Occurrence in seeds and potential seed transmission of Xanthomonas vasicola pv. vasculorum in maize in the United States

Occurrence in seeds and potential seed transmission of Xanthomonas vasicola pv. vasculorum in maize in the United StatesArias, SilvinaBlock, CharlesMayfield, Derrick A.Santillana, Gem E.Stulberg, Michael E.Broders, KirkJackson-Ziems, TamraMunkvold, Gary P.2020DOI: info:10.1094/PHYTO-08-19-0306-RPhytopathologyv. 110No. 6113911461139–11460031-949X
Arias, Silvina, Block, Charles, Mayfield, Derrick A., Santillana, Gem E., Stulberg, Michael E., Broders, Kirk, Jackson-Ziems, Tamra, and Munkvold, Gary P. 2020. "Occurrence in seeds and potential seed transmission of Xanthomonas vasicola pv. vasculorum in maize in the United States." Phytopathology 110 (6):1139–1146. https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-08-19-0306-R
ID: 155710
Type: article
Authors: Arias, Silvina; Block, Charles; Mayfield, Derrick A.; Santillana, Gem E.; Stulberg, Michael E.; Broders, Kirk; Jackson-Ziems, Tamra; Munkvold, Gary P.
Keywords: STRI
Abstract: This paper reports original evidence regarding the potential role of seed transmission of Xanthomonas vasicola pv. vasculorum (Xvv) in the epidemiology of bacterial leaf streak (BLS) in maize. We evaluated the occurrence of the pathogen on seeds from diseased fields and its subsequent transmission to seedlings. In 2016 and 2017, Xvv was detected by TaqMan PCR from 22 of 41 maize seed lots harvested from naturally-infected fields in Colorado (CO), Nebraska (NE) and Iowa (IA). However, many of the PCR-positive samples did not yield culturable Xvv colonies. The highest levels of seed contamination were detected in dent maize and popcorn from NE and CO. Seed transmission was evaluated in greenhouse grow-outs from eight seed lots, totaling more than 14,000 plants. Putative seed transmission events from naturally contaminated seed lots, estimated from PCR results, occurred at a frequency between 0.1 and 0.5% in 10-seedling pooled samples and at a frequency of 2.7% from individual plant assays. However, no seedling symptoms were observed during these assays and live Xvv colonies were not recovered from PCR-positive seedlings. In contrast, seed transmission was readily demonstrated from artificially contaminated seed lots, including typical symptoms and recovery of live bacteria. Seed transmission consistently occurred from seeds soaked in bacterial suspensions with concentrations of ≥106 CFU per mL, suggesting that a threshold population of the bacterium is necessary for the development of BLS-symptoms and recovery of live bacteria. The low bacterial populations on naturally contaminated seeds apparently were not sufficient to result in diseased seedlings.