New deep coronal spectra from the 2017 total solar eclipse

New deep coronal spectra from the 2017 total solar eclipseKoutchmy, S.Baudin, F.Abdi, ShGolub, LeonSèvre, F.DOI: info:10.1051/0004-6361/201935681v. 632A86
Koutchmy, S., Baudin, F., Abdi, Sh, Golub, Leon, and Sèvre, F. 2019. "New deep coronal spectra from the 2017 total solar eclipse." Astronomy and Astrophysics 632:A86. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201935681
ID: 154529
Type: article
Authors: Koutchmy, S.; Baudin, F.; Abdi, Sh; Golub, Leon; Sèvre, F.
Abstract: Context. The origin of the high temperature of the solar corona, in both the inner bright parts and the more outer parts showing flows toward the solar wind, is not understood well yet. Total eclipses permit a deep analysis of both the inner and the outer parts of the corona using the continuum white-light (W-L) radiations from electrons (K-corona), the superposed spectrum of forbidden emission lines from ions (E-corona), and the dust component with F-lines (F-corona). Aims: By sufficiently dispersing the W-L spectrum, the Fraunhofer (F) spectrum of the dust component of the corona appears and the continuum Thomson radiation can be evaluated. The superposed emission lines of ions with different degrees of ionization are studied to allow the measurement of temperatures, non-thermal velocities, Doppler shifts, and abundances to constrain the proposed heating mechanisms and understand the origin of flows that lead to solar wind. Methods: We describe a slit spectroscopic experiment of high spectral resolution to provide an analysis of the most typical parts of the quasi-minimum type corona observed during the total solar eclipse of Aug. 21, 2017 from Idaho, USA. Streamers, active region enhancements, and polar coronal holes (CHs) are measured well using deep spectra. Results: Sixty spectra are obtained during the totality with a long slit, covering ±3 solar radii in the range of 510 nm to 590 nm. The K+F continuum corona is exposed well up to two solar radii. The F-corona can be measured even at the solar limb. New weak emission lines were discovered or confirmed. The rarely observed Ar X line is detected almost everywhere; the Fe XIV and Ni XIII lines are clearly detected everywhere. For the first time hot lines are also measured inside the CH regions. The radial variations of the non-thermal turbulent velocities of the lines do not show a great departure from the average values. No significantly large Doppler shifts are seen anywhere in the inner or the middle corona. The wings of the Fe XIV line show some non-Gaussianity. Conclusions: Deep slit coronal spectra offered an opportunity for diagnosing several aspects of coronal physics during a well observed total eclipse without extended investments. The analysis of the ionic emission line profiles offers several powerful diagnostics of the coronal dynamics; the precise measurement of the F-continuum component provides insight into the ubiquitous dust corona at the solar limb.