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The TW Hya Rosetta Stone Project. III. Resolving the Gaseous Thermal Profile of the DiskCalahan, Jenny K.Bergin, EdwinZhang, KeTeague, RichardCleeves, IlsedoreBergner, JenniferBlake, Geoffrey A.Cazzoletti, PaoloGuzmán, VivianaHogerheijde, Michiel R.Huang, JaneKama, MihkelLoomis, RyanÖberg, KarinQi, Charlievan Dishoeck, Ewine F.Terwisscha van Scheltinga, JeroenWalsh, CatherineWilner, DavidDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/abd255v. 9088
Calahan, Jenny K., Bergin, Edwin, Zhang, Ke, Teague, Richard, Cleeves, Ilsedore, Bergner, Jennifer, Blake, Geoffrey A., Cazzoletti, Paolo, Guzmán, Viviana, Hogerheijde, Michiel R., Huang, Jane, Kama, Mihkel, Loomis, Ryan, Öberg, Karin, Qi, Charlie, van Dishoeck, Ewine F., Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Jeroen, Walsh, Catherine, and Wilner, David. 2021. "The TW Hya Rosetta Stone Project. III. Resolving the Gaseous Thermal Profile of the Disk." The Astrophysical Journal 908:8.
ID: 159280
Type: article
Authors: Calahan, Jenny K.; Bergin, Edwin; Zhang, Ke; Teague, Richard; Cleeves, Ilsedore; Bergner, Jennifer; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Cazzoletti, Paolo; Guzmán, Viviana; Hogerheijde, Michiel R.; Huang, Jane; Kama, Mihkel; Loomis, Ryan; Öberg, Karin; Qi, Charlie; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Jeroen; Walsh, Catherine; Wilner, David
Abstract: The thermal structure of protoplanetary disks is a fundamental characteristic of the system that has wide-reaching effects on disk evolution and planet formation. In this study, we constrain the 2D thermal structure of the protoplanetary disk TW Hya structure utilizing images of seven CO lines. This includes new ALMA observations of 12CO J = 2-1 and C18O J = 2-1 as well as archival ALMA observations of 12CO J = 3-2, 13CO J = 3-2 and 6-5, and C18O J = 3-2 and 6-5. Additionally, we reproduce a Herschel observation of the HD J = 1-0 line flux and the spectral energy distribution and utilize a recent quantification of CO radial depletion in TW Hya. These observations were modeled using the thermochemical code RAC2D, and our best-fit model reproduces all spatially resolved CO surface brightness profiles. The resulting thermal profile finds a disk mass of 0.025 M and a thin upper layer of gas depleted of small dust with a thickness of ∼1.2% of the corresponding radius. Using our final thermal structure, we find that CO alone is not a viable mass tracer, as its abundance is degenerate with the total H2 surface density. Different mass models can readily match the spatially resolved CO line profiles with disparate abundance assumptions. Mass determination requires additional knowledge, and, in this work, HD provides the additional constraint to derive the gas mass and support the inference of CO depletion in the TW Hya disk. Our final thermal structure confirms the use of HD as a powerful probe of protoplanetary disk mass. Additionally, the method laid out in this paper is an employable strategy for extraction of disk temperatures and masses in the future.
Discovery of an Edge-on Circumstellar Debris Disk around BD+45 degrees 598: A Newly Identified Member of the beta Pictoris Moving GroupHinkley, SashaMatthews, Elisabeth C.Lefevre, CharleneLestrade, Jean-FrancoisKennedy, GrantMawet, DimitriStapelfeldt, Karl R.Ray, ShrishmoyMamajek, EricBowler, Brendan P.Wilner, DavidWilliams, JonathanAnsdell, MeganWyatt, MarkLau, AlexisPhillips, Mark W.Fernandez, JorgeGagne, JonathanBubb, EmmaSutlieff, Ben J.Wilson, Thomas J. G.Matthews, BrendaNgo, HenryPiskorz, DanielleCrepp, Justin R.Gonzalez, EricaMann, Andrew W.Mace, GregoryDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/abec6ev. 912No. 2
Hinkley, Sasha, Matthews, Elisabeth C., Lefevre, Charlene, Lestrade, Jean-Francois, Kennedy, Grant, Mawet, Dimitri, Stapelfeldt, Karl R., Ray, Shrishmoy, Mamajek, Eric, Bowler, Brendan P., Wilner, David, Williams, Jonathan, Ansdell, Megan, Wyatt, Mark, Lau, Alexis, Phillips, Mark W., Fernandez, Jorge, Gagne, Jonathan, Bubb, Emma, Sutlieff, Ben J., Wilson, Thomas J. G., Matthews, Brenda, Ngo, Henry, Piskorz, Danielle, Crepp, Justin R. et al. 2021. "Discovery of an Edge-on Circumstellar Debris Disk around BD+45 degrees 598: A Newly Identified Member of the beta Pictoris Moving Group." Astrophysical Journal 912 (2):
ID: 159525
Type: article
Authors: Hinkley, Sasha; Matthews, Elisabeth C.; Lefevre, Charlene; Lestrade, Jean-Francois; Kennedy, Grant; Mawet, Dimitri; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Ray, Shrishmoy; Mamajek, Eric; Bowler, Brendan P.; Wilner, David; Williams, Jonathan; Ansdell, Megan; Wyatt, Mark; Lau, Alexis; Phillips, Mark W.; Fernandez, Jorge; Gagne, Jonathan; Bubb, Emma; Sutlieff, Ben J.; Wilson, Thomas J. G.; Matthews, Brenda; Ngo, Henry; Piskorz, Danielle; Crepp, Justin R.; Gonzalez, Erica; Mann, Andrew W.; Mace, Gregory
Abstract: We report the discovery of a circumstellar debris disk viewed nearly edge-on and associated with the young, K1 star BD+45 degrees 598 using high-contrast imaging at 2.2 mu m obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory. We detect the disk in scattered light with a peak significance of similar to 5 sigma over three epochs, and our best-fit model of the disk is an almost edge-on similar to 70 au ring, with inclination angle similar to 87 degrees. Using the NOEMA interferometer at the Plateau de Bure Observatory operating at 1.3 mm, we find resolved continuum emission aligned with the ring structure seen in the 2.2 mu m images. We estimate a fractional infrared luminosity of L-IR/L-tot similar or equal to 6(-1)(+2) x 10(-4), higher than that of the debris disk around AU Mic. Several characteristics of BD+45 degrees 598, such as its galactic space motion, placement in a color-magnitude diagram, and strong presence of lithium, are all consistent with its membership in the beta Pictoris Moving Group with an age of 23 +/- 3 Myr. However, the galactic position for BD+45 degrees 598 is slightly discrepant from previously known members of the beta Pictoris Moving Group, possibly indicating an extension of members of this moving group to distances of at least 70 pc. BD+45 degrees 598 appears to be an example from a population of young circumstellar debris systems associated with newly identified members of young moving groups that can be imaged in scattered light, key objects for mapping out the early evolution of planetary systems from similar to 10-100 Myr. This target will also be ideal for northern-hemisphere, high-contrast imaging platforms to search for self-luminous, planetary mass companions residing in this system.
Dynamical Masses and Stellar Evolutionary Model Predictions of M StarsPegues, JamilaCzekala, IanAndrews, Sean M.Öberg, Karin I.Herczeg, Gregory J.Bergner, Jennifer B.Ilsedore Cleeves, L.Guzmán, Viviana V.Huang, JaneLong, FengTeague, RichardWilner, David J.DOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/abd4ebv. 90842
Pegues, Jamila, Czekala, Ian, Andrews, Sean M., Öberg, Karin I., Herczeg, Gregory J., Bergner, Jennifer B., Ilsedore Cleeves, L., Guzmán, Viviana V., Huang, Jane, Long, Feng, Teague, Richard, and Wilner, David J. 2021. "Dynamical Masses and Stellar Evolutionary Model Predictions of M Stars." The Astrophysical Journal 908:42.
ID: 159623
Type: article
Authors: Pegues, Jamila; Czekala, Ian; Andrews, Sean M.; Öberg, Karin I.; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Bergner, Jennifer B.; Ilsedore Cleeves, L.; Guzmán, Viviana V.; Huang, Jane; Long, Feng; Teague, Richard; Wilner, David J.
Abstract: In this era of Gaia and ALMA, dynamical stellar mass measurements, derived from spatially and spectrally resolved observations of the Keplerian rotation of circumstellar disks, provide benchmarks that are independent of observations of stellar characteristics and their uncertainties. These benchmarks can then be used to validate and improve stellar evolutionary models, the latter of which can lead to both imprecise and inaccurate mass predictions for pre-main-sequence, low-mass (≤0.5 M) stars. We present the dynamical stellar masses derived from disks around three M stars (FP Tau, J0432+1827, and J1100-7619) using ALMA observations of 12CO (J = 2-1) and 13CO (J = 2-1) emission. These are the first dynamical stellar mass measurements for J0432+1827 and J1100-7619 (0.192 ± 0.005 M and 0.461 ± 0.057 M, respectively) and the most precise measurement for FP Tau (0.395 ± 0.012 M). Fiducial stellar evolutionary model tracks, which do not include any treatment of magnetic activity, agree with the dynamical stellar mass measurement of J0432+1827 but underpredict the mass by ∼60% for FP Tau and by ∼80% for J1100-7619. Possible explanations for the underpredictions include inaccurate assumptions of stellar effective temperature, undetected binarity for J1100-7619, and that fiducial stellar evolutionary models are not complex enough to represent these stars. In the former case, the stellar effective temperatures would need to be increased by amounts ranging from ∼40 to ∼340 K to reconcile the fiducial stellar evolutionary model predictions with the dynamically measured masses. In the latter case, we show that the dynamical masses can be reproduced using results from stellar evolutionary models with starspots, which incorporate fractional starspot coverage to represent the manifestation of magnetic activity. Folding in low-mass M stars from the literature and assuming that the stellar effective temperatures are imprecise but accurate, we find tentative evidence of a relationship between fractional starspot coverage and observed effective temperature for these young, cool stars.
A Dust Trap in the Young Multiple System HD 34700Benac, PeytonMatrà, LucaWilner, David J.Jimènez-Donaire, Marìa J.Monnier, J. D.Harries, Tim J.Laws, AnnaRich, Evan A.Zhang, QizhouDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/abc74bv. 905120
Benac, Peyton, Matrà, Luca, Wilner, David J., Jimènez-Donaire, Marìa J., Monnier, J. D., Harries, Tim J., Laws, Anna, Rich, Evan A., and Zhang, Qizhou. 2020. "A Dust Trap in the Young Multiple System HD 34700." The Astrophysical Journal 905:120.
ID: 158658
Type: article
Authors: Benac, Peyton; Matrà, Luca; Wilner, David J.; Jimènez-Donaire, Marìa J.; Monnier, J. D.; Harries, Tim J.; Laws, Anna; Rich, Evan A.; Zhang, Qizhou
Abstract: Millimeter observations of disks around young stars reveal substructures indicative of gas pressure traps that may aid grain growth and planet formation. We present Submillimeter Array observations of HD 34700: two Herbig Ae stars in a close binary system (Aa/Ab, ˜0.25 au), surrounded by a disk presenting a large cavity and spiral arms seen in scattered light, and two distant, lower-mass companions. These observations include 1.3 mm continuum emission and the 12CO 2-1 line at ˜0"5 (178 au) resolution. They resolve a prominent azimuthal asymmetry in the continuum and Keplerian rotation of a circumbinary disk in the 12CO line. The asymmetry is located at a radius of 155+11-7 au, consistent with the edge of the scattered-light cavity, being resolved in both radius (72 +14-15 au) and azimuth (FWHM = 64°+8-7). The strong asymmetry in millimeter continuum emission could be evidence for a dust trap, together with the more symmetric morphology of 12CO emission and small grains. We hypothesize an unseen circumbinary companion responsible for the cavity in scattered light and creating a vortex at the cavity edge that manifests in dust trapping. The disk mass has limitations imposed by the detection of 12CO and nondetection of 13CO. We discuss its consequences for the potential past gravitational instability of this system, likely accounting for the rapid formation of a circumbinary companion. We also report the discovery of resolved continuum emission associated with HD 34700B (projected separation ˜1850 au), which we explain through a circumstellar disk.
An Evolutionary Study of Volatile Chemistry in Protoplanetary DisksBergner, Jennifer B.Öberg, Karin I.Bergin, Edwin A.Andrews, Sean M.Blake, Geoffrey A.Carpenter, John M.Cleeves, L. IlsedoreGuzmán, Viviana V.Huang, JaneJørgensen, Jes K.Qi, ChunhuaSchwarz, Kamber R.Williams, Jonathan P.Wilner, David J.DOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/ab9e71v. 89897
Bergner, Jennifer B., Öberg, Karin I., Bergin, Edwin A., Andrews, Sean M., Blake, Geoffrey A., Carpenter, John M., Cleeves, L. Ilsedore, Guzmán, Viviana V., Huang, Jane, Jørgensen, Jes K., Qi, Chunhua, Schwarz, Kamber R., Williams, Jonathan P., and Wilner, David J. 2020. "An Evolutionary Study of Volatile Chemistry in Protoplanetary Disks." The Astrophysical Journal 898:97.
ID: 157660
Type: article
Authors: Bergner, Jennifer B.; Öberg, Karin I.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Andrews, Sean M.; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Carpenter, John M.; Cleeves, L. Ilsedore; Guzmán, Viviana V.; Huang, Jane; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Qi, Chunhua; Schwarz, Kamber R.; Williams, Jonathan P.; Wilner, David J.
Abstract: The volatile composition of a planet is determined by the inventory of gas and ice in the parent disk. The volatile chemistry in the disk is expected to evolve over time, though this evolution is poorly constrained observationally. We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations of C18O, C2H, and the isotopologues H13CN, HC15N, and DCN toward five Class 0/I disk candidates. Combined with a sample of 14 Class II disks presented in Bergner et al., this data set offers a view of volatile chemical evolution over the disk lifetime. Our estimates of C18O abundances are consistent with a rapid depletion of CO in the first ∼0.5-1 Myr of the disk lifetime. We do not see evidence that C2H and HCN formation are enhanced by CO depletion, possibly because the gas is already quite under-abundant in CO. Further CO depletion may actually hinder their production by limiting the gas-phase carbon supply. The embedded sources show several chemical differences compared to the Class II stage, which seem to arise from shielding of radiation by the envelope (impacting C2H formation and HC15N fractionation) and sublimation of ices from infalling material (impacting HCN and C18O abundances). Such chemical differences between Class 0/I and Class II sources may affect the volatile composition of planet-forming material at different stages in the disk lifetime.
Multiband GPI Imaging of the HR 4796A Debris DiskChen, ChristineMazoyer, JohanPoteet, Charles A.Ren, BinDuchêne, GaspardHom, JustinArriaga, PaulineMillar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A.Arnold, JessicaBailey, Vanessa P.Bruzzone, Juan SebastiánChilcote, JeffreyChoquet, ÉlodieDe Rosa, Robert J.Draper, Zachary H.Esposito, Thomas M.Fitzgerald, Michael P.Follette, Katherine B.Hibon, PascaleHines, Dean C.Kalas, PaulMarchis, FranckMatthews, BrendaMilli, JulienPatience, JenniferPerrin, Marshall D.Pueyo, LaurentRajan, AbhijithRantakyrö, Fredrik T.Rodigas, Timothy J.Roudier, Gael M.Schneider, GlennSoummer, RémiStark, ChristopherWang, Jason J.Ward-Duong, KimberlyWeinberger, Alycia J.Wilner, David J.Wolff, SchuylerDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/ab9abav. 89855
Chen, Christine, Mazoyer, Johan, Poteet, Charles A., Ren, Bin, Duchêne, Gaspard, Hom, Justin, Arriaga, Pauline, Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A., Arnold, Jessica, Bailey, Vanessa P., Bruzzone, Juan Sebastián, Chilcote, Jeffrey, Choquet, Élodie, De Rosa, Robert J., Draper, Zachary H., Esposito, Thomas M., Fitzgerald, Michael P., Follette, Katherine B., Hibon, Pascale, Hines, Dean C., Kalas, Paul, Marchis, Franck, Matthews, Brenda, Milli, Julien, Patience, Jennifer et al. 2020. "Multiband GPI Imaging of the HR 4796A Debris Disk." The Astrophysical Journal 898:55.
ID: 158150
Type: article
Authors: Chen, Christine; Mazoyer, Johan; Poteet, Charles A.; Ren, Bin; Duchêne, Gaspard; Hom, Justin; Arriaga, Pauline; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A.; Arnold, Jessica; Bailey, Vanessa P.; Bruzzone, Juan Sebastián; Chilcote, Jeffrey; Choquet, Élodie; De Rosa, Robert J.; Draper, Zachary H.; Esposito, Thomas M.; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Follette, Katherine B.; Hibon, Pascale; Hines, Dean C.; Kalas, Paul; Marchis, Franck; Matthews, Brenda; Milli, Julien; Patience, Jennifer; Perrin, Marshall D.; Pueyo, Laurent; Rajan, Abhijith; Rantakyrö, Fredrik T.; Rodigas, Timothy J.; Roudier, Gael M.; Schneider, Glenn; Soummer, Rémi; Stark, Christopher; Wang, Jason J.; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Wilner, David J.; Wolff, Schuyler
Time-variable Radio Recombination Line Emission in W49ADe Pree, C. G.Wilner, David J.Kristensen, Lars E.Galván-Madrid, R.Goss, W. M.Klessen, R. S.Mac Low, M. -MPeters, T.Robinson, A.Sloman, S.Rao, M.DOI: info:10.3847/1538-3881/abba27v. 160234
De Pree, C. G., Wilner, David J., Kristensen, Lars E., Galván-Madrid, R., Goss, W. M., Klessen, R. S., Mac Low, M. -M, Peters, T., Robinson, A., Sloman, S., and Rao, M. 2020. "Time-variable Radio Recombination Line Emission in W49A." The Astronomical Journal 160:234.
ID: 158640
Type: article
Authors: De Pree, C. G.; Wilner, David J.; Kristensen, Lars E.; Galván-Madrid, R.; Goss, W. M.; Klessen, R. S.; Mac Low, M. -M; Peters, T.; Robinson, A.; Sloman, S.; Rao, M.
Abstract: We present new Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) images of the central region of the W49A star-forming region at 3.6 cm and at 7 mm at resolutions of 0"15 (1650 au) and 0"04 (440 au), respectively. The 3.6 cm data reveal new morphological detail in the ultracompact H II region population, as well as several previously unknown and unresolved sources. In particular, source A shows elongated, edge-brightened bipolar lobes, indicative of a collimated outflow, and source E is resolved into three spherical components. We also present VLA observations of radio recombination lines at 3.6 cm and 7 mm, and IRAM Northern Extended Millimeter Array (NOEMA) observations at 1.2 mm. Three of the smallest ultracompact H II regions (sources A, B2, and G2) all show broad kinematic linewidths, with ?VFWHM ? 40 km s-1. A multi-line analysis indicates that broad linewidths remain after correcting for pressure broadening effects, suggesting the presence of supersonic flows. Substantial changes in linewidth over the 21 yr time baseline at both 3.6 cm and 7 mm are found for source G2. At 3.6 cm, the linewidth of G2 changed from 31.7 ± 1.8 km s-1 to 55.6 ± 2.7 km s-1, an increase of +23.9 ± 3.4 km s-1. The G2 source was previously reported to have shown a 3.6 cm continuum flux density decrease of 40% between 1994 and 2015. This source sits near the center of a very young bipolar outflow whose variability may have produced these changes.
Measuring Turbulent Motion in Planet-forming Disks with ALMA: A Detection around DM Tau and Nondetections around MWC 480 and V4046 SgrFlaherty, KevinHughes, A. MeredithSimon, Jacob B.Qi, ChunhuaBai, Xue-NingBulatek, AlyssaAndrews, Sean M.Wilner, David J.Kóspál, ÁgnesDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/ab8cc5v. 895109
Flaherty, Kevin, Hughes, A. Meredith, Simon, Jacob B., Qi, Chunhua, Bai, Xue-Ning, Bulatek, Alyssa, Andrews, Sean M., Wilner, David J., and Kóspál, Ágnes. 2020. "Measuring Turbulent Motion in Planet-forming Disks with ALMA: A Detection around DM Tau and Nondetections around MWC 480 and V4046 Sgr." The Astrophysical Journal 895:109.
ID: 156877
Type: article
Authors: Flaherty, Kevin; Hughes, A. Meredith; Simon, Jacob B.; Qi, Chunhua; Bai, Xue-Ning; Bulatek, Alyssa; Andrews, Sean M.; Wilner, David J.; Kóspál, Ágnes
Abstract: Turbulence is a crucial factor in many models of planet formation, but it has only been directly constrained among a small number of planet- forming disks. Building on the upper limits on turbulence placed in disks around HD 163296 and TW Hya, we present ALMA CO J = 2-1 line observations at ∼0"3 (20-50 au) resolution and 80 ms-1 channel spacing of the disks around DM Tau, MWC 480, and V4046 Sgr. Using parametric models of disk structure, we robustly detect nonthermal gas motions around DM Tau of between 0.25cs and 0.33cs, with the range dominated by systematic effects, making this one of the only systems with directly measured nonzero turbulence. Using the same methodology, we place stringent upper limits on the nonthermal gas motion around MWC 480 (, with the range dominated by systematic effects, making this one of the only systems with directly measured nonzero turbulence. Using the same methodology, we place stringent upper limits on the nonthermal gas motion around MWC 480 (s) and V4046 Sgr () and V4046 Sgr (s). The preponderance of upper limits in this small sample and the modest turbulence levels consistent with dust studies suggest that weak turbulence (α ≲ 10-3) may be a common, albeit not universal, feature of planet-forming disks. We explore the particular physical conditions around DM Tau that could lead this system to be more turbulent than the others.
Erratum: 'The Disk Substructures at High Angular Resolution Project (DSHARP). II. Characteristics of Annular Substructures' (2018, ApJL, 869, L42)Huang, JaneAndrews, Sean M.Dullemond, Cornelis P.Isella, AndreaPérez, Laura M.Guzmán, Viviana V.Öberg, Karin I.Zhu, ZhaohuanZhang, ShangjiaBai, Xue-NingBenisty, MyriamBirnstiel, TilmanCarpenter, John M.Hughes, A. MeredithRicci, LucaWeaver, ErikWilner, David J.DOI: info:10.3847/2041-8213/aba83bv. 898L57
Huang, Jane, Andrews, Sean M., Dullemond, Cornelis P., Isella, Andrea, Pérez, Laura M., Guzmán, Viviana V., Öberg, Karin I., Zhu, Zhaohuan, Zhang, Shangjia, Bai, Xue-Ning, Benisty, Myriam, Birnstiel, Tilman, Carpenter, John M., Hughes, A. Meredith, Ricci, Luca, Weaver, Erik, and Wilner, David J. 2020. "Erratum: "The Disk Substructures at High Angular Resolution Project (DSHARP). II. Characteristics of Annular Substructures" (2018, ApJL, 869, L42)." The Astrophysical Journal 898:L57.
ID: 157658
Type: article
Authors: Huang, Jane; Andrews, Sean M.; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Isella, Andrea; Pérez, Laura M.; Guzmán, Viviana V.; Öberg, Karin I.; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Zhang, Shangjia; Bai, Xue-Ning; Benisty, Myriam; Birnstiel, Tilman; Carpenter, John M.; Hughes, A. Meredith; Ricci, Luca; Weaver, Erik; Wilner, David J.
A Multifrequency ALMA Characterization of Substructures in the GM Aur Protoplanetary DiskHuang, JaneAndrews, Sean M.Dullemond, Cornelis P.Öberg, Karin I.Qi, ChunhuaZhu, ZhaohuanBirnstiel, TilmanCarpenter, John M.Isella, AndreaMacías, EnriqueMcClure, Melissa K.Pérez, Laura M.Teague, RichardWilner, David J.Zhang, ShangjiaDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/ab711ev. 89148
Huang, Jane, Andrews, Sean M., Dullemond, Cornelis P., Öberg, Karin I., Qi, Chunhua, Zhu, Zhaohuan, Birnstiel, Tilman, Carpenter, John M., Isella, Andrea, Macías, Enrique, McClure, Melissa K., Pérez, Laura M., Teague, Richard, Wilner, David J., and Zhang, Shangjia. 2020. "A Multifrequency ALMA Characterization of Substructures in the GM Aur Protoplanetary Disk." The Astrophysical Journal 891:48.
ID: 156375
Type: article
Authors: Huang, Jane; Andrews, Sean M.; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Öberg, Karin I.; Qi, Chunhua; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Birnstiel, Tilman; Carpenter, John M.; Isella, Andrea; Macías, Enrique; McClure, Melissa K.; Pérez, Laura M.; Teague, Richard; Wilner, David J.; Zhang, Shangjia
Abstract: The protoplanetary disk around the T Tauri star GM Aur was one of the first hypothesized to be in the midst of being cleared out by a forming planet. As a result, GM Aur has had an outsized influence on our understanding of disk structure and evolution. We present 1.1 and 2.1 mm ALMA continuum observations of the GM Aur disk at a resolution of ∼50 mas (∼8 au), as well as HCO+ J = 3 - 2 observations at a resolution of ∼100 mas. The dust continuum shows at least three rings atop faint, extended emission. Unresolved emission is detected at the center of the disk cavity at both wavelengths, likely due to a combination of dust and free-free emission. Compared to the 1.1 mm image, the 2.1 mm image shows a more pronounced "shoulder" near R ∼ 40 au, highlighting the utility of longer-wavelength observations for characterizing disk substructures. The spectral index α features strong radial variations, with minima near the emission peaks and maxima near the gaps. While low spectral indices have often been ascribed to grain growth and dust trapping, the optical depth of GM Aur's inner two emission rings renders their dust properties ambiguous. The gaps and outer disk (R > 100 au) are optically thin at both wavelengths. Meanwhile, the HCO+ emission indicates that the gas cavity is more compact than the dust cavity traced by the millimeter continuum, similar to other disks traditionally classified as "transitional."
Large-scale CO Spiral Arms and Complex Kinematics Associated with the T Tauri Star RU LupHuang, JaneAndrews, Sean M.Öberg, Karin I.Ansdell, MeganBenisty, MyriamCarpenter, John M.Isella, AndreaPérez, Laura M.Ricci, LucaWilliams, Jonathan P.Wilner, David J.Zhu, ZhaohuanDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/aba1e1v. 898140
Huang, Jane, Andrews, Sean M., Öberg, Karin I., Ansdell, Megan, Benisty, Myriam, Carpenter, John M., Isella, Andrea, Pérez, Laura M., Ricci, Luca, Williams, Jonathan P., Wilner, David J., and Zhu, Zhaohuan. 2020. "Large-scale CO Spiral Arms and Complex Kinematics Associated with the T Tauri Star RU Lup." The Astrophysical Journal 898:140.
ID: 157659
Type: article
Authors: Huang, Jane; Andrews, Sean M.; Öberg, Karin I.; Ansdell, Megan; Benisty, Myriam; Carpenter, John M.; Isella, Andrea; Pérez, Laura M.; Ricci, Luca; Williams, Jonathan P.; Wilner, David J.; Zhu, Zhaohuan
Abstract: While protoplanetary disks often appear to be compact and well organized in millimeter continuum emission, CO spectral line observations are increasingly revealing complex behavior at large distances from the host star. We present deep Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array maps of the J = 2-1 transition of 12CO, 13CO, and C18O, as well as the J = 3-2 transition of DCO+, toward the T Tauri star RU Lup at a resolution of ∼0.3″ (∼50 au). The CO isotopologue emission traces four major components of the RU Lup system: a compact Keplerian disk with a radius of ∼120 au, a non-Keplerian "envelope-like" structure surrounding the disk and extending to ∼260 au from the star, at least five blueshifted spiral arms stretching up to 1000 au, and clumps outside the spiral arms located up to 1500 au in projection from RU Lup. We comment on potential explanations for RU Lup's peculiar gas morphology, including gravitational instability, accretion of material onto the disk, or perturbation by another star. RU Lup's extended non-Keplerian CO emission, elevated stellar accretion rate, and unusual photometric variability suggest that it could be a scaled-down Class II analog of the outbursting FU Ori systems.
A triple-star system with a misaligned and warped circumstellar disk shaped by disk tearingKraus, StefanKreplin, AlexanderYoung, Alison K.Bate, Matthew R.Monnier, John D.Harries, Tim J.Avenhaus, HenningKluska, JacquesLaws, Anna S. E.Rich, Evan A.Willson, MatthewAarnio, Alicia N.Adams, Fred C.Andrews, Sean M.Anugu, NarsireddyBae, Jaehanten Brummelaar, TheoCalvet, NuriaCuré, MichelDavies, Claire L.Ennis, JacobEspaillat, CatherineGardner, TylerHartmann, LeeHinkley, SashaLabdon, AaronLanthermann, CyprienLeBouquin, Jean-BaptisteSchaefer, Gail H.Setterholm, Benjamin R.Wilner, DavidZhu, ZhaohuanDOI: info:10.1126/science.aba4633v. 3691233–1238
Kraus, Stefan, Kreplin, Alexander, Young, Alison K., Bate, Matthew R., Monnier, John D., Harries, Tim J., Avenhaus, Henning, Kluska, Jacques, Laws, Anna S. E., Rich, Evan A., Willson, Matthew, Aarnio, Alicia N., Adams, Fred C., Andrews, Sean M., Anugu, Narsireddy, Bae, Jaehan, ten Brummelaar, Theo, Calvet, Nuria, Curé, Michel, Davies, Claire L., Ennis, Jacob, Espaillat, Catherine, Gardner, Tyler, Hartmann, Lee, Hinkley, Sasha et al. 2020. "A triple-star system with a misaligned and warped circumstellar disk shaped by disk tearing." Science 369:1233– 1238.
ID: 158028
Type: article
Authors: Kraus, Stefan; Kreplin, Alexander; Young, Alison K.; Bate, Matthew R.; Monnier, John D.; Harries, Tim J.; Avenhaus, Henning; Kluska, Jacques; Laws, Anna S. E.; Rich, Evan A.; Willson, Matthew; Aarnio, Alicia N.; Adams, Fred C.; Andrews, Sean M.; Anugu, Narsireddy; Bae, Jaehan; ten Brummelaar, Theo; Calvet, Nuria; Curé, Michel; Davies, Claire L.; Ennis, Jacob; Espaillat, Catherine; Gardner, Tyler; Hartmann, Lee; Hinkley, Sasha; Labdon, Aaron; Lanthermann, Cyprien; LeBouquin, Jean-Baptiste; Schaefer, Gail H.; Setterholm, Benjamin R.; Wilner, David; Zhu, Zhaohuan
Abstract: Young stars are surrounded by a circumstellar disk of gas and dust, within which planet formation can occur. Gravitational forces in multiple star systems can disrupt the disk. Theoretical models predict that if the disk is misaligned with the orbital plane of the stars, the disk should warp and break into precessing rings, a phenomenon known as disk tearing. We present observations of the triple-star system GW Orionis, finding evidence for disk tearing. Our images show an eccentric ring that is misaligned with the orbital planes and the outer disk. The ring casts shadows on a strongly warped intermediate region of the disk. If planets can form within the warped disk, disk tearing could provide a mechanism for forming wide-separation planets on oblique orbits.
Irregular Dust Features around Intermediate-mass Young Stars with GPI: Signs of Youth or Misaligned Disks?Laws, Anna S. E.Harries, Tim J.Setterholm, Benjamin R.Monnier, John D.Rich, Evan A.Aarnio, Alicia N.Adams, Fred C.Andrews, SeanBae, JaehanCalvet, NuriaEspaillat, CatherineHartmann, LeeHinkley, SashaIsella, AndreaKraus, StefanWilner, DavidZhu, ZhaohuanDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/ab59e2v. 8887
Laws, Anna S. E., Harries, Tim J., Setterholm, Benjamin R., Monnier, John D., Rich, Evan A., Aarnio, Alicia N., Adams, Fred C., Andrews, Sean, Bae, Jaehan, Calvet, Nuria, Espaillat, Catherine, Hartmann, Lee, Hinkley, Sasha, Isella, Andrea, Kraus, Stefan, Wilner, David, and Zhu, Zhaohuan. 2020. "Irregular Dust Features around Intermediate-mass Young Stars with GPI: Signs of Youth or Misaligned Disks?." The Astrophysical Journal 888:7.
ID: 155683
Type: article
Authors: Laws, Anna S. E.; Harries, Tim J.; Setterholm, Benjamin R.; Monnier, John D.; Rich, Evan A.; Aarnio, Alicia N.; Adams, Fred C.; Andrews, Sean; Bae, Jaehan; Calvet, Nuria; Espaillat, Catherine; Hartmann, Lee; Hinkley, Sasha; Isella, Andrea; Kraus, Stefan; Wilner, David; Zhu, Zhaohuan
Abstract: We are undertaking a large survey of over 30 disks using the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) to see whether the observed dust structures match spectral energy distribution predictions and have any correlation with stellar properties. GPI can observe near-infrared light scattered from dust in circumstellar environments using high-resolution Polarimetric Differential Imaging with coronagraphy and adaptive optics. The data have been taken in the J and H bands over two years, with inner working angles of 0.″08 and 0.″11, respectively. Ahead of the release of the complete survey results, here we present five objects with extended and irregular dust structures within 2″ of the central star. These objects are FU Ori, MWC 789, HD 45677, Hen 3-365, and HD 139614. The observed structures are consistent with each object being a pre-main-sequence star with protoplanetary dust. The five objects' circumstellar environments could result from extreme youth and complex initial conditions, from asymmetric scattering patterns due to shadows cast by misaligned disks, or in some cases from interactions with companions. We see complex U ϕ structures in most objects that could indicate multiple scattering or result from the illumination of companions. Specific key findings include the first high-contrast observation of MWC 789 revealing a newly discovered companion candidate and arc, and two faint companion candidates around Hen 3-365. These two objects should be observed further to confirm whether the companion candidates are comoving. Further observations and modeling are required to determine the causes of the structures.
Dual-wavelength ALMA Observations of Dust Rings in Protoplanetary DisksLong, FengPinilla, PaolaHerczeg, Gregory J.Andrews, Sean M.Harsono, DanielJohnstone, DougRagusa, EnricoPascucci, IlariaWilner, David J.Hendler, NathanJennings, JeffLiu, YaoLodato, GiuseppeMenard, Francoisvan de Plas, GerritDipierro, GiovanniDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/ab9a54v. 89836
Long, Feng, Pinilla, Paola, Herczeg, Gregory J., Andrews, Sean M., Harsono, Daniel, Johnstone, Doug, Ragusa, Enrico, Pascucci, Ilaria, Wilner, David J., Hendler, Nathan, Jennings, Jeff, Liu, Yao, Lodato, Giuseppe, Menard, Francois, van de Plas, Gerrit, and Dipierro, Giovanni. 2020. "Dual-wavelength ALMA Observations of Dust Rings in Protoplanetary Disks." The Astrophysical Journal 898:36.
ID: 157657
Type: article
Authors: Long, Feng; Pinilla, Paola; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Andrews, Sean M.; Harsono, Daniel; Johnstone, Doug; Ragusa, Enrico; Pascucci, Ilaria; Wilner, David J.; Hendler, Nathan; Jennings, Jeff; Liu, Yao; Lodato, Giuseppe; Menard, Francois; van de Plas, Gerrit; Dipierro, Giovanni
Abstract: We present new Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations for three protoplanetary disks in Taurus at 2.9 mm and comparisons with previous 1.3 mm data both at an angular resolution of ∼0"1 (15 au for the distance of Taurus). In the single-ring disk DS Tau, double-ring disk GO Tau, and multiring disk DL Tau, the same rings are detected at both wavelengths, with radial locations spanning from 50 to 120 au. To quantify the dust emission morphology, the observed visibilities are modeled with a parametric prescription for the radial intensity profile. The disk outer radii, taken as 95% of the total flux encircled in the model intensity profiles, are consistent at both wavelengths for the three disks. Dust evolution models show that dust trapping in local pressure maxima in the outer disk could explain the observed patterns. Dust rings are mostly unresolved. The marginally resolved ring in DS Tau shows a tentatively narrower ring at the longer wavelength, an observational feature expected from efficient dust trapping. The spectral index (αmm) increases outward and exhibits local minima that correspond to the peaks of dust rings, indicative of the changes in grain properties across the disks. The low optical depths (τ ∼ 0.1-0.2 at 2.9 mm and 0.2-0.4 at 1.3 mm) in the dust rings suggest that grains in the rings may have grown to millimeter sizes. The ubiquitous dust rings in protoplanetary disks modify the overall dynamics and evolution of dust grains, likely paving the way toward the new generation of planet formation.
An Unbiased ALMA Spectral Survey of the LkCa 15 and MWC 480 Protoplanetary DisksLoomis, Ryan A.Öberg, Karin I.Andrews, Sean M.Bergin, EdwinBergner, JenniferBlake, Geoffrey A.Cleeves, L. IlsedoreCzekala, IanHuang, JaneLe Gal, RomaneMénard, FrancoisPegues, JamilaQi, ChunhuaWalsh, CatherineWilliams, Jonathan P.Wilner, David J.DOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/ab7cc8v. 893101
Loomis, Ryan A., Öberg, Karin I., Andrews, Sean M., Bergin, Edwin, Bergner, Jennifer, Blake, Geoffrey A., Cleeves, L. Ilsedore, Czekala, Ian, Huang, Jane, Le Gal, Romane, Ménard, Francois, Pegues, Jamila, Qi, Chunhua, Walsh, Catherine, Williams, Jonathan P., and Wilner, David J. 2020. "An Unbiased ALMA Spectral Survey of the LkCa 15 and MWC 480 Protoplanetary Disks." The Astrophysical Journal 893:101.
ID: 157298
Type: article
Authors: Loomis, Ryan A.; Öberg, Karin I.; Andrews, Sean M.; Bergin, Edwin; Bergner, Jennifer; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Cleeves, L. Ilsedore; Czekala, Ian; Huang, Jane; Le Gal, Romane; Ménard, Francois; Pegues, Jamila; Qi, Chunhua; Walsh, Catherine; Williams, Jonathan P.; Wilner, David J.
Abstract: The volatile contents of protoplanetary disks both set the potential for planetary chemistry and provide valuable probes of defining disk system characteristics such as stellar mass, gas mass, ionization, and temperature structure. Current disk molecular inventories are fragmented, however, giving an incomplete picture: unbiased spectral line surveys are needed to assess the volatile content. We present here an overview of such a survey of the protoplanetary disks around the Herbig Ae star MWC 480 and the T Tauri star LkCa 15 in ALMA Band 7, spanning ∼36 GHz from 275 to 317 GHz and representing an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity over previous single-dish surveys. We detect 14 molecular species (including isotopologues), with five species (C34S, 13CS, H2CS, DNC, and C2D) detected for the first time in protoplanetary disks. Significant differences are observed in the molecular inventories of MWC 480 and LkCa 15, and we discuss how these results may be interpreted in light of the different physical conditions of these two disk systems.
Dust Populations in the Iconic Vega Planetary System Resolved by ALMAMatrà, LucaDent, William R. F.Wilner, David J.Marino, SebastiánWyatt, Mark C.Marshall, Jonathan P.Su, Kate Y. L.Chavez, MiguelHales, AntonioHughes, A. MeredithGreaves, Jane S.Corder, Stuartt A.DOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/aba0a4v. 898146
Matrà, Luca, Dent, William R. F., Wilner, David J., Marino, Sebastián, Wyatt, Mark C., Marshall, Jonathan P., Su, Kate Y. L., Chavez, Miguel, Hales, Antonio, Hughes, A. Meredith, Greaves, Jane S., and Corder, Stuartt A. 2020. "Dust Populations in the Iconic Vega Planetary System Resolved by ALMA." The Astrophysical Journal 898:146.
ID: 157701
Type: article
Authors: Matrà, Luca; Dent, William R. F.; Wilner, David J.; Marino, Sebastián; Wyatt, Mark C.; Marshall, Jonathan P.; Su, Kate Y. L.; Chavez, Miguel; Hales, Antonio; Hughes, A. Meredith; Greaves, Jane S.; Corder, Stuartt A.
Abstract: The Vega planetary system hosts the archetype of extrasolar Kuiper belts and is rich in dust from the sub-astronomical unit region out to hundreds of astronomical units, suggesting intense dynamical activity. We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) millimeter observations that detect and resolve the outer dust belt from the star for the first time. The interferometric visibilities show that the belt can be fit by a Gaussian model or by power-law models with a steep inner edge (at 60-80 au). The belt is very broad, extending out to at least 150-200 au. We strongly detect the star and set a stringent upper limit to warm dust emission previously detected in the infrared. We discuss three scenarios that could explain the architecture of Vega's planetary system, including the new ALMA constraints: no outer planets, a chain of low-mass planets, and a single giant planet. The planetless scenario is only feasible if the outer belt was born with the observed sharp inner edge. If, instead, the inner edge is currently being truncated by a planet, then the planet must be $\gtrsim 6$ ${M}_{\oplus }$ and at $\lesssim 71\,\mathrm{au}$ to have cleared its chaotic zone within the system age. In the planet chain scenario, outward planet migration and inward scattering of planetesimals could produce the hot and warm dust observed in the inner regions of the system. In the single giant planet scenario, an asteroid belt could be responsible for the warm dust, and mean motion resonances with the planet could put asteroids on star-grazing orbits, producing the hot dust.
An ALMA Survey of H2CO in Protoplanetary DisksPegues, JamilaÖberg, Karin I.Bergner, Jennifer B.Loomis, Ryan A.Qi, ChunhuaLe Gal, RomaneCleeves, L. IlsedoreGuzmán, Viviana V.Huang, JaneJørgensen, Jes K.Andrews, Sean M.Blake, Geoffrey A.Carpenter, John M.Schwarz, Kamber R.Williams, Jonathan P.Wilner, David J.DOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/ab64d9v. 890142
Pegues, Jamila, Öberg, Karin I., Bergner, Jennifer B., Loomis, Ryan A., Qi, Chunhua, Le Gal, Romane, Cleeves, L. Ilsedore, Guzmán, Viviana V., Huang, Jane, Jørgensen, Jes K., Andrews, Sean M., Blake, Geoffrey A., Carpenter, John M., Schwarz, Kamber R., Williams, Jonathan P., and Wilner, David J. 2020. "An ALMA Survey of H2CO in Protoplanetary Disks." The Astrophysical Journal 890:142.
ID: 155824
Type: article
Authors: Pegues, Jamila; Öberg, Karin I.; Bergner, Jennifer B.; Loomis, Ryan A.; Qi, Chunhua; Le Gal, Romane; Cleeves, L. Ilsedore; Guzmán, Viviana V.; Huang, Jane; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Andrews, Sean M.; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Carpenter, John M.; Schwarz, Kamber R.; Williams, Jonathan P.; Wilner, David J.
Abstract: H2CO is one of the most abundant organic molecules in protoplanetary disks and can serve as a precursor to more complex organic chemistry. We present an Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array survey of H2CO toward 15 disks covering a range of stellar spectral types, stellar ages, and dust continuum morphologies. H2CO is detected toward 13 disks and tentatively detected toward a fourteenth. We find both centrally peaked and centrally depressed emission morphologies, and half of the disks show ring-like structures at or beyond expected CO snowline locations. Together these morphologies suggest that H2CO in disks is commonly produced through both gas-phase and CO-ice-regulated grain-surface chemistry. We extract disk-averaged and azimuthally-averaged H2CO excitation temperatures and column densities for four disks with multiple H2CO line detections. The temperatures are between 20─50 K, with the exception of colder temperatures in the DM Tau disk. These temperatures suggest that H2CO emission in disks generally emerges from the warm molecular layer, with some contributions from the colder midplane. Applying the same H2CO excitation temperatures to all disks in the survey, we find that H2CO column densities span almost three orders of magnitude (∼5 × 1011─5 × 1014 cm−2). The column densities appear uncorrelated with disk size and stellar age, but Herbig Ae disks may have less H2CO compared to T Tauri disks, possibly because of less CO freeze-out. More H2CO observations toward Herbig Ae disks are needed to confirm this tentative trend, and to better constrain under which disk conditions H2CO and other oxygen-bearing organics efficiently form during planet formation.
Erratum: 'Far-infrared to Millimeter Data of Protoplanetary Disks: Dust Growth in the Taurus, Ophiuchus, and Chamaeleon I Star-forming Regions' (2017, ApJ, 849, 63)Ribas, ÁlvaroEspaillat, Catherine C.Macías, EnriqueBouy, HervéAndrews, SeanCalvet, NuriaNaylor, David A.Riviere-Marichalar, Pablovan der Wiel, Matthijs H. D.Wilner, DavidDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/abb66ev. 90188
Ribas, Álvaro, Espaillat, Catherine C., Macías, Enrique, Bouy, Hervé, Andrews, Sean, Calvet, Nuria, Naylor, David A., Riviere-Marichalar, Pablo, van der Wiel, Matthijs H. D., and Wilner, David. 2020. "Erratum: "Far-infrared to Millimeter Data of Protoplanetary Disks: Dust Growth in the Taurus, Ophiuchus, and Chamaeleon I Star-forming Regions" (2017, ApJ, 849, 63)." The Astrophysical Journal 901:88.
ID: 157613
Type: article
Authors: Ribas, Álvaro; Espaillat, Catherine C.; Macías, Enrique; Bouy, Hervé; Andrews, Sean; Calvet, Nuria; Naylor, David A.; Riviere-Marichalar, Pablo; van der Wiel, Matthijs H. D.; Wilner, David
The MESAS Project: ALMA Observations of the F-type Stars γ Lep, γ Vir A, and γ Vir BWhite, Jacob AaronTapia-Vázquez, F.Hughes, A. G.Moór, A.Matthews, B.Wilner, DavidAufdenberg, J.Hughes, A. M.De La Luz, V.Boley, A. C.DOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/ab8467v. 89476
White, Jacob Aaron, Tapia-Vázquez, F., Hughes, A. G., Moór, A., Matthews, B., Wilner, David, Aufdenberg, J., Hughes, A. M., De La Luz, V., and Boley, A. C. 2020. "The MESAS Project: ALMA Observations of the F-type Stars γ Lep, γ Vir A, and γ Vir B." The Astrophysical Journal 894:76.
ID: 156890
Type: article
Authors: White, Jacob Aaron; Tapia-Vázquez, F.; Hughes, A. G.; Moór, A.; Matthews, B.; Wilner, David; Aufdenberg, J.; Hughes, A. M.; De La Luz, V.; Boley, A. C.
Abstract: The spectrum of stars in the submillimeter to centimeter wavelength range remains poorly constrained due to a lack of data for most spectral types. An accurate characterization of stellar emission in this regime is needed to test stellar atmosphere models, and is also essential for revealing emission associated with unresolved circumstellar debris. We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations of the three nearby, main-sequence, debris-poor, F-type stars γ Lep, γ Vir A, and γ Vir B at 0.87 and 1.29 mm. We use these data to constrain semiempirical atmospheric models. We discuss the atmospheric structure of these stars, explore potential short-term variability, and the potential impact on debris disk studies. These results are part of an ongoing campaign to obtain long wavelength observations of debris-poor stars, entitled Measuring the Emission of Stellar Atmospheres at Submillimeter/millimeter wavelengths.
ALMA 0.88 mm Survey of Disks around Planetary-mass CompanionsWu, Ya-LinBowler, Brendan P.Sheehan, Patrick D.Andrews, Sean M.Herczeg, Gregory J.Kraus, Adam L.Ricci, LucaWilner, David J.Zhu, ZhaohuanDOI: info:10.3847/1538-3881/ab818cv. 159229
Wu, Ya-Lin, Bowler, Brendan P., Sheehan, Patrick D., Andrews, Sean M., Herczeg, Gregory J., Kraus, Adam L., Ricci, Luca, Wilner, David J., and Zhu, Zhaohuan. 2020. "ALMA 0.88 mm Survey of Disks around Planetary-mass Companions." The Astronomical Journal 159:229.
ID: 156975
Type: article
Authors: Wu, Ya-Lin; Bowler, Brendan P.; Sheehan, Patrick D.; Andrews, Sean M.; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Kraus, Adam L.; Ricci, Luca; Wilner, David J.; Zhu, Zhaohuan
Abstract: Characterizing the physical properties and compositions of circumplanetary disks can provide important insights into the formation of giant planets and satellites. We report Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array 0.88 mm (Band 7) continuum observations of six planetary-mass (10-20 MJup) companions: CT Cha b, 1RXS 1609 b, ROXs 12 b, ROXs 42B b, DH Tau b, and FU Tau b. No continuum sources are detected at the locations of the companions down to 3σ limits of 120-210 μJy. Given these nondetections, it is not clear whether disks around planetary-mass companions indeed follow the disk- flux-host-mass trend in the stellar regime. The faint radio brightness of these companion disks may result from a combination of fast radial drift and a lack of dust traps. Alternatively, as disks in binary systems are known to have significantly lower millimeter fluxes due to tidal interactions, these companion disks may instead follow the relationship of moderate-separation binary stars. This scenario can be tested with sensitive continuum imaging at rms levels of ≲10 μJy.