Massive-star Formation via the Collapse of Subvirial and Virialized Turbulent Massive Cores

Massive-star Formation via the Collapse of Subvirial and Virialized Turbulent Massive CoresRosen, Anna L.Li, Pak ShingZhang, QizhouBurkhart, BlakesleyDOI: info:10.3847/1538-4357/ab54c6v. 887108
Rosen, Anna L., Li, Pak Shing, Zhang, Qizhou, and Burkhart, Blakesley. 2019. "Massive-star Formation via the Collapse of Subvirial and Virialized Turbulent Massive Cores." The Astrophysical Journal 887:108. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/ab54c6
ID: 154533
Type: article
Authors: Rosen, Anna L.; Li, Pak Shing; Zhang, Qizhou; Burkhart, Blakesley
Abstract: Similar to their low-mass counterparts, massive stars likely form via the collapse of prestellar molecular cores. Recent observations suggest that most massive cores are subvirial (i.e., not supported by turbulence) and therefore are likely unstable to gravitational collapse. Here we perform radiation-hydrodynamic simulations to follow the collapse of turbulent massive prestellar cores with subvirial and virialized initial conditions to explore how their dynamic state affects the formation of massive stars and core fragmentation into companion stars. We find that subvirial cores undergo rapid monolithic collapse, resulting in higher accretion rates at early times as compared to the collapse of virialized cores that have the same physical properties. In contrast, we find that virialized cores undergo a slower, gradual collapse and significant turbulent fragmentation at early times, resulting in numerous companion stars. In the absence of strong magnetic fields and protostellar outflows, we find that the faster growth rate of massive stars that are born out of subvirial cores leads to an increase in the radiative heating of the core, thereby further suppressing fragmentation at early times when turbulent fragmentation occurs for virialized cores. Regardless of initial condition, we find that the massive accretion disks that form around massive stars dominant the accretion flow onto the star at late times and eventually become gravitationally unstable and fragment to form companion stars at late times.