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The Mars Dust Activity Database (MDAD): A comprehensive statistical study of dust storm sequencesBattalio, MichaelWang, HuiqunDOI: info:10.1016/j.icarus.2020.114059v. 354114059
Battalio, Michael and Wang, Huiqun. 2021. "The Mars Dust Activity Database (MDAD): A comprehensive statistical study of dust storm sequences." Icarus 354:114059. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2020.114059
ID: 158982
Type: article
Authors: Battalio, Michael; Wang, Huiqun
Abstract: A comprehensive Mars Dust Activity Database (MDAD) over 8 Mars years (MY 24, Ls = 150°to MY 32, Ls = 171°) is compiled from Mars Daily Global Maps. A total of 14,974 dust storm instances are cataloged with area >105 km2 that are visually distinguishable from the surface. A dust storm instance is identified as a dust storm member over multiple sols if storm movement can be tracked. Dust storm sequences are collections of members that have a coherent trajectory from their origination areas over three or more sols. There are 228 sequences, with 125 originating in the northern hemisphere. Sequences primarily originate in Acidalia, Utopia, and Arcadia Planitiae in the northern hemisphere and Aonia-Solis-Valles Marineris and Hellas Basin in the southern hemisphere. Many northern hemisphere originating sequences flush into the southern hemisphere. The primary season for non-global dust events occurs during Ls = 140°- 250°, with secondary seasons in Ls = 300°- 360°in the northern hemisphere and Ls = 10°- 70°in the southern hemisphere. Sequences are classified into three types. Main Member sequences have one dominant member; Continuous Development sequences have many smaller members; and Sequential Redevelopment sequences have repeating, medium-sized members. "Major" sequences have a maximum area >107 km2, influence the zonal-mean global opacity, and exhibit flushing behavior. Major sequences occur over a narrower temporal range and are distinguished from other sequences by the larger size and duration distributions of their constituent members. Major sequences have unique antecedent conditions, with steadily increasing dust storm area in the 6 preceding sols that is significantly distinct from conditions preceding minor sequences.
Eddy evolution during large dust stormsBattalio, MichaelWang, HuiqunDOI: info:10.1016/j.icarus.2019.113507v. 338113507
Battalio, Michael and Wang, Huiqun. 2020. "Eddy evolution during large dust storms." Icarus 338:113507. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2019.113507
ID: 158242
Type: article
Authors: Battalio, Michael; Wang, Huiqun
Abstract: The evolution of eddy kinetic energy during the development of large regional dust storms on Mars is investigated using the Mars Analysis Correction Data Assimilation (MACDA) reanalysis product and the dust storm data derived from Mars Global Surveyor Mars Daily Global Maps. Transient eddies in MACDA are decomposed into different components according to their eddy periods: P ≤ 1 sol, 1 < P ≤ 8 sols, 8 < P ≤ 60 sols. This paper primarily focuses on the Mars year 24 pre-solstice "A" storm that starts with many episodes of frontal/flushing dust storms from the northern hemisphere and attains its maximum global mean opacity after dust expansion in the southern hemisphere. During the development of this storm, the dominant eddies in terms of eddy kinetic energy progress from the 1 < P ≤ 8 sol eddies in the northern mid/high latitudes to the P ≤ 1 sol eddies (dominated by thermal tides) in the southern mid latitudes, and the 8 < P ≤ 60 sol eddies show a prominent peak with the increased global-mean dust opacity. The peaks of the 1 < P ≤ 8 sol eddies are found to best correlate with the average area of textured frontal/flushing dust storms within 40∘N-60∘N. The region where the 1 < P ≤ 8 sol eddies increase the most corresponds to the main flushing channel. The eddy kinetic energy of the P ≤ 1 eddies, dominated by P = 1 and its harmonics, increases with the global mean dust opacity both before and after the winter solstice in Mars year 24. The 8 < P ≤ 60 sol eddies briefly spike during large, regional dust storms but remain weak if dust storm sequences do not lead to a major dust storm. Zonal wavenumber analysis of eddy kinetic energy shows that the peaks of the 1 < P ≤ 8 eddies often result from combinations of zonal wavenumbers 1 to 3, while the P ≤ 1 eddies and 8 < P ≤ 60 sol eddies are each dominated by zonal wavenumber 1.
Quantifying the Impact of Excess Moisture From Transpiration From Crops on an Extreme Heat Wave Event in the Midwestern U.S.: A Top-Down Constraint From Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Water Vapor RetrievalSouri, Amir H.Wang, HuiqunGonzález Abad, GonzaloLiu, XiongChance, KellyDOI: info:10.1029/2019JD031941v. 125e31941
Souri, Amir H., Wang, Huiqun, González Abad, Gonzalo, Liu, Xiong, and Chance, Kelly. 2020. "Quantifying the Impact of Excess Moisture From Transpiration From Crops on an Extreme Heat Wave Event in the Midwestern U.S.: A Top-Down Constraint From Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Water Vapor Retrieval." Journal of Geophysical Research (Atmospheres) 125:e31941. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019JD031941
ID: 157311
Type: article
Authors: Souri, Amir H.; Wang, Huiqun; González Abad, Gonzalo; Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly
Abstract: The primary focus of this study is to understand the contribution from excess moisture from crop transpiration to the severity of a heat wave episode that hit the Midwestern U.S. from 16 to 20 July 2011. To elucidate this, we first provide an optimal estimate of the transpiration water vapor flux using satellite total column water vapor retrievals whose accuracy and precision are characterized using independent observations. The posterior transpiration flux is estimated using a local ensemble transform Kalman filter that employs a mesoscale weather model as the forward model. The new estimation suggests that the prior values of transpiration flux from crops are biased high by 15%. We further use the constrained flux to examine the sensitivity of meteorology to the contributions from crops. Over the agricultural areas during daytime, elevated moisture (up to 40%) from crops not only increases humidity (thus the heat index) but also provides a positive radiative forcing by increasing downward longwave radiation (13 ± 4 W m-2) that results in even higher surface air temperature (+0.4 °C). Consequently, we find that the elevated moisture generally provides positive feedback to aggravate the heat wave, with daytime enhancements of heat index by as large as 3.3 ± 0.8 °C. Due to a strong diurnal cycle in the transpiration, the feedback tends to be stronger in the afternoon (up to 5 °C) and weaker at night. Results offer a potential basis for designing mitigation strategies for the effect of transpiration from agriculture in the future, in addition to improving the estimation of canopy transpiration.
Water vapor satellite products in the European Arctic: An inter-comparison against GNSS dataVaquero-Martínez, JavierAntón, ManuelRomán, RobertoCachorro, Victoria E.Wang, HuiqunGonzález Abad, GonzaloRitter, ChristophDOI: info:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140335v. 741Article 140335
Vaquero-Martínez, Javier, Antón, Manuel, Román, Roberto, Cachorro, Victoria E., Wang, Huiqun, González Abad, Gonzalo, and Ritter, Christoph. 2020. "Water vapor satellite products in the European Arctic: An inter-comparison against GNSS data." Science of The Total Environment 741:Article 140335. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140335
ID: 156855
Type: article
Authors: Vaquero-Martínez, Javier; Antón, Manuel; Román, Roberto; Cachorro, Victoria E.; Wang, Huiqun; González Abad, Gonzalo; Ritter, Christoph
The Aonia-Solis-Valles dust storm track in the southern hemisphere of MarsBattalio, MichaelWang, HuiqunDOI: info:10.1016/j.icarus.2018.10.026v. 321367–378
Battalio, Michael and Wang, Huiqun. 2019. "The Aonia-Solis-Valles dust storm track in the southern hemisphere of Mars." Icarus 321:367– 378. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2018.10.026
ID: 150901
Type: article
Authors: Battalio, Michael; Wang, Huiqun
Abstract: Dust storm activity in the Aonia-Solis-Valles Marineris (ASV) region is analyzed using data collected from 8 Mars years of Mars Daily Global Maps. During Ls = 120°-180°, dust storms within the ASV region tend to organize into dust storm sequences, making ASV an important storm track in the southern hemisphere outside the conventional dust storm season. In late southern winter, the ASV region is influenced by a combination of strong time-mean winds, synoptic eddies, and tidal winds. The ASV dust storm sequences can increase the background dust opacity and sometimes significantly influence the large-scale atmospheric thermal structure and planetary waves. They can be divided into two groups - one with large size and long duration; the other with small size and mostly short duration. The time series of storm area exhibits a pseudo-periodicity near 20 sols. This periodicity is similar to that found in eddy kinetic energy and traveling waves and to the Baroclinic Annular Mode of the terrestrial atmosphere.
Five decades observing Earth's atmospheric trace gases using ultraviolet and visible backscatter solar radiation from spaceGonzalez Abad, GonzaloSouri, Amir HosseinBak, JuseonChance, KellyFlynn, Lawrence E.Krotkov, Nickolay A.Lamsal, LokLi, CanLiu, XiongChan Miller, ChristopherNowlan, Caroline R.Suleiman, RaidWang, HuiqunDOI: info:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2019.04.030v. 238106478
Gonzalez Abad, Gonzalo, Souri, Amir Hossein, Bak, Juseon, Chance, Kelly, Flynn, Lawrence E., Krotkov, Nickolay A., Lamsal, Lok, Li, Can, Liu, Xiong, Chan Miller, Christopher, Nowlan, Caroline R., Suleiman, Raid, and Wang, Huiqun. 2019. "Five decades observing Earth's atmospheric trace gases using ultraviolet and visible backscatter solar radiation from space." Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer 238:106478. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jqsrt.2019.04.030
ID: 154602
Type: article
Authors: Gonzalez Abad, Gonzalo; Souri, Amir Hossein; Bak, Juseon; Chance, Kelly; Flynn, Lawrence E.; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Lamsal, Lok; Li, Can; Liu, Xiong; Chan Miller, Christopher; Nowlan, Caroline R.; Suleiman, Raid; Wang, Huiqun
Abstract: Over the last five decades, Earth's atmosphere has been extensively monitored from space using different spectral ranges. Early efforts were directed at improving weather forecasts with the first meteorological satellites launched in the 1960s. Soon thereafter, the intersection between weather, climate and atmospheric chemistry led to the observation of atmospheric composition from space. During the 1970s the Nimbus satellite program started regular monitoring of ozone integrated columns and water vapor profiles using the Backscatter Ultraviolet Spectrometer, the Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer and the Satellite Infrared Spectrometer instruments. Five decades after these pioneer efforts, continuous progress in instrument design, and retrieval techniques allow researchers to monitor tropospheric concentrations of a wide range of species with implications for air quality, climate and weather. The time line of historic, present and future space-borne instruments measuring ultraviolet and visible backscattered solar radiation designed to quantify atmospheric trace gases is presented. We describe the instruments technological evolution and the basic concepts of retrieval theory. We include a review of algorithms developed for ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, bromine monoxide, water vapor and glyoxal, a selection of studies using these algorithms, the challenges they face and how these challenges can be addressed. The paper ends by providing insights on the opportunities that new instruments will bring to the atmospheric chemistry, weather and air quality communities and how to address the pressing need for long-term, inter-calibrated data records necessary to monitor the response of the atmosphere to rapidly changing ecosystems.
On the Diurnal Cycle of GPS-Derived Precipitable Water Vapor over SumatraTorri, GiuseppeAdams, David K.Wang, HuiqunKuang, ZhimingDOI: info:10.1175/JAS-D-19-0094.1v. 763529–3552
Torri, Giuseppe, Adams, David K., Wang, Huiqun, and Kuang, Zhiming. 2019. "On the Diurnal Cycle of GPS-Derived Precipitable Water Vapor over Sumatra." Journal of Atmospheric Sciences 76:3529– 3552. https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-19-0094.1
ID: 154562
Type: article
Authors: Torri, Giuseppe; Adams, David K.; Wang, Huiqun; Kuang, Zhiming
Abstract: Convective processes in the atmosphere over the Maritime Continent and their diurnal cycles have important repercussions for the circulations in the tropics and beyond. In this work, we present a new dataset of precipitable water vapor (PWV) obtained from the Sumatran GPS Array (SuGAr), a dense network of GPS stations principally for examining seismic and tectonic activity along the western coast of Sumatra and several offshore islands. The data provide an opportunity to examine the characteristics of convection over the area in greater detail than before. In particular, our results show that the diurnal cycle of PWV on Sumatra has a single late afternoon peak, while that offshore has both a midday and a nocturnal peak. The SuGAr data are in good agreement with GPS radio occultation data from the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) mission, as well as with imaging spectrometer data from the Ozone Measuring Instrument (OMI). A comparison between SuGAr and the NASA Water Vapor Project (NVAP), however, shows significant differences, most likely due to discrepancies in the temporal and spatial resolutions. To further understand the diurnal cycle contained in the SuGAr data, we explore the impact of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) on the diurnal cycle with the aid of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model. Results show that the daily mean and the amplitude of the diurnal cycle appear smaller during the suppressed phase relative to the developing/active MJO phase. Furthermore, the evening/nighttime peaks of PWV offshore appear later during the suppressed phase of the MJO compared to the active phase.
The cascade from local to global dust storms on Mars: Temporal and spatial thresholds on thermal and dynamical feedbackToigo, Anthony D.Richardson, Mark I.Wang, HuiqunGuzewich, Scott D.Newman, Claire E.DOI: info:10.1016/j.icarus.2017.11.032v. 302514–536
Toigo, Anthony D., Richardson, Mark I., Wang, Huiqun, Guzewich, Scott D., and Newman, Claire E. 2018. "The cascade from local to global dust storms on Mars: Temporal and spatial thresholds on thermal and dynamical feedback." Icarus 302:514– 536. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2017.11.032
ID: 146141
Type: article
Authors: Toigo, Anthony D.; Richardson, Mark I.; Wang, Huiqun; Guzewich, Scott D.; Newman, Claire E.
Abstract: We use the MarsWRF general circulation model to examine the temporal and spatial response of the atmosphere to idealized local and regional dust storm radiative heating. The ability of storms to modify the atmosphere away from the location of dust heating is a likely prerequisite for dynamical feedbacks that aid the growth of storms beyond the local scale, while the ability of storms to modify the atmosphere after the cessation of dust radiative heating is potentially important in preconditioning the atmosphere prior to large scale storms. Experiments were conducted over a range of static, prescribed storm sizes, durations, optical depth strengths, locations, and vertical extents of dust heating. Our results show that for typical sizes (order 105 km2) and durations (1-10 sols) of local dust storms, modification of the atmosphere is less than the typical variability of the unperturbed (storm-free) state. Even if imposed on regional storm length scales (order 106 km2), a 1-sol duration storm similarly does not significantly modify the background atmosphere. Only when imposed for 10 sols does a regional dust storm create a significant impact on the background atmosphere, allowing for the possibility of self-induced dynamical storm growth. These results suggest a prototype for how the subjective observational categorization of storms may be related to objective dynamical growth feedbacks that only become available to storms after they achieve a threshold size and duration, or if they grow into an atmosphere preconditioned by a prior large and sustained storm.
An investigation of dust storms observed with the Mars Color ImagerGuzewich, Scott D.Toigo, Anthony D.Wang, HuiqunDOI: info:10.1016/j.icarus.2017.02.020v. 289199–213
Guzewich, Scott D., Toigo, Anthony D., and Wang, Huiqun. 2017. "An investigation of dust storms observed with the Mars Color Imager." Icarus 289:199– 213. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2017.02.020
ID: 143356
Type: article
Authors: Guzewich, Scott D.; Toigo, Anthony D.; Wang, Huiqun
Abstract: Daily global imaging by the Mars Color Imager (MARCI) continues the record of the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) and has allowed creation of a long-duration record of Martian dust storms. We observe dust storms over the first two Mars years of the MARCI record, including tracking individual storms over multiple sols, as well as tracking the growth and recession of the seasonal polar caps. Using the combined 6 Mars year record of textured dust storms (storms with visible textures on the observed dust cloud tops), we study the relationship between textured dust storm activity and meteorology (as simulated by the MarsWRF general circulation model) and surface properties. We find that textured dust storms preferentially occur in places and seasons with above average surface wind stress. Textured dust storm occurrence also has a modest linear anti-correlation with surface albedo (-0.43) and topography (-0.40). Lastly, we perform an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis on the distribution of occurrence of textured dust storms and find that over 50% of the variance in textured dust storm activity can be explained by two EOF modes. We associate the first EOF mode with cap-edge storms just before Ls = 180° and the second EOF mode with flushing dust storms that occur from Ls = 180-210° and again near Ls = 320°.
The seasonal and spatial distribution of textured dust storms observed by Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter CameraKulowski, LauraWang, HuiqunToigo, Anthony D.DOI: info:10.1016/j.asr.2016.10.028v. 59715–721
Kulowski, Laura, Wang, Huiqun, and Toigo, Anthony D. 2017. "The seasonal and spatial distribution of textured dust storms observed by Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera." Advances in Space Research 59:715– 721. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2016.10.028
ID: 142335
Type: article
Authors: Kulowski, Laura; Wang, Huiqun; Toigo, Anthony D.
Abstract: Local and regional dust storms observed by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) exhibit three main types of textures in their visible top structures which we describe as "pebbled", "puffy", and "plume-like." In this paper, we present the temporal and spatial distribution of each texture type. There is a pause in activity near the solstices for all three texture types, but the pause is more pronounced for pebbled and plume-like dust storms than for puffy dust storms. The average size of each texture type is usually much larger during the northern summer and fall (Ls = 90-270 ?) than during the rest of the Martian year. Although all three textures types can be observed at all latitudes, plume-like dust storms tend to dominate the northern mid-latitudes, pebbled dust storms tend to dominate the southern mid-latitudes, and puffy dust storms tend to dominate the low latitudes. During the 2001 global dust storm in Mars Year 25, we found a progression from a combination of all three texture types in the early stage to mostly plume-like dust storms in the expansion and decay phases.
MGS MOC Mars Daily Global MapsWang, HuiqunDOI: info:10.7910/DVN/WWRT1V
Wang, Huiqun. 2016. [Dataset] "MGS MOC Mars Daily Global Maps." Distributed by https://doi.org/10.7910/DVN/WWRT1V
ID: 148054
Type: dataset
Authors: Wang, Huiqun
Keywords: SAO; Dataset
Abstract: This dataset contains Mars Daily Global Maps (MDGMs) made from the wide-angle global map swath images taken by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC). The raw images are available at the Planetary Data Systems (PDS)'s Imaging node. MDGMs are organized as a .tar file for each mission subphase. Each mission subphase usually contains about a month's of data. Each MDGM covers the whole sun-lit planet as observed at about 2 PM local time on each day. It is composed from 13 consecutive sets of red and blue MGS MOC global map swaths. Each MGS MOC MDGM consists of 1 north polar map (45N-90N in polar stereographic projection), 1 south polar map (45S-90S in polar stereographic projection) and 1 non-polar map (60S-60N in simple cylindrical projection). It has a 0.1 degree longitude by 0.1 degree latitude resolution. The procedure used for making MDGMs is described in Wang H. and Ingersoll, A.P., 2002. Martian clouds observed by Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera. J. Geophys. Res. - Planets, 107, E10, 5078, doi:10.1029/2001JE001815. (2016-10-21)
Validation and update of OMI Total Column Water Vapor productWang, HuiqunGonzález Abad, GonzaloLiu, XiongChance, Kelly V.DOI: info:10.5194/acp-16-11379-2016v. 1611379–11393
Wang, Huiqun, González Abad, Gonzalo, Liu, Xiong, and Chance, Kelly V. 2016. "Validation and update of OMI Total Column Water Vapor product." Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics 16:11379– 11393. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-11379-2016
ID: 140795
Type: article
Authors: Wang, Huiqun; González Abad, Gonzalo; Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly V.
Abstract: The collection 3 Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Total Column Water Vapor (TCWV) data generated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's (SAO) algorithm version 1.0 and archived at the Aura Validation Data Center (AVDC) are compared with NCAR's ground-based GPS data, AERONET's sun-photometer data, and Remote Sensing System's (RSS) SSMIS data. Results show that the OMI data track the seasonal and interannual variability of TCWV for a wide range of climate regimes. During the period from 2005 to 2009, the mean OMI-GPS over land is -0.3 mm and the mean OMI-AERONET over land is 0 mm. For July 2005, the mean OMI-SSMIS over the ocean is -4.3 mm. The better agreement over land than over the ocean is corroborated by the smaller fitting residuals over land and suggests that liquid water is a key factor for the fitting quality over the ocean in the version 1.0 retrieval algorithm. We find that the influence of liquid water is reduced using a shorter optimized retrieval window of 427.7-465 nm. As a result, the TCWV retrieved with the new algorithm increases significantly over the ocean and only slightly over land. We have also made several updates to the air mass factor (AMF) calculation. The updated version 2.1 retrieval algorithm improves the land/ocean consistency and the overall quality of the OMI TCWV data set. The version 2.1 OMI data largely eliminate the low bias of the version 1.0 OMI data over the ocean and are 1.5 mm higher than RSS's "clear" sky SSMIS data in July 2005. Over the ocean, the mean of version 2.1 OMI-GlobVapour is 1 mm for July 2005 and 0 mm for January 2005. Over land, the version 2.1 OMI data are about 1 mm higher than GlobVapour when TCWV 15 mm.
Mars Orbiter Camera climatology of textured dust stormsGuzewich, Scott D.Toigo, Anthony D.Kulowski, LauraWang, HuiqunDOI: info:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.06.023v. 2581–13
Guzewich, Scott D., Toigo, Anthony D., Kulowski, Laura, and Wang, Huiqun. 2015. "Mars Orbiter Camera climatology of textured dust storms." Icarus 258:1– 13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2015.06.023
ID: 140468
Type: article
Authors: Guzewich, Scott D.; Toigo, Anthony D.; Kulowski, Laura; Wang, Huiqun
Abstract: We report the climatology of "textured dust storms", those dust storms that have visible structure on their cloud tops that are indicative of active dust lifting, as observed in Mars Daily Global Maps produced from Mars Orbiter Camera wide-angle images. Textured dust storms predominantly occur in the equinox seasons while both solstice periods experience a planet-wide "pause" in textured dust storm activity. These pauses correspond to concurrent decreases in global atmospheric dust opacity. Textured dust storms most frequently occur in Acidalia Planitia, Chryse Planitia, Arcadia Planitia, and Hellas basin. To examine the nature of the link between textured dust storms and atmospheric dust opacity, we compare the textured dust storm climatology with a record of atmospheric dust opacity and find a peak global correlation coefficient of approximately 0.5 with a lag of 20-40° in solar longitude in the opacity compared to the solar climatology. This implies that textured dust storms observed at 1400 local time by MOC are responsible for a large fraction of atmospheric dust opacity and that other mechanisms (e.g., dust devil lifting or storm-scale lifting not observed in this study) may supply a comparable amount of dust.
The origin, evolution, and trajectory of large dust storms on Mars during Mars years 24-30 (1999- 2011)Wang, HuiqunRichardson, Mark I.DOI: info:10.1016/j.icarus.2013.10.033v. 251112–127
Wang, Huiqun and Richardson, Mark I. 2015. "The origin, evolution, and trajectory of large dust storms on Mars during Mars years 24-30 (1999- 2011)." Icarus 251:112– 127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2013.10.033
ID: 136405
Type: article
Authors: Wang, Huiqun; Richardson, Mark I.
Abstract: Mars Daily Global Maps (MDGM) derived from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Mars Color Imager (MARCI) are used to study the distribution and evolution of large dust storms over the period from Mars years 24-30 (1999-2001). Large storms are defined here as discrete dust events visible in image sequences extending over at least 5 sols (Mars days) and where the dust covers areas beyond the origination region. A total of 65 large dust storms meeting these criteria are identified during the observational period and all are observed during the Ls = 135-30° seasonal window. Dust storms originating in the northern and southern hemispheres appear to form two distinct families. All but two of the storms originating in the northern hemisphere are observed in two seasonal windows at Ls = 180-240° and Ls = 305-350°; while all but two of those originating in the southern hemisphere are observed during Ls = 135-245°. None of the large dust storms originating in the northern hemisphere are observed to develop to global scale, but some of them develop into large regional storms with peak area >1 × 107 km2 and duration on the order of several weeks. In comparison, large dust storms originating in the southern hemisphere are typically much smaller, except notably in the two cases that expanded to global scale (the 2001 and 2007 global storms). Distinct locations of preferred storm origination emerge from the dust storm image sequences, including Acidalia, Utopia, Arcadia and Hellas. A route (trajectory) 'graph' for the observed sequences is provided. The routes are highly asymmetric between the two hemispheres. In the south, for non-global dust storms, the main routes are primarily oriented eastwest, whereas in the north, the routes are primarily north-south and zonally-concentrated into meridional channels. In a few impressive cases, storms originating in the northern hemisphere are observed to "flush" through Acidalia and Utopia, across the equator, and then branch in the low- and mid-southern latitudes. The origin of the 2007 global dust storm is ambiguous from the imaging data. Immediately prior to the global storm, a dust storm sequence from Chryse is identified. This storm's connection to the explosive expansion observed to start from Noachis/West Hellas is unclear due to image coverage. This paper further identifies and describes three different styles of dust storm development, which we refer to as "consecutive dust storms", "sequential activation" and "merging." The evolution of a given dust storm sequence can exhibit different combinations of these growth styles at different stages of development. Dust storm sequences can overlap in time, which makes them good candidate to grow into larger scale.
Zonal wavenumber three traveling waves in the northern hemisphere of Mars simulated with a general circulation modelWang, HuiqunRichardson, Mark I.Toigo, Anthony D.Newman, Claire E.DOI: info:10.1016/j.icarus.2013.01.004v. 223654–676
Wang, Huiqun, Richardson, Mark I., Toigo, Anthony D., and Newman, Claire E. 2013. "Zonal wavenumber three traveling waves in the northern hemisphere of Mars simulated with a general circulation model." Icarus 223:654– 676. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2013.01.004
ID: 115631
Type: article
Authors: Wang, Huiqun; Richardson, Mark I.; Toigo, Anthony D.; Newman, Claire E.
Abstract: Observations suggest a strong correlation between curvilinear shaped traveling dust storms (observed in wide angle camera images) and eastward traveling zonal wave number m = 3 waves (observed in thermal data) in the northern mid and high latitudes during the fall and winter. Using the MarsWRF General Circulation Model, we have investigated the seasonality, structure and dynamics of the simulated m = 3 traveling waves and tested the hypothesis that traveling dust storms may enhance m = 3 traveling waves under certain conditions.Our standard simulation using a prescribed "MGS dust scenario" can capture the observed major wave modes and strong near surface temperature variations before and after the northern winter solstice. The same seasonal pattern is also shown by the simulated near surface meridional wind, but not by the normalized surface pressure. The simulated eastward traveling 1.4 < T < 10 sol m = 3 waves are confined near the surface in terms of the temperature perturbation, EP flux and eddy available potential energy, and they extend higher in terms of the eddy winds and eddy kinetic energy. The signature of the simulated m = 3 traveling waves is stronger in the near surface meridional wind than in the near surface temperature field.Compared with the standard simulation, our test simulations show that the prescribed m = 3 traveling dust blobs can enhance the simulated m = 3 traveling waves during the pre- and post-solstice periods when traveling dust storms are frequently observed in images, and that they have negligible effect during the northern winter solstice period when traveling dust storms are absent. The enhancement is even greater in our simulation when dust is concentrated closer to the surface. Our simulations also suggest that dust within the 45-75°N band is most effective at enhancing the simulated m = 3 traveling waves.There are multiple factors influencing the strength of the simulated m = 3 traveling waves. Among those, our study suggests that weaker near surface static stability, larger near surface baroclinic parameter, and wave-form dust forcing for latitudinally extended dust storms are favorable. Further study is needed to fully understand the importance of these factors and others.
A multi-year survey of dynamics near the surface in the northern hemisphere of Mars: Short- period baroclinic waves and dust stormsHinson, David P.Wang, HuiqunSmith, Michael D.DOI: info:10.1016/j.icarus.2012.03.001v. 219307–320
Hinson, David P., Wang, Huiqun, and Smith, Michael D. 2012. "A multi-year survey of dynamics near the surface in the northern hemisphere of Mars: Short- period baroclinic waves and dust storms." Icarus 219:307– 320. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2012.03.001
ID: 111702
Type: article
Authors: Hinson, David P.; Wang, Huiqun; Smith, Michael D.
Abstract: Baroclinic waves figure prominently in the dynamics of the northern hemisphere of Mars, and extensive observations by the Viking Landers and two atmospheric sounders on Mars Global Surveyor have revealed many of their basic properties. However, previous investigations considered these data sets individually, so that their cumulative value is not fully appreciated. We have re-examined these data to extract new information about the dynamics near the surface at mid-to-high northern latitudes. By applying the same method of spectral analysis to each type of observation, we derive a uniform, multi-year characterization of basic elements of martian weather. This survey documents the time evolution of baroclinic waves among modes with different periods and zonal wave numbers. We devote particular attention to a recurring "wave-3 mode", which is distinguished by its capacity to initiate regional dust storms in the topographic basins of the northern hemisphere. Our results include a detailed case study that shows how the intermittence of this mode and the strong zonal modulation of its amplitude influence the timing and location of these distinctive "flushing" dust storms. More generally, we find that the properties of the wave-3 mode are largely the same whenever it appears and that its intermittence plays an important role in the annual dust cycle.
Curvilinear features in the southern hemisphere observed by Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter CameraWang, HuiqunToigo, Anthony D.Richardson, Mark I.DOI: info:10.1016/j.icarus.2011.06.029v. 215242–252
Wang, Huiqun, Toigo, Anthony D., and Richardson, Mark I. 2011. "Curvilinear features in the southern hemisphere observed by Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera." Icarus 215:242– 252. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2011.06.029
ID: 102772
Type: article
Authors: Wang, Huiqun; Toigo, Anthony D.; Richardson, Mark I.
Abstract: We have used the complete set of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Daily Global Maps (MDGMs) to study martian weather in the southern hemisphere, focusing on curvilinear features, including frontal events and streaks. "Frontal events" refer to visible events that are morphologically analogous to terrestrial baroclinic storms. MDGMs show that visible frontal events were mainly concentrated in the 210-300°E (60-150°W) sector and the 0-60°E sector around the southern polar cap during Ls = 140-250° and Ls = 340-60°. The non-uniform spatial and temporal distributions of activity were also shown by MGS Thermal Emission Spectrometer transient temperature variations near the surface. "Streaks" refer to long curvilinear features in the polar hood or over the polar cap. They are an indicator of the shape of the polar vortex. Streaks in late winter usually show wavy segments between the 180° meridian and Argyre. Model results suggest that the zonal wave number m = 3 eastward traveling waves are important for their formation.
Further observations of regional dust storms and baroclinic eddies in the northern hemisphere of MarsHinson, David P.Wang, Huiqunv. 206290–305
Hinson, David P. and Wang, Huiqun. 2010. "Further observations of regional dust storms and baroclinic eddies in the northern hemisphere of Mars." Icarus 206:290– 305.
ID: 81936
Type: article
Authors: Hinson, David P.; Wang, Huiqun
High-resolution atmospheric observations by the Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging SystemInada, AiRichardson, Mark I.McConnochie, Timothy H.Strausberg, Melissa J.Wang, HuiqunBell, James F., IIIv. 192378–395
Inada, Ai, Richardson, Mark I., McConnochie, Timothy H., Strausberg, Melissa J., Wang, Huiqun, and Bell, James F., III. 2007. "High-resolution atmospheric observations by the Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System." ICARUS 192:378– 395.
ID: 55158
Type: article
Authors: Inada, Ai; Richardson, Mark I.; McConnochie, Timothy H.; Strausberg, Melissa J.; Wang, Huiqun; Bell, James F., III