rays (CRs), the amplified magnetic field must be turbulent, and CR-driven instabilities are among the most probable mechanisms for converting the shock ram pressure into magnetic turbulence. The development and evolution of strong magnetic turbulence in collisionless plasmas forming SNR shells are complicated phenomena which include the amplification of magnetic modes, anisotropic mode transformations at shocks, as well as the nonlinear physics of turbulent cascades. Polarized X-ray synchrotron radiation from ultrarelativistic electrons accelerated in the SNR shock is produced in a thin layer immediately behind the shock and is not subject to the Faraday depolarization effect. These factors open up possibilities to study some properties of magnetic turbulence, and here we present polarized X-ray synchrotron maps of SNR shells assuming different models of magnetic turbulence cascades. It is shown that different models of anisotropic turbulence can be distinguished by measuring the predominant polarization angle direction. We discuss the detection of these features in Tycho's SNR with the coming generation of X-ray polarimeters such as the Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer.
Element Stratification in the Middle-aged SN Ia Remnant G344.7-0.1Fukushima, KotaroYamaguchi, HiroyaSlane, Patrick O.Park, SangwookKatsuda, SatoruSano, HidetoshiLopez, Laura A.Plucinsky, Paul P.Kobayashi, Shogo B.Matsushita, KyokoDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/ab94a6v. 89762
Fukushima, Kotaro, Yamaguchi, Hiroya, Slane, Patrick O., Park, Sangwook, Katsuda, Satoru, Sano, Hidetoshi, Lopez, Laura A., Plucinsky, Paul P., Kobayashi, Shogo B., and Matsushita, Kyoko. 2020. "Element Stratification in the Middle-aged SN Ia Remnant G344.7-0.1." The Astrophysical Journal 897:62. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab94a6
ID: 157708
Type: article
Authors: Fukushima, Kotaro; Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Slane, Patrick O.; Park, Sangwook; Katsuda, Satoru; Sano, Hidetoshi; Lopez, Laura A.; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Kobayashi, Shogo B.; Matsushita, Kyoko
Abstract: Despite their importance, a detailed understanding of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) remains elusive. X-ray measurements of the element distributions in supernova remnants (SNRs) offer important clues for understanding the explosion and nucleosynthesis mechanisms for SNe Ia. However, it is challenging to observe the entire ejecta mass in X-rays for young SNRs, because the central ejecta may not have been heated by the reverse shock yet. Here we present over 200 kilosecond Chandra observations of the Type Ia SNR G344.7-0.1, whose age is old enough for the reverse shock to have reached the SNR center, providing an opportunity to investigate the distribution of the entire ejecta mass. We reveal a clear stratification of heavy elements with a centrally peaked distribution of the Fe ejecta surrounded by intermediate-mass elements (IMEs: Si, S, Ar Ca) with an arc-like structure. The centroid energy of the Fe K emission is marginally lower in the central Fe-rich region than in the outer IME-rich regions, suggesting that the Fe ejecta were shock-heated more recently. These results are consistent with the prediction for standard SN Ia models, where the heavier elements are synthesized in the interior of an exploding white dwarf. We find, however, that the peak location of the Fe K emission is slightly offset to the west with respect to the geometric center of the SNR. This apparent asymmetry is likely due to the inhomogeneous density distribution of the ambient medium, consistent with our radio observations of the ambient molecular and neutral gas.
The Nonstandard Properties of a 'Standard' PWN: Unveiling the Mysteries of PWN G21.5-0.9 Using Its IR and X-Ray EmissionHattori, SoichiroStraal, Samayra M.Zhang, EmilyTemim, TeaGelfand, Joseph D.Slane, Patrick O.DOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/abba32v. 90432
Hattori, Soichiro, Straal, Samayra M., Zhang, Emily, Temim, Tea, Gelfand, Joseph D., and Slane, Patrick O. 2020. "The Nonstandard Properties of a "Standard" PWN: Unveiling the Mysteries of PWN G21.5-0.9 Using Its IR and X-Ray Emission." The Astrophysical Journal 904:32. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/abba32
ID: 158861
Type: article
Authors: Hattori, Soichiro; Straal, Samayra M.; Zhang, Emily; Temim, Tea; Gelfand, Joseph D.; Slane, Patrick O.
Abstract: The evolution of a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) depends on properties of the progenitor star, supernova, and surrounding environment. As some of these quantities are difficult to measure, reproducing the observed dynamical properties and spectral energy distribution (SED) with an evolutionary model is often the best approach to estimating their values. G21.5-0.9, powered by the pulsar J1833-1034, is a well observed PWN for which previous modeling efforts have struggled to reproduce the observed SED. In this study, we reanalyze archival infrared (IR; Herschel, Spitzer) and X-ray (Chandra, NuSTAR, Hitomi) observations. The similar morphology observed between IR line and continuum images of this source indicates that a significant portion of this emission is generated by surrounding dust and gas, and not synchrotron radiation from the PWN. Furthermore, we find that the broadband X-ray spectrum of this source is best described by a series of power laws fit over distinct energy bands. For all X-ray detectors, we find significant softening and decreasing unabsorbed flux in higher energy bands. Our model for the evolution of a PWN is able to reproduce the properties of this source when the supernova ejecta has a low initial kinetic energy Esn ? 1.2 × 1050 erg and the spectrum of particles injected into the PWN at the termination shock is softer at low energies. Lastly, our hydrodynamical modeling of the supernova remnant can reproduce its morphology if there is a significant increase in the density of the ambient medium ~1.8 pc north of the explosion center.
An Ejecta Kinematics Study of Kepler's Supernova Remnant with High-resolution Chandra HETG SpectroscopyMillard, Matthew J.Bhalerao, JayantPark, SangwookSato, ToshikiHughes, John P.Slane, PatrickPatnaude, DanielBurrows, DavidBadenes, CarlesDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/ab7db1v. 89398
Millard, Matthew J., Bhalerao, Jayant, Park, Sangwook, Sato, Toshiki, Hughes, John P., Slane, Patrick, Patnaude, Daniel, Burrows, David, and Badenes, Carles. 2020. "An Ejecta Kinematics Study of Kepler's Supernova Remnant with High-resolution Chandra HETG Spectroscopy." The Astrophysical Journal 893:98. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab7db1
ID: 157310
Type: article
Authors: Millard, Matthew J.; Bhalerao, Jayant; Park, Sangwook; Sato, Toshiki; Hughes, John P.; Slane, Patrick; Patnaude, Daniel; Burrows, David; Badenes, Carles
Abstract: We report our measurements of the bulk radial velocity from a sample of small, metal-rich ejecta knots in Kepler's supernova remnant (SNR). We measure the Doppler shift of the He-like Si Kα line-center energy in the spectra of these knots based on our Chandra High-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer observation to estimate their radial velocities. We estimate high radial velocities of up to ∼8000 km s-1 for some of these ejecta knots. We also measure proper motions for our sample based on the archival Chandra Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer data taken in 2000, 2006, and 2014. Our measured radial velocities and proper motions indicate that some of these ejecta knots are almost freely expanding after ∼400 yr since the explosion. The fastest moving knots show proper motions of up to ∼0"2 per year. Assuming that these high-velocity ejecta knots are traveling ahead of the forward shock of the SNR, we estimate the distance to Kepler's SNR d ∼ 4.4-7.5 kpc. We find that the ejecta knots in our sample have an average space velocity of Vs ∼ 4600 km s-1 (at a distance of 6 kpc). We note that 8 of the 15 ejecta knots from our sample show a statistically significant (at the 90% confidence level) redshifted spectrum, compared to only two with a blueshifted spectrum. This may suggest an asymmetry in the ejecta distribution in Kepler's SNR along the line of sight; however, a larger sample size is required to confirm this result.
NuSTAR Detection of Quiescent Hard X-Ray Emission from SGR 0526-66 in the Large Magellanic CloudPark, SangwookBhalerao, JayantKargaltsev, OlegSlane, Patrick O.DOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/ab83f8v. 89417
Park, Sangwook, Bhalerao, Jayant, Kargaltsev, Oleg, and Slane, Patrick O. 2020. "NuSTAR Detection of Quiescent Hard X-Ray Emission from SGR 0526-66 in the Large Magellanic Cloud." The Astrophysical Journal 894:17. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab83f8
ID: 156887
Type: article
Authors: Park, Sangwook; Bhalerao, Jayant; Kargaltsev, Oleg; Slane, Patrick O.
Abstract: The soft γ-ray repeater (SGR) 0526-66 is the first-identified magnetar, and is projected within the supernova remnant N49 in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Based on our ∼50 ks NuSTAR observation, we detect the quiescent-state 0526-66 for the first time in the 10-40 keV band. Based on the joint analysis of our NuSTAR and the archival Chandra ACIS data, we firmly establish the presence of the nonthermal component in the X-ray spectrum of 0526-66 in addition to the thermal emission. In the best-fit blackbody (BB) plus power-law (PL) model, the slope of the PL component (photon index Γ = 2.1) is steeper than those (Γ ≲ 1.5) for other magnetars. The soft part of the X-ray spectrum can be described with a BB component with the temperature of kT = 0.43 keV. The best-fit radius (R = 6.5 km) of the X-ray-emitting area is smaller than the canonical size of a neutron star. If we assume an underlying cool BB component with the canonical radius of R = 10 km for the neutron star in addition to the hot BB component (2BB + PL model), a lower BB temperature of kT = 0.24 keV is obtained for the passively cooling neutron star's surface, while the hot spot emission with kT = 0.46 keV dominates the thermal spectrum (∼85% of the thermal luminosity in the 0.5-5 keV band). The nonthermal component (Γ ∼ 1.8) is still required.
Interpreting Crab Nebula's synchrotron spectrum: two acceleration mechanismsLyutikov, MaximTemim, TeaKomissarov, SergeySlane, PatrickSironi, LorenzoComisso, LucaDOI: info:10.1093/mnras/stz2023v. 4892403–2416
Lyutikov, Maxim, Temim, Tea, Komissarov, Sergey, Slane, Patrick, Sironi, Lorenzo, and Comisso, Luca. 2019. "Interpreting Crab Nebula's synchrotron spectrum: two acceleration mechanisms." Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 489:2403– 2416. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stz2023
ID: 154694
Type: article
Authors: Lyutikov, Maxim; Temim, Tea; Komissarov, Sergey; Slane, Patrick; Sironi, Lorenzo; Comisso, Luca
Abstract: We outline a model of the Crab pulsar wind nebula with two different populations of synchrotron emitting particles, arising from two different acceleration mechanisms: (i) Component-I due to Fermi-I acceleration at the equatorial portion of the termination shock, with particle spectral index pI ≈ 2.2 above the injection break corresponding to γwindσwind ̃ 105, peaking in the ultraviolet (UV, γwind ̃ 102 is the bulk Lorentz factor of the wind, σwind ̃ 103 is wind magnetization); and (ii) Component-II due to acceleration at reconnection layers in the bulk of the turbulent Nebula, with particle index pII ≈ 1.6. The model requires relatively slow but highly magnetized wind. For both components, the overall cooling break is in the infrared at ̃0.01 eV, so that the Component-I is in the fast cooling regime (cooling frequency below the peak frequency). In the optical band, Component-I produces emission with the cooling spectral index of αo ≈ 0.5, softening towards the edges due to radiative losses. Above the cooling break, in the optical, UV, and X-rays, Component-I mostly overwhelms Component-II. We hypothesize that acceleration at large-scale current sheets in the turbulent nebula (Component-II) extends to the synchrotron burn-off limit of ∊s ̃ 100 MeV. Thus in our model acceleration in turbulent reconnection (Component-II) can produce both hard radio spectra and occasional gamma-ray flares. This model may be applicable to a broader class of high-energy astrophysical objects, like active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray burst jets, where often radio electrons form a different population from the high-energy electrons.
Probing the Innermost Ejecta Layers in Supernova Remnant Kes 75: Implications for the Supernova ProgenitorTemim, TeaSlane, PatrickSukhbold, TuguldurKoo, Bon-ChulRaymond, John C.Gelfand, Joseph D.DOI: info:10.3847/2041-8213/ab237cv. 878L19
Temim, Tea, Slane, Patrick, Sukhbold, Tuguldur, Koo, Bon-Chul, Raymond, John C., and Gelfand, Joseph D. 2019. "Probing the Innermost Ejecta Layers in Supernova Remnant Kes 75: Implications for the Supernova Progenitor." Astrophysical Journal Letters 878:L19. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/ab237c
ID: 152922
Type: article
Authors: Temim, Tea; Slane, Patrick; Sukhbold, Tuguldur; Koo, Bon-Chul; Raymond, John C.; Gelfand, Joseph D.
Abstract: Supernova remnants (SNRs) that contain pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) are characterized by distinct evolutionary stages. In very young systems, the PWN drives a shock into the innermost supernova (SN) material, giving rise to low-excitation lines and an infrared (IR) continuum from heated dust grains. These observational signatures make it possible to cleanly measure the properties of the deepest SN ejecta layers that can, in turn, provide constraints on the SN progenitor. We present Herschel Space Observatory far-IR observations of the PWN in the Galactic SNR Kes 75, containing the youngest known pulsar that exhibited magnetar-like activity. We detect highly broadened oxygen and carbon line emission that arises from the SN ejecta encountered by the PWN. We also detect a small amount (a few times 10‑3 M ) of shock-heated dust that spatially coincides with the ejecta material and was likely formed in the SN explosion. We use hydrodynamical models to simulate the evolution of Kes 75 and find that the PWN has so far swept up 0.05–0.1 M of SN ejecta. Using explosion and nucleosynthesis models for different progenitor masses in combinations with shock models, we compare the predicted far-IR emission with the observed line intensities and find that lower-mass and explosion energy SN progenitors with mildly mixed ejecta profiles and comparable abundance fractions of carbon and oxygen are favored over higher-mass ones. We conclude that Kes 75 likely resulted from an 8 to 12 M progenitor, providing further evidence that lower-energy explosions of such progenitors can give rise to magnetars.
Dust Destruction in Nonradiative ShocksZhu, HuiSlane, PatrickRaymond, JohnTian, W. W.DOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/ab3226v. 882135
Zhu, Hui, Slane, Patrick, Raymond, John, and Tian, W. W. 2019. "Dust Destruction in Nonradiative Shocks." The Astrophysical Journal 882:135. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab3226
ID: 154396
Type: article
Authors: Zhu, Hui; Slane, Patrick; Raymond, John; Tian, W. W.
Abstract: Supernova remnant (SNR) shock waves are the main place where interstellar dust grains are destroyed. However, the dust destruction efficiency in nonradiative shocks is still not well known. One way to estimate the fraction of dust destroyed is to compare the difference between postshock gas abundances and preshock medium total abundances when the preshock elemental depletion factors are known. We compare the postshock gas abundances of 16 SNRs in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) with the LMC interstellar medium abundances that we derived based on 69 slow-rotating early B-type stars. We find that, on average, ̃61% of Si- rich dust grains are destroyed in the shock, while the fraction of dust destroyed is only ̃40% for Fe-rich dust grains. This result supports the idea that the high depletion of Fe in the diffuse neutral medium is not caused by the resilience of Fe-rich grains but because of faster growth rate. This work also presents a potential way to constrain the chemical composition of interstellar dust.
Chandrasekhar and Sub-Chandrasekhar Models for the X-Ray Emission of Type Ia Supernova Remnants. I. Bulk PropertiesMartínez-Rodríguez, HéctorBadenes, CarlesLee, Shiu-HangPatnaude, Daniel J.Foster, Adam R.Yamaguchi, HiroyaAuchettl, KatieBravo, EduardoSlane, Patrick O.Piro, Anthony L.Park, SangwookNagataki, ShigehiroDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/aadaecv. 865151
Martínez-Rodríguez, Héctor, Badenes, Carles, Lee, Shiu-Hang, Patnaude, Daniel J., Foster, Adam R., Yamaguchi, Hiroya, Auchettl, Katie, Bravo, Eduardo, Slane, Patrick O., Piro, Anthony L., Park, Sangwook, and Nagataki, Shigehiro. 2018. "Chandrasekhar and Sub-Chandrasekhar Models for the X-Ray Emission of Type Ia Supernova Remnants. I. Bulk Properties." The Astrophysical Journal 865:151. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aadaec
ID: 149394
Type: article
Authors: Martínez-Rodríguez, Héctor; Badenes, Carles; Lee, Shiu-Hang; Patnaude, Daniel J.; Foster, Adam R.; Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Auchettl, Katie; Bravo, Eduardo; Slane, Patrick O.; Piro, Anthony L.; Park, Sangwook; Nagataki, Shigehiro
Abstract: Type Ia supernovae originate from the explosion of carbon–oxygen white dwarfs in binary systems, but the exact nature of their progenitors remains elusive. The bulk properties of Type Ia supernova remnants, such as the radius and the centroid energy of the Fe Kα blend in the X-ray spectrum, are determined by the properties of the supernova ejecta and the ambient medium. We model the interaction between Chandrasekhar and sub-Chandrasekhar models for Type Ia supernova ejecta and a range of uniform ambient medium densities in one dimension up to an age of 5000 years. We generate synthetic X-ray spectra from these supernova remnant models and compare their bulk properties at different expansion ages with X-ray observations from Chandra and Suzaku. We find that our models can successfully reproduce the bulk properties of most observed remnants, suggesting that Type Ia SN progenitors do not modify their surroundings significantly on scales of a few pc, although more detailed models are required to establish quantitative limits on the density of any such surrounding circumstellar material. Ambient medium density and expansion age are the main contributors to the diversity of the bulk properties in our models. Chandrasekhar and sub-Chandrasekhar progenitors make similar predictions for the bulk remnant properties, but detailed fits to X-ray spectra have the power to discriminate explosion energetics and progenitor scenarios.
J0453-6655, the Supernova Remnant in N4DSeward, F. D.Smith, R. K.Slane, P. O.Murray, S. S.Points, S. D.Gordon, A. J. R.Dickel, J. R.DOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/aabf43v. 861154
Seward, F. D., Smith, R. K., Slane, P. O., Murray, S. S., Points, S. D., Gordon, A. J. R., and Dickel, J. R. 2018. "J0453-6655, the Supernova Remnant in N4D." The Astrophysical Journal 861:154. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aabf43
ID: 147907
Type: article
Authors: Seward, F. D.; Smith, R. K.; Slane, P. O.; Murray, S. S.; Points, S. D.; Gordon, A. J. R.; Dickel, J. R.
Abstract: The Large Magellanic Cloud supernova remnant J0453-6655 in the H II region N4 has been observed with XMM-Newton and with Chandra. Almost all of the diffuse X-ray emission is from within a 3.'5 × 2.'3 region of bright optical filaments, and X-ray results from XMM-Newton and Chandra are very similar. Spectra indicate that the plasma is close to equilibrium and that the remnant is likely the result of a Type II supernova powered by the collapse of a &sun; star. Composition, density, and mass of the X-ray-emitting plasma are derived, and the age of the remnant is estimated to be 60--80 kyr. There is an apparent blowout of energy into an adjoining cavity. Because cooling neutron stars are objects of interest, the surrounding sky is searched for possible compact remnants of the core. There are six point-like sources within the remnant, all rather faint. Two are probably background active galactic nuclei. The others have soft spectral components and no IR counterparts, but, with the present data, none can be proved to be a neutron star. They do represent upper limits to any neutron star luminosity.
Investigating the Structure of Vela XSlane, PatrickLovchinsky, I.Kolb, C.Snowden, S. L.Temim, T.Blondin, J.Bocchino, F.Miceli, M.Chevalier, R. A.Hughes, J. P.Patnaude, Daniel J.Gaetz, TerranceDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/aada12v. 86586
Slane, Patrick, Lovchinsky, I., Kolb, C., Snowden, S. L., Temim, T., Blondin, J., Bocchino, F., Miceli, M., Chevalier, R. A., Hughes, J. P., Patnaude, Daniel J., and Gaetz, Terrance. 2018. "Investigating the Structure of Vela X." The Astrophysical Journal 865:86. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aada12
ID: 149401
Type: article
Authors: Slane, Patrick; Lovchinsky, I.; Kolb, C.; Snowden, S. L.; Temim, T.; Blondin, J.; Bocchino, F.; Miceli, M.; Chevalier, R. A.; Hughes, J. P.; Patnaude, Daniel J.; Gaetz, Terrance
Abstract: Vela X is a prototypical example of a pulsar wind nebula whose morphology and detailed structure have been affected by interaction with the reverse shock of its host supernova remnant. The resulting complex of filamentary structure and mixed-in ejecta embedded in a nebula that is offset from the pulsar provides the best example we have of this middle-age state that characterizes a significant fraction of composite supernova remnants (SNRs), and perhaps all of the large-diameter pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) seen as TeV sources. Here, we report on an XMM-Newton (hereafter XMM) Large Project study of Vela X, supplemented by additional Chandra observations. Through broad spectral modeling, as well as detailed spectral investigations of discrete emission regions, we confirm previous studies that report evidence for ejecta material within Vela X, and show that equivalent-width variations of O VII and O VIII are consistent with temperature maps within the PWN that show low-temperature regions where the projected SNR emission appears to dominate emission from the ejecta. We identify spectral variations in the nonthermal emission, with hard emission being concentrated near the pulsar. We carry out investigations of the Vela X “cocoon” structure, and with hydrodynamical simulations, show that its overall properties are consistent with structures formed in the late-phase evolution of a composite SNR expanding into a surrounding medium with a density gradient, with ejecta material being swept beyond the pulsar and compressed into an elongated structure in the direction opposite the high external density.
Gamma-Ray Observations of Tycho’s Supernova Remnant with VERITAS and FermiArchambault, S.Archer, A.Benbow, WystanBird, R.Bourbeau, E.Buchovecky, M.Buckley, J. H.Bugaev, V.Cerruti, M.Connolly, M. P.Cui, W.Dwarkadas, V. V.Errando, M.Falcone, A.Feng, Q.Finley, J. P.Fleischhack, H.Fortson, L.Furniss, A.Griffin, S.Hütten, M.Hanna, D.Holder, J.Johnson, C. A.Kaaret, P.Kar, P.Kelley-Hoskins, N.Kertzman, M.Kieda, D.Krause, M.Kumar, S.Lang, M. J.Maier, G.McArthur, S.McCann, A.Moriarty, P.Mukherjee, R.Nieto, D.O'Brien, S.Ong, R. A.Otte, A. N.Park, N.Pohl, M.Popkow, A.Pueschel, E.Quinn, J.Ragan, K.Reynolds, P. T.Richards, G. T.Roache, E.Sadeh, I.Santander, M.Sembroski, G. H.Shahinyan, K.Slane, P.Staszak, D.Telezhinsky, I.Trepanier, S.Tyler, J.Wakely, S. P.Weinstein, A.Weisgarber, T.Wilcox, P.Wilhelm, A.Williams, D. A.Zitzer, B.DOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/836/1/23v. 83623
Archambault, S., Archer, A., Benbow, Wystan, Bird, R., Bourbeau, E., Buchovecky, M., Buckley, J. H., Bugaev, V., Cerruti, M., Connolly, M. P., Cui, W., Dwarkadas, V. V., Errando, M., Falcone, A., Feng, Q., Finley, J. P., Fleischhack, H., Fortson, L., Furniss, A., Griffin, S., Hütten, M., Hanna, D., Holder, J., Johnson, C. A., Kaaret, P. et al. 2017. "Gamma-Ray Observations of Tycho’s Supernova Remnant with VERITAS and Fermi." The Astrophysical Journal 836:23. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/836/1/23
ID: 142805
Type: article
Authors: Archambault, S.; Archer, A.; Benbow, Wystan; Bird, R.; Bourbeau, E.; Buchovecky, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Cerruti, M.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Dwarkadas, V. V.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Fleischhack, H.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Griffin, S.; Hütten, M.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Johnson, C. A.; Kaaret, P.; Kar, P.; Kelley-Hoskins, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Krause, M.; Kumar, S.; Lang, M. J.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Nieto, D.; O'Brien, S.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Pueschel, E.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reynolds, P. T.; Richards, G. T.; Roache, E.; Sadeh, I.; Santander, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Shahinyan, K.; Slane, P.; Staszak, D.; Telezhinsky, I.; Trepanier, S.; Tyler, J.; Wakely, S. P.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Wilcox, P.; Wilhelm, A.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.
Abstract: High-energy gamma-ray emission from supernova remnants (SNRs) has provided a unique perspective for studies of Galactic cosmic-ray acceleration. Tycho’s SNR is a particularly good target because it is a young, type Ia SNR that has been well-studied over a wide range of energies and located in a relatively clean environment. Since the detection of gamma-ray emission from Tycho’s SNR by VERITAS and Fermi-LAT, there have been several theoretical models proposed to explain its broadband emission and high-energy morphology. We report on an update to the gamma-ray measurements of Tycho’s SNR with 147 hr of VERITAS and 84 months of Fermi-LAT observations, which represent about a factor of two increase in exposure over previously published data. About half of the VERITAS data benefited from a camera upgrade, which has made it possible to extend the TeV measurements toward lower energies. The TeV spectral index measured by VERITAS is consistent with previous results, but the expanded energy range softens a straight power-law fit. At energies higher than 400 GeV, the power-law index is 2.92 ± 0.42stat ± 0.20sys. It is also softer than the spectral index in the GeV energy range, 2.14 ± 0.09stat ± 0.02sys, measured in this study using Fermi-LAT data. The centroid position of the gamma-ray emission is coincident with the center of the remnant, as well as with the centroid measurement of Fermi-LAT above 1 GeV. The results are consistent with an SNR shell origin of the emission, as many models assume. The updated spectrum points to a lower maximum particle energy than has been suggested previously.
An XMM-Newton Study of the Mixed-morphology Supernova Remnant G346.6-0.2Auchettl, KatieNg, C. -YWong, B. T. T.Lopez, LauraSlane, PatrickDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/aa830ev. 847121
Auchettl, Katie, Ng, C. -Y, Wong, B. T. T., Lopez, Laura, and Slane, Patrick. 2017. "An XMM-Newton Study of the Mixed-morphology Supernova Remnant G346.6-0.2." The Astrophysical Journal 847:121. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa830e
ID: 144773
Type: article
Authors: Auchettl, Katie; Ng, C. -Y; Wong, B. T. T.; Lopez, Laura; Slane, Patrick
Abstract: We present an X-ray imaging and spectroscopic study of the molecular cloud interacting mixed-morphology supernova remnant G346.6-0.2 using XMM-Newton. The X-ray spectrum of the remnant is well described by a recombining plasma that most likely arises from adiabatic cooling and has subsolar abundances of Mg, Si, and S. Our fits also suggest the presence of either an additional power-law component with a photon index of ~2 or an additional thermal component with a temperature of ~2.0 keV. We investigate the possible origin of this component and suggest that it could arise from either the Galactic ridge X-ray emission, an unidentified pulsar wind nebula, or X-ray synchrotron emission from high-energy particles accelerated at the shock. However, deeper, high-resolution observations of this object are needed to shed light on the presence and origin of this feature. Based on its morphology, its Galactic latitude, the density of the surrounding environment, and its association with a dense molecular cloud, G346.6-0.2 most likely arises from a massive progenitor that underwent core collapse.
Evolution of a Pulsar Wind Nebula within a Composite Supernova RemnantKolb, ChristopherBlondin, JohnSlane, PatrickTemim, TeaDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/aa75cev. 8441
Kolb, Christopher, Blondin, John, Slane, Patrick, and Temim, Tea. 2017. "Evolution of a Pulsar Wind Nebula within a Composite Supernova Remnant." The Astrophysical Journal 844:1. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa75ce
ID: 143806
Type: article
Authors: Kolb, Christopher; Blondin, John; Slane, Patrick; Temim, Tea
Abstract: The interaction between a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) and its host supernova remnant (SNR) can produce a vast array of observable structures. Asymmetry present within these structures derives from the complexity of the composite system, where many factors take turns playing a dominating hand throughout the stages of composite SNR evolution. Of particular interest are systems characterized by blastwave expansion within a nonuniform interstellar medium (ISM), which contain an active pulsar having a substantial “kick” velocity (upward of 300 {km} {{{s}}}-1), because these systems tend to produce complex morphologies. We present a numerical model that employs these and several other factors in an effort to generate asymmetry similar to that seen in various X-ray and radio observations. We find that the main parameters driving structure are ISM uniformity and total pulsar spin-down energy, with secondary contributions from factors such as pulsar trajectory and initial spin-down luminosity. We also investigate the dynamics behind PWN “tails,” which may form to link active pulsars to a crushed, relic nebula as the reverse shock passes. We find that the directions of such tails are not good indicators of pulsar motion, but direction does reveal the flow of ejecta created by the passage of a reverse shock.
The Impact of Progenitor Mass Loss on the Dynamical and Spectral Evolution of Supernova RemnantsPatnaude, Daniel J.Lee, Shiu-HangSlane, Patrick O.Badenes, CarlesNagataki, ShigehiroEllison, Donald C.Milisavljevic, DanDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/aa9189v. 849109
Patnaude, Daniel J., Lee, Shiu-Hang, Slane, Patrick O., Badenes, Carles, Nagataki, Shigehiro, Ellison, Donald C., and Milisavljevic, Dan. 2017. "The Impact of Progenitor Mass Loss on the Dynamical and Spectral Evolution of Supernova Remnants." The Astrophysical Journal 849:109. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa9189
ID: 144813
Type: article
Authors: Patnaude, Daniel J.; Lee, Shiu-Hang; Slane, Patrick O.; Badenes, Carles; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Ellison, Donald C.; Milisavljevic, Dan
Abstract: There is now substantial evidence that the progenitors of some core-collapse supernovae undergo enhanced or extreme mass loss prior to explosion. The imprint of this mass loss is observed in the spectra and dynamics of the expanding blast wave on timescales of days to years after core collapse, and the effects on the spectral and dynamical evolution may linger long after the supernova has evolved into the remnant stage. In this paper, we present, for the first time, largely self-consistent end-to-end simulations for the evolution of a massive star from the pre-main sequence, up to and through core collapse, and into the remnant phase. We present three models and compare and contrast how the progenitor mass-loss history impacts the dynamics and spectral evolution of the supernovae and supernova remnants. We study a model that only includes steady mass loss, a model with enhanced mass loss over a period of ~5000 yr prior to core collapse, and a model with extreme mass loss over a period of ~500 yr prior to core collapse. The models are not meant to address any particular supernova or supernova remnant, but rather to highlight the important role that the progenitor evolution plays in the observable qualities of supernovae and supernova remnants. Through comparisons of these three different progenitor evolution scenarios, we find that the mass loss in late stages (during and after core carbon burning) can have a profound impact on the dynamics and spectral evolution of the supernova remnant centuries after core collapse.
Geminga's Puzzling Pulsar Wind NebulaPosselt, B.Pavlov, G. G.Slane, Patrick O.Romani, R.Bucciantini, N.Bykov, A. M.Kargaltsev, O.Weisskopf, M. C.Ng, C. -YDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/835/1/66v. 83566
Posselt, B., Pavlov, G. G., Slane, Patrick O., Romani, R., Bucciantini, N., Bykov, A. M., Kargaltsev, O., Weisskopf, M. C., and Ng, C. -Y. 2017. "Geminga's Puzzling Pulsar Wind Nebula." The Astrophysical Journal 835:66. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/835/1/66
ID: 142318
Type: article
Authors: Posselt, B.; Pavlov, G. G.; Slane, Patrick O.; Romani, R.; Bucciantini, N.; Bykov, A. M.; Kargaltsev, O.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Ng, C. -Y
Abstract: We report on six new Chandra observations of the Geminga pulsar wind nebula (PWN). The PWN consists of three distinct elongated structures-two ≈ 0.2{d}250 pc long lateral tails and a segmented axial tail of ≈ 0.05{d}250 pc length, where {d}250=d/(250 {pc}). The photon indices of the power-law spectra of the lateral tails, {{Γ }}≈ 1, are significantly harder than those of the pulsar ({{Γ }}≈ 1.5) and the axial tail ({{Γ }}≈ 1.6). There is no significant diffuse X-ray emission between the lateral tails-the ratio of the X-ray surface brightness between the south tail and this sky area is at least 12. The lateral tails apparently connect directly to the pulsar and show indications of moving footpoints. The axial tail comprises time-variable emission blobs. However, there is no evidence for constant or decelerated outward motion of these blobs. Different physical models are consistent with the observed morphology and spectra of the Geminga PWN. In one scenario, the lateral tails could represent an azimuthally asymmetric shell whose hard emission is caused by the Fermi acceleration mechanism of colliding winds. In another scenario, the lateral tails could be luminous, bent polar outflows, while the blobs in the axial tail could represent a crushed torus. In a resemblance to planetary magnetotails, the blobs of the axial tail might also represent short-lived plasmoids, which are formed by magnetic field reconnection in the relativistic plasma of the pulsar wind tail.
The Asymmetric Bow Shock/Pulsar Wind Nebula of PSR J2124–3358Romani, Roger W.Slane, PatrickGreen, Andrew W.DOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/aa9890v. 85161
Romani, Roger W., Slane, Patrick, and Green, Andrew W. 2017. "The Asymmetric Bow Shock/Pulsar Wind Nebula of PSR J2124–3358." The Astrophysical Journal 851:61. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa9890
ID: 145649
Type: article
Authors: Romani, Roger W.; Slane, Patrick; Green, Andrew W.
Abstract: We describe new measurements of the remarkable Hα/UV/X-ray bow shock and pulsar wind nebula (PWN) of the isolated millisecond pulsar (MSP) PSR J2124‑3358. Chandra X-ray Observatory imaging shows a one-sided jet structure with a softer equatorial outflow. KOALA integral field unit spectroscopy shows that non-radiative emission dominates the bow shock and that the Hα nebula is asymmetric about the pulsar velocity with an elongation into the plane of the sky. We extend analytic models of the contact discontinuity to accommodate such shapes and compare these to the data. Using Hubble Space Telescope UV detections of the pulsar and bow shock, radio timing distance, proper motion measurements, and the CXO-detected projected spin axis, we model the 3D PWN momentum flux distribution. The integrated momentum flux depends on the ionization of the ambient ISM, but for an expected ambient warm neutral medium, we infer I=2.4× {10}45 {{g}} {{cm}}2. This implies {M}{NS}=1.6{--}2.1 {M}ȯ , depending on the equation of state, which in turn suggests that the MSP gained significant mass during recycling and then lost its companion. However, this conclusion is at present tentative, since lower ionization allows ∼ 30 % lower masses, and uncertainty in the parallax allows up to 50% error.
Numerical Simulations of Supernova Remnant Evolution in a Cloudy Interstellar MediumSlavin, Jonathan D.Smith, Randall K.Foster, AdamWinter, Henry D.Raymond, John C.Slane, Patrick O.Yamaguchi, HiroyaDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/aa8552v. 84677
Slavin, Jonathan D., Smith, Randall K., Foster, Adam, Winter, Henry D., Raymond, John C., Slane, Patrick O., and Yamaguchi, Hiroya. 2017. "Numerical Simulations of Supernova Remnant Evolution in a Cloudy Interstellar Medium." The Astrophysical Journal 846:77. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa8552
ID: 144719
Type: article
Authors: Slavin, Jonathan D.; Smith, Randall K.; Foster, Adam; Winter, Henry D.; Raymond, John C.; Slane, Patrick O.; Yamaguchi, Hiroya
Abstract: The mixed morphology class of supernova remnants has centrally peaked X-ray emission along with a shell-like morphology in radio emission. White & Long proposed that these remnants are evolving in a cloudy medium wherein the clouds are evaporated via thermal conduction once being overrun by the expanding shock. Their analytical model made detailed predictions regarding temperature, density, and emission profiles as well as shock evolution. We present numerical hydrodynamical models in 2D and 3D including thermal conduction, testing the White & Long model and presenting results for the evolution and emission from remnants evolving in a cloudy medium. We find that, while certain general results of the White & Long model hold, such as the way the remnants expand and the flattening of the X-ray surface brightness distribution, in detail there are substantial differences. In particular we find that the X-ray luminosity is dominated by emission from shocked cloud gas early on, leading to a bright peak, which then declines and flattens as evaporation becomes more important. In addition, the effects of thermal conduction on the intercloud gas, which is not included in the White & Long model, are important and lead to further flattening of the X-ray brightness profile as well as lower X-ray emission temperatures.
A Massive Shell of Supernova-formed Dust in SNR G54.1+0.3Temim, TeaDwek, EliArendt, Richard G.Borkowski, Kazimierz J.Reynolds, Stephen P.Slane, PatrickGelfand, Joseph D.Raymond, John C.DOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/836/1/129v. 836129
Temim, Tea, Dwek, Eli, Arendt, Richard G., Borkowski, Kazimierz J., Reynolds, Stephen P., Slane, Patrick, Gelfand, Joseph D., and Raymond, John C. 2017. "A Massive Shell of Supernova-formed Dust in SNR G54.1+0.3." The Astrophysical Journal 836:129. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/836/1/129
ID: 142794
Type: article
Authors: Temim, Tea; Dwek, Eli; Arendt, Richard G.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Slane, Patrick; Gelfand, Joseph D.; Raymond, John C.
Abstract: While theoretical models of dust condensation predict that most refractory elements produced in core-collapse supernovae (SNe) efficiently condense into dust, a large quantity of dust has so far only been observed in SN 1987A. We present an analysis of observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope, Herschel Space Observatory, Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, and AKARI of the infrared shell surrounding the pulsar wind nebula in the supernova remnant G54.1+0.3. We attribute a distinctive spectral feature at 21 ?m to a magnesium silicate grain species that has been invoked in modeling the ejecta-condensed dust in Cas A, which exhibits the same spectral signature. If this species is responsible for producing the observed spectral feature and accounts for a significant fraction of the observed infrared continuum, we find that it would be the dominant constituent of the dust in G54.1+0.3, with possible secondary contributions from other compositions, such as carbon, silicate, or alumina grains. The total mass of SN-formed dust required by this model is at least 0.3 M ?. We discuss how these results may be affected by varying dust grain properties and self-consistent grain heating models. The spatial distribution of the dust mass and temperature in G54.1+0.3 confirms the scenario in which the SN-formed dust has not yet been processed by the SN reverse shock and is being heated by stars belonging to a cluster in which the SN progenitor exploded. The dust mass and composition suggest a progenitor mass of 16-27 M ? and imply a high dust condensation efficiency, similar to that found for Cas A and SN 1987A. The study provides another example of significant dust formation in a Type IIP SN explosion and sheds light on the properties of pristine SN-condensed dust.